KEGG   PATHWAY: rno05016
rno05016                    Pathway                                

Huntington disease - Rattus norvegicus (rat)
Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects medium spiny striatal neurons (MSN). The symptoms are choreiform, involuntary movements, personality changes and dementia. HD is caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the IT15 gene, which results in a long stretch of polyglutamine (polyQ) close to the amino-terminus of the HD protein huntingtin (Htt). Mutant Htt (mHtt) has effects both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. Full-length huntingtin is cleaved by proteases in the cytoplasm, leading to the formation of cytoplasmic and neuritic aggregates. mHtt also alters vesicular transport and recycling, causes cytosolic and mitochondrial Ca2+  overload, triggers endoplasmic reticulum stress through proteasomal dysfunction, and impairs autophagy function, increasing neuronal death susceptibility. N-terminal fragments containing the polyQ strech translocate to the nucleus where they impair transcription and induce neuronal death.
Human Diseases; Neurodegenerative disease
Pathway map
rno05016  Huntington disease

Rattus norvegicus (rat) [GN:rno]
83800  Clta; clathrin light chain A [KO:K04644]
116561  Cltb; clathrin light chain B [KO:K04645]
54241  Cltc; clathrin heavy chain 1 [KO:K04646]
192154  Hip1; huntingtin-interacting protein 1 [KO:K04559]
81637  Ap2a2; AP-2 complex subunit alpha-2 [KO:K11824]
308578  Ap2a1; AP-2 complex subunit alpha-1 [KO:K11824]
140670  Ap2b1; AP-2 complex subunit beta [KO:K11825]
116563  Ap2m1; AP-2 complex subunit mu [KO:K11826]
65046  Ap2s1; AP-2 complex subunit sigma [KO:K11827]
29424  Htt; huntingtin [KO:K04533]
29167  Dctn1; dynactin subunit 1 [KO:K04648]
299850  Dctn2; dynactin subunit 2 [KO:K10424]
362504  Dctn3; dynactin subunit 3 [KO:K10425]
84428  Dctn4; dynactin subunit 4 [KO:K10426]
308961  Dctn5; dynactin subunit 5 [KO:K10427]
290798  Dctn6; dynactin subunit 6 [KO:K10428]
294010  Actr1a; alpha-centractin [KO:K16575]
316333  Actr1b; beta-centractin [KO:K16575]
299121  Actr10; actin-related protein 10 [KO:K16576]
29430  Hap1; huntingtin-associated protein 1 isoform B [KO:K04647]
171339  Dnah1; dynein heavy chain 1, axonemal [KO:K10408]
303242  Dnah2; dynein heavy chain 2, axonemal isoform X1 [KO:K10408]
117249  Dnah3; dynein heavy chain 3, axonemal [KO:K10408]
252893  Dnah7; dynein heavy chain 7, axonemal isoform X1 [KO:K10408]
294854  Dnah5; dynein heavy chain 5, axonemal isoform X1 [KO:K10408]
117250  Dnah6; dynein heavy chain 6, axonemal isoform X1 [KO:K10408]
117251  Dnah9; dynein heavy chain 9, axonemal isoform X1 [KO:K10408]
117253  Dnah11; dynein heavy chain 11, axonemal isoform X1 [KO:K10408]
252959  Dnah12; dynein heavy chain 12, axonemal isoform X1 [KO:K10408]
207117  Dnah8; dynein heavy chain 8, axonemal isoform X1 [KO:K10408]
117252  Dnah10; dynein heavy chain 10, axonemal isoform X1 [KO:K10408]
287845  Dnah17; dynein heavy chain 17, axonemal [KO:K10408]
690288  Dnah14; dynein heavy chain 14, axonemal isoform X1 [KO:K10408]
298524  Dnali1; axonemal dynein light intermediate polypeptide 1 [KO:K10410]
500442  Dnai1; dynein intermediate chain 1, axonemal [KO:K10409]
360654  Dnai2; dynein intermediate chain 2, axonemal [KO:K11143]
685664  Dnal1; dynein light chain 1, axonemal [KO:K10411]
300078  Dnal4; dynein light chain 4, axonemal [KO:K10412]
64158  Tuba1a; tubulin alpha-1A chain [KO:K07374]
291287  Tubal3; tubulin alpha chain-like 3 [KO:K07374]
300218  Tuba1c; tubulin alpha-1C chain [KO:K07374]
316531  Tuba4a; tubulin alpha-4A chain [KO:K07374]
500319  Tuba3a; tubulin alpha-3 chain [KO:K07374]
500363  Tuba3b; tubulin alpha-3 chain [KO:K07374]
500377  Tuba8; tubulin alpha-8 chain [KO:K07374]
500929  Tuba1b; tubulin alpha-1B chain [KO:K07374]
29214  Tubb5; tubulin beta-5 chain [KO:K07375]
246118  Tubb3; tubulin beta-3 chain [KO:K07375]
291081  Tubb2b; tubulin beta-2B chain [KO:K07375]
29213  Tubb4a; tubulin beta-4A chain [KO:K07375]
307351  Tubb6; tubulin beta-6 chain [KO:K07375]
498736  Tubb2a; tubulin beta-2A chain [KO:K07375]
679312  Tubb1; tubulin beta-1 chain isoform X1 [KO:K07375]
