Database: UniProt
Entry: P00004
LinkDB: P00004
Original site: P00004 
ID   CYC_HORSE               Reviewed;         105 AA.
AC   P00004;
DT   21-JUL-1986, integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.
DT   23-JAN-2007, sequence version 2.
DT   07-APR-2021, entry version 157.
DE   RecName: Full=Cytochrome c;
GN   Name=CYCS; Synonyms=CYC;
OS   Equus caballus (Horse).
OC   Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia;
OC   Eutheria; Laurasiatheria; Perissodactyla; Equidae; Equus.
OX   NCBI_TaxID=9796;
RN   [1]
RC   TISSUE=Heart;
RX   PubMed=14469771; DOI=10.1038/1921125a0;
RA   Margoliash E., Smith E.L., Kreil G., Tuppy H.;
RT   "Amino-acid sequence of horse heart cytochrome c.";
RL   Nature 192:1125-1127(1961).
RN   [2]
RX   PubMed=5545094;
RA   Dickerson R.E., Takano T., Eisenberg D., Kallai O.B., Samson L., Cooper A.,
RA   Margoliash E.;
RT   "Ferricytochrome c. I. General features of the horse and bonito proteins at
RT   2.8-A resolution.";
RL   J. Biol. Chem. 246:1511-1535(1971).
RN   [3]
RX   PubMed=2166170; DOI=10.1016/0022-2836(90)90200-6;
RA   Bushnell G.W., Louie G.V., Brayer G.D.;
RT   "High-resolution three-dimensional structure of horse heart cytochrome c.";
RL   J. Mol. Biol. 214:585-595(1990).
RN   [4]
RX   PubMed=8591047; DOI=10.1016/s0969-2126(01)00205-2;
RA   Sanishvili R., Volz K.W., Westbrook E.M., Margoliash E.;
RT   "The low ionic strength crystal structure of horse cytochrome c at 2.1-A
RT   resolution and comparison with its high ionic strength counterpart.";
RL   Structure 3:707-716(1995).
RN   [5]
RX   PubMed=2539855; DOI=10.1021/bi00427a027;
RA   Feng Y., Roder H., Englander S.W., Wand A.J., di Stefano D.L.;
RT   "Proton resonance assignments of horse ferricytochrome c.";
RL   Biochemistry 28:195-203(1989).
RN   [6]
RX   PubMed=8823161; DOI=10.1021/bi961042w;
RA   Qi P.X., Beckman R.A., Wand A.J.;
RT   "Solution structure of horse heart ferricytochrome c and detection of
RT   redox-related structural changes by high-resolution 1H NMR.";
RL   Biochemistry 35:12275-12286(1996).
RN   [7]
RC   TISSUE=Heart;
RX   PubMed=9245419; DOI=10.1021/bi970724w;
RA   Banci L., Bertini I., Gray H.B., Luchinat C., Reddig T., Rosato A.,
RA   Turano P.;
RT   "Solution structure of oxidized horse heart cytochrome c.";
RL   Biochemistry 36:9867-9877(1997).
CC   -!- FUNCTION: Electron carrier protein. The oxidized form of the cytochrome
CC       c heme group can accept an electron from the heme group of the
CC       cytochrome c1 subunit of cytochrome reductase. Cytochrome c then
CC       transfers this electron to the cytochrome oxidase complex, the final
CC       protein carrier in the mitochondrial electron-transport chain.
CC   -!- FUNCTION: Plays a role in apoptosis. Suppression of the anti-apoptotic
CC       members or activation of the pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family
CC       leads to altered mitochondrial membrane permeability resulting in
CC       release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. Binding of cytochrome c to
CC       Apaf-1 triggers the activation of caspase-9, which then accelerates
CC       apoptosis by activating other caspases (By similarity). {ECO:0000250}.
CC       P00004; P00004: CYCS; NbExp=3; IntAct=EBI-865260, EBI-865260;
CC   -!- SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Mitochondrion intermembrane space. Note=Loosely
CC       associated with the inner membrane.
CC   -!- PTM: Binds 1 heme group per subunit.
CC   -!- PTM: Phosphorylation at Tyr-49 and Tyr-98 both reduce by half the
CC       turnover in the reaction with cytochrome c oxidase, down-regulating
CC       mitochondrial respiration. {ECO:0000250}.
CC   -!- MISCELLANEOUS: Mules and hinnies are heterozygous, having equal amount
CC       of horse and donkey cytochromes c.
CC   -!- SIMILARITY: Belongs to the cytochrome c family. {ECO:0000305}.
CC   -!- WEB RESOURCE: Name=Protein Spotlight; Note=Life shuttle - Issue 76 of
CC       November 2006;
CC       URL="";
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DR   PIR; A00005; CCHO.
