GenomeNet

Database: UniProt
Entry: P05091
LinkDB: P05091
Original site: P05091 
ID   ALDH2_HUMAN             Reviewed;         517 AA.
AC   P05091; B4DW54; E7EUE5; Q03639; Q6IB13; Q6IV71;
DT   13-AUG-1987, integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.
DT   01-JAN-1990, sequence version 2.
DT   26-FEB-2020, entry version 236.
DE   RecName: Full=Aldehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrial;
DE            EC=1.2.1.3;
DE   AltName: Full=ALDH class 2;
DE   AltName: Full=ALDH-E2;
DE   AltName: Full=ALDHI;
DE   Flags: Precursor;
GN   Name=ALDH2; Synonyms=ALDM;
OS   Homo sapiens (Human).
OC   Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; Mammalia;
OC   Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Catarrhini; Hominidae;
OC   Homo.
OX   NCBI_TaxID=9606;
RN   [1]
RP   NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM 1).
RC   TISSUE=Muscle;
RX   PubMed=3582651; DOI=10.1016/0014-5793(87)80152-7;
RA   Braun T., Bober E., Singh S., Agarwal D.P., Goedde H.W.;
RT   "Evidence for a signal peptide at the amino-terminal end of human
RT   mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase.";
RL   FEBS Lett. 215:233-236(1987).
RN   [2]
RP   ERRATUM, AND SEQUENCE REVISION TO N-TERMINUS.
RA   Braun T., Bober E., Singh S., Agarwal D.P., Goedde H.W.;
RL   FEBS Lett. 233:440-440(1988).
RN   [3]
RP   NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM 1).
RC   TISSUE=Muscle;
RX   PubMed=3562250; DOI=10.1093/nar/15.7.3179;
RA   Braun T., Bober E., Singh S., Agarwal D.P., Goedde H.W.;
RT   "Isolation and sequence analysis of a full length cDNA clone coding for
RT   human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase.";
RL   Nucleic Acids Res. 15:3179-3179(1987).
RN   [4]
RP   NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
RX   PubMed=2838413; DOI=10.1016/0888-7543(88)90109-7;
RA   Hsu L.C., Bendel R.E., Yoshida A.;
RT   "Genomic structure of the human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase
RT   gene.";
RL   Genomics 2:57-65(1988).
RN   [5]
RP   NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM 1).
RA   Lassen N., Estey T., Vasiliou V.;
RL   Submitted (MAY-2004) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases.
RN   [6]
RP   NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM 1).
RA   Ebert L., Schick M., Neubert P., Schatten R., Henze S., Korn B.;
RT   "Cloning of human full open reading frames in Gateway(TM) system entry
RT   vector (pDONR201).";
RL   Submitted (JUN-2004) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases.
RN   [7]
RP   NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM 2).
RC   TISSUE=Synovium;
RX   PubMed=14702039; DOI=10.1038/ng1285;
RA   Ota T., Suzuki Y., Nishikawa T., Otsuki T., Sugiyama T., Irie R.,
RA   Wakamatsu A., Hayashi K., Sato H., Nagai K., Kimura K., Makita H.,
RA   Sekine M., Obayashi M., Nishi T., Shibahara T., Tanaka T., Ishii S.,
RA   Yamamoto J., Saito K., Kawai Y., Isono Y., Nakamura Y., Nagahari K.,
RA   Murakami K., Yasuda T., Iwayanagi T., Wagatsuma M., Shiratori A., Sudo H.,
RA   Hosoiri T., Kaku Y., Kodaira H., Kondo H., Sugawara M., Takahashi M.,
RA   Kanda K., Yokoi T., Furuya T., Kikkawa E., Omura Y., Abe K., Kamihara K.,
RA   Katsuta N., Sato K., Tanikawa M., Yamazaki M., Ninomiya K., Ishibashi T.,