296554  Tubb4b; tubulin beta-4B chain [KO:K07375]
25272  Mapk10; mitogen-activated protein kinase 10 isoform 2 [KO:K04440] [EC:]
50658  Mapk9; mitogen-activated protein kinase 9 isoform 2 [KO:K04440] [EC:]
116554  Mapk8; mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 [KO:K04440] [EC:]
117550  Kif5b; kinesin-1 heavy chain [KO:K10396]
311024  Kif5c; kinesin heavy chain isoform 5C [KO:K10396]
314906  Kif5a; kinesin heavy chain isoform 5A [KO:K10396]
171041  Klc1; kinesin light chain 1 isoform C [KO:K10407]
171549  Klc3; kinesin light chain 3 [KO:K10407]
316226  Klc4; kinesin light chain 4 [KO:K10407]
309159  Klc2; kinesin light chain 2 [KO:K10407]
303968  Ift57; intraflagellar transport protein 57 homolog [KO:K04638]
64044  Casp8; caspase-8 [KO:K04398] [EC:]
25402  Casp3; caspase-3 [KO:K02187] [EC:]
24418  Grm5; metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 precursor [KO:K04604]
81666  Gnaq; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(q) subunit alpha [KO:K04634]
24654  Plcb1; 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-1 [KO:K05858] [EC:]
29322  Plcb3; 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-3 [KO:K05858] [EC:]
85240  Plcb2; 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-2 [KO:K05858] [EC:]
25031  Plcb4; 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-4 [KO:K05858] [EC:]
116470  Stx1a; syntaxin-1A [KO:K04560]
257648  Cacna1b; voltage-dependent N-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1B isoform 1 [KO:K04849]
24408  Grin1; glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 1 isoform 1a precursor [KO:K05208]
24410  Grin2b; glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2B precursor [KO:K05210]
25262  Itpr1; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 isoform 3 [KO:K04958]
29495  Dlg4; disks large homolog 4 [KO:K11828]
50592  Gria1; glutamate receptor 1 precursor [KO:K05197]
29627  Gria2; glutamate receptor 2 isoform 2 precursor [KO:K05198]
29628  Gria3; glutamate receptor 3 isoform 2 precursor [KO:K05199]
29629  Gria4; glutamate receptor 4 isoform 2 precursor [KO:K05200]
56083  Tgm2; protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase 2 [KO:K05625] [EC:]
29483  Slc1a3; excitatory amino acid transporter 1 isoform 1 [KO:K05614]
29482  Slc1a2; excitatory amino acid transporter 2 isoform a [KO:K05613]
29718  Kcnj10; ATP-sensitive inward rectifier potassium channel 10 [KO:K05003]
83618  Rest; RE1-silencing transcription factor [KO:K09222]
363067  Sin3a; paired amphipathic helix protein Sin3a [KO:K11644]
102554884  Rcor1; REST corepressor 1 [KO:K11829]
297893  Hdac1; histone deacetylase 1 [KO:K06067] [EC:]
84576  Hdac1l; histone deacetylase 1-like [KO:K06067] [EC:]
84577  Hdac2; histone deacetylase 2 [KO:K06067] [EC:]
363633  Polr2a; DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB1 isoform X1 [KO:K03006] [EC:]
289561  Polr2b; DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB2 [KO:K03010] [EC:]
361365  Polr2c; DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB3 [KO:K03011]
364834  Polr2d; DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB4 [KO:K03012]
690966  Polr2e; DNA-directed RNA polymerases I, II, and III subunit RPABC1 [KO:K03013]
83503  Polr2f; DNA-directed RNA polymerases I, II, and III subunit RPABC2 [KO:K03014]
117017  Polr2g; DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB7 [KO:K03015]
498109  Polr2h; polymerase (RNA) II (DNA directed) polypeptide H [KO:K03016]
292778  Polr2i; DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB9 [KO:K03017]
681193  DNA-directed RNA polymerases I, II, and III subunit RPABC5-like [KO:K03007]
502374  Polr2l; DNA-directed RNA polymerases I, II, and III subunit RPABC5 [KO:K03007]
288588  Polr2j; DNA-directed RNA polymerase II subunit RPB11-a [KO:K03008]
100361574  Polr2k; DNA-directed RNA polymerases I, II, and III subunit RPABC4 [KO:K03009]
24225  Bdnf; brain-derived neurotrophic factor isoform 3 preproprotein [KO:K04355]
54244  Crebbp; histone lysine acetyltransferase CREBBP [KO:K04498] [EC:]
170915  Ep300; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: histone acetyltransferase p300 [KO:K04498] [EC:]