DR   PDB; 1AKK; NMR; -; A=2-105.
DR   PDB; 1CRC; X-ray; 2.08 A; A/B=2-105.
DR   PDB; 1FI7; NMR; -; A=2-105.
DR   PDB; 1FI9; NMR; -; A=2-105.
DR   PDB; 1GIW; NMR; -; A=2-105.
DR   PDB; 1HRC; X-ray; 1.90 A; A=2-105.
DR   PDB; 1I5T; NMR; -; A=2-105.
DR   PDB; 1LC1; NMR; -; A=2-105.
DR   PDB; 1LC2; NMR; -; A=2-105.
DR   PDB; 1M60; NMR; -; A=2-105.
DR   PDB; 1OCD; NMR; -; A=2-105.
DR   PDB; 1U75; X-ray; 2.55 A; B=2-105.
DR   PDB; 1WEJ; X-ray; 1.80 A; F=2-105.
DR   PDB; 2FRC; NMR; -; A=2-105.
DR   PDB; 2GIW; NMR; -; A=2-105.
DR   PDB; 2N3B; NMR; -; A=2-105.
DR   PDB; 2PCB; X-ray; 2.80 A; B=2-105.
DR   PDB; 3JBT; EM; 3.80 A; B/D/F/H/J/L/N=1-105.
DR   PDB; 3NBS; X-ray; 2.20 A; A/B/C/D=2-105.
DR   PDB; 3NBT; X-ray; 2.10 A; A/B/C/D/E/F=2-105.
DR   PDB; 3O1Y; X-ray; 1.75 A; A/B/C=2-105.
DR   PDB; 3O20; X-ray; 1.90 A; A/B/C=2-105.
DR   PDB; 3WC8; X-ray; 1.80 A; A=2-105.
DR   PDB; 3WUI; X-ray; 1.80 A; A=2-105.
DR   PDB; 4NFG; X-ray; 2.11 A; B=2-105.
DR   PDB; 4RSZ; X-ray; 2.19 A; A/B/C/D/E/F=2-105.
DR   PDB; 5IY5; X-ray; 2.00 A; 1/2=2-105.
DR   PDB; 5WVE; EM; 4.40 A; B/D/F/H/J/L/N=1-105.
DR   PDB; 5ZKV; NMR; -; A=2-105.
DR   PDB; 6K9I; X-ray; 1.80 A; A=2-105.
DR   PDB; 6K9J; X-ray; 0.98 A; A=2-105.
DR   PDB; 6SUV; X-ray; 2.50 A; AaA/BaB/CaC/DaD/EaE/FaF/GaG/HaH=2-105.
DR   PDBsum; 1AKK; -.
DR   PDBsum; 1CRC; -.
DR   PDBsum; 1FI7; -.
DR   PDBsum; 1FI9; -.
DR   PDBsum; 1GIW; -.
DR   PDBsum; 1HRC; -.
DR   PDBsum; 1I5T; -.
DR   PDBsum; 1LC1; -.
DR   PDBsum; 1LC2; -.
DR   PDBsum; 1M60; -.
DR   PDBsum; 1OCD; -.
DR   PDBsum; 1U75; -.
DR   PDBsum; 1WEJ; -.
DR   PDBsum; 2FRC; -.
DR   PDBsum; 2GIW; -.
DR   PDBsum; 2N3B; -.
DR   PDBsum; 2PCB; -.
DR   PDBsum; 3JBT; -.
DR   PDBsum; 3NBS; -.
DR   PDBsum; 3NBT; -.
DR   PDBsum; 3O1Y; -.
DR   PDBsum; 3O20; -.
DR   PDBsum; 3WC8; -.
DR   PDBsum; 3WUI; -.
DR   PDBsum; 4NFG; -.
DR   PDBsum; 4RSZ; -.
DR   PDBsum; 5IY5; -.
DR   PDBsum; 5WVE; -.
DR   PDBsum; 5ZKV; -.
DR   PDBsum; 6K9I; -.
DR   PDBsum; 6K9J; -.
DR   PDBsum; 6SUV; -.
DR   BMRB; P00004; -.
DR   PCDDB; P00004; -.
DR   SASBDB; P00004; -.
DR   SMR; P00004; -.
DR   DIP; DIP-36774N; -.
DR   IntAct; P00004; 2.
DR   MoonProt; P00004; -.
DR   CarbonylDB; P00004; -.
DR   iPTMnet; P00004; -.
DR   MetOSite; P00004; -.
DR   PaxDb; P00004; -.
DR   PeptideAtlas; P00004; -.
DR   PRIDE; P00004; -.
DR   ABCD; P00004; 5 sequenced antibodies.
DR   InParanoid; P00004; -.