291773  Taf4b; transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 4B isoform X1 [KO:K03129]
117526  Tbp; TATA-box-binding protein [KO:K03120]
680050  Tbpl2; TATA box-binding protein-like 2 [KO:K03120]
689030  Tbpl1; TATA box-binding protein-like protein 1 [KO:K03120]
24790  Sp1; transcription factor Sp1 [KO:K04684]
81646  Creb1; cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 1 isoform A [KO:K05870]
310616  Creb3l4; cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like protein 4 [KO:K09048]
362165  Creb3l1; cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like protein 1 [KO:K09048]
362339  Creb3l2; cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like protein 2 [KO:K09048]
314638  Creb3l3; cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3-like protein 3 [KO:K09048]
500131  Creb5; cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 5 [KO:K09047]
83516  Ppargc1a; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha [KO:K07202]
25664  Pparg; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma isoform 1 [KO:K08530]
83474  Tfam; transcription factor A, mitochondrial precursor [KO:K11830]
312195  Nrf1; nuclear respiratory factor 1 [KO:K11831]
24786  Sod1; superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn] [KO:K04565] [EC:]
24787  Sod2; superoxide dismutase [Mn], mitochondrial precursor [KO:K04564] [EC:]
24404  Gpx1; glutathione peroxidase 1 [KO:K00432] [EC:]
64317  Gpx3; glutathione peroxidase 3 precursor [KO:K00432] [EC:]
259233  Gpx6; glutathione peroxidase 6 precursor [KO:K00432] [EC:]
29326  Gpx2; glutathione peroxidase 2 [KO:K00432] [EC:]
113919  Gpx5; epididymal secretory glutathione peroxidase precursor [KO:K00432] [EC:]
298376  Gpx7; glutathione peroxidase 7 precursor [KO:K00432] [EC:]
294744  Gpx8; probable glutathione peroxidase 8 [KO:K00432] [EC:]
24860  Ucp1; mitochondrial brown fat uncoupling protein 1 [KO:K08769]
24842  Tp53; cellular tumor antigen p53 [KO:K04451]
24887  Bax; apoptosis regulator BAX [KO:K02159]
317673  Bbc3; bcl-2-binding component 3 [KO:K10132]
26193  ND1; NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 [KO:K03878] [EC:]
26194  ND2; NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 [KO:K03879] [EC:]
26199  ND3; NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3 [KO:K03880] [EC:]
26201  ND4; NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 [KO:K03881] [EC:]
26200  ND4L; NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4L [KO:K03882] [EC:]
26202  ND5; NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 [KO:K03883] [EC:]
26203  ND6; NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 [KO:K03884] [EC:]
293655  Ndufv1; NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein 1, mitochondrial [KO:K03942] [EC:]
81728  Ndufv2; NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein 2, mitochondrial precursor [KO:K03943] [EC:]
64539  Ndufv3; NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein 3, mitochondrial isoform 2 [KO:K03944]
363441  Ndufa1; NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 1 [KO:K03945]
291660  Ndufa2; NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 2 [KO:K03946]
691001  Ndufa3; NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 3 [KO:K03947]
684509  NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 3 [KO:K03947]
681024  Ndufa4; cytochrome c oxidase subunit NDUFA4 [KO:K03948]
100362331  Ndufa4l2; NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 4-like 2 [KO:K03948]
25488  Ndufa5; NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 5 [KO:K03949]
315167  Ndufa6; NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 6 [KO:K03950]
299643  Ndufa7; NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 7 [KO:K03951]
296658  Ndufa8; NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 8 [KO:K03952]
362440  Ndufa9; NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 9, mitochondrial [KO:K03953]
316632  Ndufa10l1; NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex 10-like [KO:K03954]
678759  Ndufa10; NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 10, mitochondrial precursor [KO:K03954]
293453  Ndufab1; acyl carrier protein, mitochondrial [KO:K03955]
301123  Ndufa11; NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 11 [KO:K03956]
299739  Ndufa12; NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 12 [KO:K11352]
100911483  Ndufa13; NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 13 [KO:K11353]
362344  Ndufb2; NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 2, mitochondrial [KO:K03958]
301427  Ndufb3; NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 3 [KO:K03959]
288088  Ndufb4; NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 4 [KO:K03960]
294964  Ndufb5; NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 5, mitochondrial [KO:K03961]
297990  Ndufb6; NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 6 [KO:K03962]
361385  Ndufb7; NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 7 [KO:K03963]
293991  Ndufb8; NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 8, mitochondrial [KO:K03964]
299954  Ndufb9; NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 9 [KO:K03965]
681418  Ndufb10; NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 10 [KO:K03966]
299310  Ndufb11; NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 11, mitochondrial [KO:K11351]
301458  Ndufs1; NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 75 kDa subunit, mitochondrial precursor [KO:K03934] [EC:]
289218  Ndufs2; NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 2, mitochondrial precursor [KO:K03935] [EC:]
295923  Ndufs3; NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 3, mitochondrial [KO:K03936] [EC:]
499529  Ndufs4; NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 4, mitochondrial precursor [KO:K03937]
362588  Ndufs5; NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 5 [KO:K03938]
100363268  NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 5 [KO:K03938]
29478  Ndufs6; NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 6, mitochondrial precursor [KO:K03939]
679739  NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 6, mitochondrial [KO:K03939]
362837  Ndufs7; NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 7, mitochondrial [KO:K03940] [EC:]
293652  Ndufs8; NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 8, mitochondrial [KO:K03941] [EC:]
689938  Ndufc1; NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 subunit C1, mitochondrial [KO:K03967]
293130  Ndufc2; NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 subunit C2 [KO:K03968]
157074  Sdha; succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein subunit, mitochondrial precursor [KO:K00234] [EC:]
298596  Sdhb; succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur subunit, mitochondrial precursor [KO:K00235] [EC:]
289217  Sdhc; succinate dehydrogenase cytochrome b560 subunit, mitochondrial [KO:K00236]
363061  Sdhd; succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] cytochrome b small subunit, mitochondrial [KO:K00237]
291103  Uqcrfs1; cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit Rieske, mitochondrial [KO:K00411] [EC:]
26192  CYTB; cytochrome b [KO:K00412]
300047  Cyc1; cytochrome c-1 [KO:K00413]
301011  Uqcrc1; cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit 1, mitochondrial precursor [KO:K00414]
293448  Uqcrc2; cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit 2, mitochondrial precursor [KO:K00415]
366448  Uqcrh; cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit 6, mitochondrial [KO:K00416]
362897  Uqcrb; cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit 7 [KO:K00417]
497902  Uqcrq; cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit 8 [KO:K00418]
685322  Uqcr10; ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase complex 7.2kDa protein [KO:K00419]
100361126  RGD2320734; cytochrome b-c1 complex subunit 9 [KO:K00419]
690848  Uqcr11; ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, complex III subunit XI [KO:K00420]
26204  COX3; cytochrome c oxidase subunit III [KO:K02262]
26195  COX1; cytochrome c oxidase subunit I [KO:K02256] [EC:]
26198  COX2; cytochrome c oxidase subunit II [KO:K02261]
84683  Cox4i2; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4 isoform 2, mitochondrial isoform 2 precursor [KO:K02263]