DR   SABIO-RK; P00004; -.
DR   EvolutionaryTrace; P00004; -.
DR   Proteomes; UP000002281; Unplaced.
DR   GO; GO:0070069; C:cytochrome complex; IDA:CAFA.
DR   GO; GO:0005829; C:cytosol; ISS:UniProtKB.
DR   GO; GO:0005758; C:mitochondrial intermembrane space; IBA:GO_Central.
DR   GO; GO:0070469; C:respirasome; IEA:UniProtKB-KW.
DR   GO; GO:0009055; F:electron transfer activity; IEA:InterPro.
DR   GO; GO:0020037; F:heme binding; IDA:CAFA.
DR   GO; GO:0042802; F:identical protein binding; IPI:IntAct.
DR   GO; GO:0046872; F:metal ion binding; IEA:UniProtKB-KW.
DR   GO; GO:0006915; P:apoptotic process; IEA:UniProtKB-KW.
DR   GO; GO:0018063; P:cytochrome c-heme linkage; IDA:CAFA.
DR   GO; GO:0006123; P:mitochondrial electron transport, cytochrome c to oxygen; IBA:GO_Central.
DR   GO; GO:0006122; P:mitochondrial electron transport, ubiquinol to cytochrome c; IBA:GO_Central.
DR   GO; GO:0043065; P:positive regulation of apoptotic process; IDA:ARUK-UCL.
DR   GO; GO:2001056; P:positive regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity; IDA:CAFA.
DR   GO; GO:0043280; P:positive regulation of cysteine-type endopeptidase activity involved in apoptotic process; IDA:ARUK-UCL.
DR   DisProt; DP00006; -.
DR   Gene3D; 1.10.760.10; -; 1.
DR   InterPro; IPR009056; Cyt_c-like_dom.
DR   InterPro; IPR036909; Cyt_c-like_dom_sf.
DR   InterPro; IPR002327; Cyt_c_1A/1B.
DR   PANTHER; PTHR11961; PTHR11961; 1.
DR   Pfam; PF00034; Cytochrom_C; 1.
DR   SUPFAM; SSF46626; SSF46626; 1.
DR   PROSITE; PS51007; CYTC; 1.
PE   1: Evidence at protein level;
KW   3D-structure; Acetylation; Apoptosis; Direct protein sequencing;
KW   Electron transport; Heme; Iron; Metal-binding; Mitochondrion;
KW   Phosphoprotein; Reference proteome; Respiratory chain; Transport.
FT   INIT_MET        1
FT                   /note="Removed"
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000269|PubMed:14469771"
FT   CHAIN           2..105
FT                   /note="Cytochrome c"
FT                   /id="PRO_0000108217"
FT   METAL           19
FT                   /note="Iron (heme axial ligand)"
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000255|PROSITE-ProRule:PRU00433,
FT                   ECO:0000269|PubMed:5545094"
FT   METAL           81
FT                   /note="Iron (heme axial ligand)"
FT   BINDING         15
FT                   /note="Heme; covalent"
FT   BINDING         18
FT                   /note="Heme; covalent"
FT   MOD_RES         2
FT                   /note="N-acetylglycine"
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000269|PubMed:14469771"
FT   MOD_RES         49
FT                   /note="Phosphotyrosine"
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P62894"
FT   MOD_RES         56
FT                   /note="N6-succinyllysine"
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P62897"
FT   MOD_RES         73
FT                   /note="N6-acetyllysine; alternate"
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P62897"
FT   MOD_RES         73
FT                   /note="N6-succinyllysine; alternate"
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P62897"
FT   MOD_RES         98
FT                   /note="Phosphotyrosine"
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P62894"
FT   MOD_RES         100
FT                   /note="N6-acetyllysine"
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P62897"
FT   HELIX           4..14
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0007744|PDB:6K9J"
FT   TURN            15..18
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0007744|PDB:6K9J"
FT   STRAND          22..24
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0007744|PDB:5IY5"
FT   STRAND          28..30
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0007744|PDB:1U75"
FT   TURN            34..37
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0007744|PDB:1OCD"
FT   STRAND          39..42
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0007744|PDB:5IY5"
FT   STRAND          44..47
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0007744|PDB:1I5T"
FT   HELIX           51..55
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0007744|PDB:6K9J"
FT   HELIX           62..70
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0007744|PDB:6K9J"
FT   HELIX           72..75
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0007744|PDB:6K9J"
FT   STRAND          76..78
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0007744|PDB:2PCB"
FT   STRAND          86..88
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0007744|PDB:1FI7"
FT   HELIX           89..102
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0007744|PDB:6K9J"
SQ   SEQUENCE   105 AA;  11833 MW;  659BA128E53C3868 CRC64;
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