29445  Cox4i1; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4 isoform 1, mitochondrial precursor [KO:K02263]
252934  Cox5a; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 5A, mitochondrial precursor [KO:K02264]
94194  Cox5b; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 5B, mitochondrial precursor [KO:K02265]
25278  Cox6a2; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6A2, mitochondrial precursor [KO:K02266]
25282  Cox6a1; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6A1, mitochondrial precursor [KO:K02266]
688869  Cox6b1; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6B1 [KO:K02267]
654441  Cox6b2; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6B2 [KO:K02267]
54322  Cox6c; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6C-2 [KO:K02268]
29507  Cox7a2; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 7A2, mitochondrial precursor [KO:K02270]
298762  Cox7a2l; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 7A2 like [KO:K02270]
688386  Cox7a2l2; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 7A2, mitochondrial [KO:K02270]
687508  cytochrome c oxidase subunit 7A1, mitochondrial isoform X2 [KO:K02270]
303393  Cox7b; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 7B, mitochondrial precursor [KO:K02271]
100361960  Cox7b2; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 7B, mitochondrial [KO:K02271]
100188937  Cox7c; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 7C, mitochondrial [KO:K02272]
25250  Cox8b; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 8B, mitochondrial precursor [KO:K02273]
360229  Cox8c; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 8C, mitochondrial [KO:K02273]
171335  Cox8a; cytochrome c oxidase subunit 8A, mitochondrial precursor [KO:K02273]
65262  Atp5f1a; ATP synthase subunit alpha, mitochondrial precursor [KO:K02132]
171374  Atp5f1b; ATP synthase subunit beta, mitochondrial precursor [KO:K02133] [EC:]
116550  Atp5f1c; ATP synthase subunit gamma, mitochondrial [KO:K02136]
245965  Atp5f1d; ATP synthase subunit delta, mitochondrial precursor [KO:K02134]
245958  Atp5f1e; ATP synthase subunit epsilon, mitochondrial [KO:K02135]
26197  ATP6; ATP synthase F0 subunit 6 [KO:K02126]
171375  Atp5pb; ATP synthase F(0) complex subunit B1, mitochondrial precursor [KO:K02127]
171082  Atp5mc2; ATP synthase F(0) complex subunit C2, mitochondrial precursor [KO:K02128]
114630  Atp5mc3; ATP synthase F(0) complex subunit C3, mitochondrial precursor [KO:K02128]
29754  Atp5mc1; ATP synthase F(0) complex subunit C1, mitochondrial precursor [KO:K02128]
641434  Atp5pd; ATP synthase subunit d, mitochondrial [KO:K02138]
192241  Atp5po; ATP synthase subunit O, mitochondrial precursor [KO:K02137]
94271  Atp5pf; ATP synthase-coupling factor 6, mitochondrial precursor [KO:K02131]
26196  ATP8; ATP synthase F0 subunit 8 [KO:K02125]
83529  Vdac1; voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1 [KO:K05862]
83531  Vdac2; voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 2 [KO:K15040]
83532  Vdac3; voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 3 [KO:K15041]
25176  Slc25a5; ADP/ATP translocase 2 [KO:K05863]
85333  Slc25a4; ADP/ATP translocase 1 [KO:K05863]
689108  Slc25a31; ADP/ATP translocase 4 [KO:K05863]
282819  Ppif; peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase F, mitochondrial precursor [KO:K09565] [EC:]
25309  Cycs; cytochrome c, somatic [KO:K08738]
25310  Cyct; cytochrome c, testis-specific [KO:K08738]
100363502  cytochrome c, somatic [KO:K08738]
78963  Apaf1; apoptotic protease-activating factor 1 [KO:K02084]
58918  Casp9; caspase-9 [KO:K04399] [EC:]
29673  Psma6; proteasome subunit alpha type-6 [KO:K02730] [EC:]
29669  Psma2; proteasome subunit alpha type-2 [KO:K02726] [EC:]
29671  Psma4; proteasome subunit alpha type-4 [KO:K02728] [EC:]
29674  Psma7; proteasome subunit alpha type-7 [KO:K02731] [EC:]
364814  Psma8; proteasome subunit alpha type-7-like [KO:K02731] [EC:]
29672  Psma5; proteasome subunit alpha type-5 [KO:K02729] [EC:]
29668  Psma1; proteasome subunit alpha type-1 [KO:K02725] [EC:]
29670  Psma3; proteasome subunit alpha type-3 [KO:K02727] [EC:]
29666  Psmb6; proteasome subunit beta type-6 [KO:K02738] [EC:]
100360846  uncharacterized protein LOC100360846 [KO:K02738] [EC:]
85492  Psmb7; proteasome subunit beta type-7 [KO:K02739] [EC:]
29676  Psmb3; proteasome subunit beta type-3 [KO:K02735] [EC:]
29675  Psmb2; proteasome subunit beta type-2 [KO:K02734] [EC:]
29425  Psmb5; proteasome subunit beta type-5 [KO:K02737] [EC:]
94198  Psmb1; proteasome subunit beta type-1 precursor [KO:K02732] [EC:]
58854  Psmb4; proteasome subunit beta type-4 [KO:K02736] [EC:]
25581  Psmc2; 26S proteasome regulatory subunit 7 [KO:K03061]
117263  Psmc1; 26S proteasome regulatory subunit 4 [KO:K03062]
117262  Psmc4; 26S proteasome regulatory subunit 6B [KO:K03063]
289990  Psmc6; 26S protease regulatory subunit 10B [KO:K03064]
29677  Psmc3; 26S proteasome regulatory subunit 6A [KO:K03065]
81827  Psmc5; 26S proteasome regulatory subunit 8 [KO:K03066]
287984  Psmd2; 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 2 [KO:K03028]
83806  Psmd1; 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 1 [KO:K03032]
287670  Psmd3; 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 3 [KO:K03033]
161475  Psmd9; 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 9 [KO:K06693]
287772  Psmd12; 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 12 [KO:K03035]
303353  Psmd11; 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 11 [KO:K03036]
289924  Psmd6; 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 6 [KO:K03037]
307821  Psmd7; 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 7 [KO:K03038]
365388  Psmd13; 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 13 [KO:K03039]
83499  Psmd4; 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 4 [KO:K03029]
311078  Psmd14; 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 14 [KO:K03030]
292766  Psmd8; 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 8 [KO:K03031]
65138  Adrm1; proteasomal ubiquitin receptor ADRM1 [KO:K06691]
680532  Sem1; 26S proteasome complex subunit DSS1 [KO:K10881]
308463  Map3k10; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 10 [KO:K04418] [EC:]
498013  Ern1; serine/threonine-protein kinase/endoribonuclease IRE1 [KO:K08852] [EC: 3.1.26.-]
311786  Traf2; TNF receptor-associated factor 2 [KO:K03173] [EC:]
365057  Map3k5; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5 [KO:K04426] [EC:]
363855  Map2k7; dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 [KO:K04431] [EC:]
56718  Mtor; serine/threonine-protein kinase mTOR [KO:K07203] [EC:]
360827  Ulk1; serine/threonine-protein kinase ULK1 [KO:K21357] [EC:]
303206  Ulk2; serine/threonine-protein kinase ULK2 [KO:K08269] [EC:]
300240  Atg101; autophagy-related protein 101 isoform 2 [KO:K19730]
362164  Atg13; autophagy-related protein 13 [KO:K08331]
312927  Rb1cc1; RB1-inducible coiled-coil protein 1 [KO:K17589]
59319  Ambra1; activating molecule in BECN1-regulated autophagy protein 1 [KO:K17985]
114558  Becn1; beclin-1 [KO:K08334]
363131  Pik3r4; phosphoinositide 3-kinase regulatory subunit 4 [KO:K08333] [EC:]
305831  Atg14; beclin 1-associated autophagy-related key regulator [KO:K17889]
58839  Nrbf2; nuclear receptor-binding factor 2 [KO:K21246]
100363472  nuclear receptor-binding factor 2-like [KO:K21246]
499670  RGD1560263; nuclear receptor-binding factor 2-like [KO:K21246]
65052  Pik3c3; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 3 [KO:K00914] [EC:]
689688  Atg2a; autophagy-related protein 2 homolog A [KO:K17906]
288498  Wipi2; WD repeat domain phosphoinositide-interacting protein 2 [KO:K17908]
303630  Wipi1; WD repeat domain phosphoinositide-interacting protein 1 [KO:K17908]
C00025  L-Glutamate
C00076  Calcium cation
C00238  Potassium cation
C01245  D-myo-Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate
C01330  Sodium cation
C04549  1-Phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 3-phosphate
Landles C, Bates GP
Huntingtin and the molecular pathogenesis of Huntington's disease. Fourth in molecular medicine review series.
EMBO Rep 5:958-63 (2004)
Borrell-Pages M, Zala D, Humbert S, Saudou F
Huntington's disease: from huntingtin function and dysfunction to therapeutic strategies.
Cell Mol Life Sci 63:2642-60 (2006)
Bossy-Wetzel E, Petrilli A, Knott AB
Mutant huntingtin and mitochondrial dysfunction.
Trends Neurosci 31:609-16 (2008)
Cattaneo E, Zuccato C, Tartari M
Normal huntingtin function: an alternative approach to Huntington's disease.
Nat Rev Neurosci 6:919-30 (2005)
Bezprozvanny I, Hayden MR
Deranged neuronal calcium signaling and Huntington disease.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 322:1310-7 (2004)
Sawa A, Tomoda T, Bae BI
Mechanisms of neuronal cell death in Huntington's disease.
Cytogenet Genome Res 100:287-95 (2003)
Ross CA.
Polyglutamine pathogenesis: emergence of unifying mechanisms for Huntington's disease and related disorders.
Neuron 35:819-22 (2002)
Ross CA
Huntington's disease: new paths to pathogenesis.
Cell 118:4-7 (2004)
Coffey ET
Nuclear and cytosolic JNK signalling in neurons.
Nat Rev Neurosci 15:285-99 (2014)
Morfini GA, You YM, Pollema SL, Kaminska A, Liu K, Yoshioka K, Bjorkblom B, Coffey ET, Bagnato C, Han D, Huang CF, Banker G, Pigino G, Brady ST
Pathogenic huntingtin inhibits fast axonal transport by activating JNK3 and phosphorylating kinesin.
Nat Neurosci 12:864-71 (2009)
Kumar P, Kumar D, Jha SK, Jha NK, Ambasta RK
Ion Channels in Neurological Disorders.
Adv Protein Chem Struct Biol 103:97-136 (2016)
Proft J, Weiss N
Rectifying rectifier channels in Huntington disease.
Commun Integr Biol 7:e29410 (2014)
Tang TS, Slow E, Lupu V, Stavrovskaya IG, Sugimori M, Llinas R, Kristal BS, Hayden MR, Bezprozvanny I
Disturbed Ca2+ signaling and apoptosis of medium spiny neurons in Huntington's disease.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:2602-7 (2005)
Mackay JP, Nassrallah WB, Raymond LA
Cause or compensation?-Altered neuronal Ca(2+) handling in Huntington's disease.
CNS Neurosci Ther 24:301-310 (2018)
Mattson MP.
Accomplices to neuronal death.
Nature 415:377-9 (2002)
McGill JK, Beal MF
PGC-1alpha, a new therapeutic target in Huntington's disease?
Cell 127:465-8 (2006)
Intihar TA, Martinez EA, Gomez-Pastor R
Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Huntington's Disease; Interplay Between HSF1, p53 and PGC-1alpha Transcription Factors.
Front Cell Neurosci 13:103 (2019)
La Spada AR, Morrison RS
The power of the dark side: Huntington's disease protein and p53 form a deadly alliance.
Neuron 47:1-3 (2005)
Lesort M, Chun W, Tucholski J, Johnson GV
Does tissue transglutaminase play a role in Huntington's disease?
Neurochem Int 40:37-52 (2002)
Bae BI, Xu H, Igarashi S, Fujimuro M, Agrawal N, Taya Y, Hayward SD, Moran TH, Montell C, Ross CA, Snyder SH, Sawa A
p53 mediates cellular dysfunction and behavioral abnormalities in Huntington's disease.
Neuron 47:29-41 (2005)
Li SH, Cheng AL, Zhou H, Lam S, Rao M, Li H, Li XJ
Interaction of Huntington disease protein with transcriptional activator Sp1.
Mol Cell Biol 22:1277-87 (2002)
Vidal RL, Matus S, Bargsted L, Hetz C
Targeting autophagy in neurodegenerative diseases.
Trends Pharmacol Sci 35:583-91 (2014)
Shibata M, Lu T, Furuya T, Degterev A, Mizushima N, Yoshimori T, MacDonald M, Yankner B, Yuan J
Regulation of intracellular accumulation of mutant Huntingtin by Beclin 1.
J Biol Chem 281:14474-85 (2006)
rno00190  Oxidative phosphorylation
rno03020  RNA polymerase
rno03022  Basal transcription factors
rno03050  Proteasome
rno04020  Calcium signaling pathway
rno04115  p53 signaling pathway
rno04140  Autophagy - animal
rno04141  Protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum
rno04144  Endocytosis
rno04210  Apoptosis
rno04724  Glutamatergic synapse
KO pathway

DBGET integrated database retrieval system