RA   Yamashita H., Murakawa K., Fujimori K., Tanai H., Kimata M., Watanabe M.,
RA   Hiraoka S., Chiba Y., Ishida S., Ono Y., Takiguchi S., Watanabe S.,
RA   Yosida M., Hotuta T., Kusano J., Kanehori K., Takahashi-Fujii A., Hara H.,
RA   Tanase T.-O., Nomura Y., Togiya S., Komai F., Hara R., Takeuchi K.,
RA   Arita M., Imose N., Musashino K., Yuuki H., Oshima A., Sasaki N.,
RA   Aotsuka S., Yoshikawa Y., Matsunawa H., Ichihara T., Shiohata N., Sano S.,
RA   Moriya S., Momiyama H., Satoh N., Takami S., Terashima Y., Suzuki O.,
RA   Nakagawa S., Senoh A., Mizoguchi H., Goto Y., Shimizu F., Wakebe H.,
RA   Hishigaki H., Watanabe T., Sugiyama A., Takemoto M., Kawakami B.,
RA   Yamazaki M., Watanabe K., Kumagai A., Itakura S., Fukuzumi Y., Fujimori Y.,
RA   Komiyama M., Tashiro H., Tanigami A., Fujiwara T., Ono T., Yamada K.,
RA   Fujii Y., Ozaki K., Hirao M., Ohmori Y., Kawabata A., Hikiji T.,
RA   Kobatake N., Inagaki H., Ikema Y., Okamoto S., Okitani R., Kawakami T.,
RA   Noguchi S., Itoh T., Shigeta K., Senba T., Matsumura K., Nakajima Y.,
RA   Mizuno T., Morinaga M., Sasaki M., Togashi T., Oyama M., Hata H.,
RA   Watanabe M., Komatsu T., Mizushima-Sugano J., Satoh T., Shirai Y.,
RA   Takahashi Y., Nakagawa K., Okumura K., Nagase T., Nomura N., Kikuchi H.,
RA   Masuho Y., Yamashita R., Nakai K., Yada T., Nakamura Y., Ohara O.,
RA   Isogai T., Sugano S.;
RT   "Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human
RT   cDNAs.";
RL   Nat. Genet. 36:40-45(2004).
RN   [8]
RP   NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
RX   PubMed=16541075; DOI=10.1038/nature04569;
RA   Scherer S.E., Muzny D.M., Buhay C.J., Chen R., Cree A., Ding Y.,
RA   Dugan-Rocha S., Gill R., Gunaratne P., Harris R.A., Hawes A.C.,
RA   Hernandez J., Hodgson A.V., Hume J., Jackson A., Khan Z.M., Kovar-Smith C.,
RA   Lewis L.R., Lozado R.J., Metzker M.L., Milosavljevic A., Miner G.R.,
RA   Montgomery K.T., Morgan M.B., Nazareth L.V., Scott G., Sodergren E.,
RA   Song X.-Z., Steffen D., Lovering R.C., Wheeler D.A., Worley K.C., Yuan Y.,
RA   Zhang Z., Adams C.Q., Ansari-Lari M.A., Ayele M., Brown M.J., Chen G.,
RA   Chen Z., Clerc-Blankenburg K.P., Davis C., Delgado O., Dinh H.H.,
RA   Draper H., Gonzalez-Garay M.L., Havlak P., Jackson L.R., Jacob L.S.,
RA   Kelly S.H., Li L., Li Z., Liu J., Liu W., Lu J., Maheshwari M.,
RA   Nguyen B.-V., Okwuonu G.O., Pasternak S., Perez L.M., Plopper F.J.H.,
RA   Santibanez J., Shen H., Tabor P.E., Verduzco D., Waldron L., Wang Q.,
RA   Williams G.A., Zhang J., Zhou J., Allen C.C., Amin A.G., Anyalebechi V.,
RA   Bailey M., Barbaria J.A., Bimage K.E., Bryant N.P., Burch P.E.,
RA   Burkett C.E., Burrell K.L., Calderon E., Cardenas V., Carter K., Casias K.,
RA   Cavazos I., Cavazos S.R., Ceasar H., Chacko J., Chan S.N., Chavez D.,
RA   Christopoulos C., Chu J., Cockrell R., Cox C.D., Dang M., Dathorne S.R.,
RA   David R., Davis C.M., Davy-Carroll L., Deshazo D.R., Donlin J.E.,
RA   D'Souza L., Eaves K.A., Egan A., Emery-Cohen A.J., Escotto M., Flagg N.,
RA   Forbes L.D., Gabisi A.M., Garza M., Hamilton C., Henderson N.,
RA   Hernandez O., Hines S., Hogues M.E., Huang M., Idlebird D.G., Johnson R.,
RA   Jolivet A., Jones S., Kagan R., King L.M., Leal B., Lebow H., Lee S.,
RA   LeVan J.M., Lewis L.C., London P., Lorensuhewa L.M., Loulseged H.,
RA   Lovett D.A., Lucier A., Lucier R.L., Ma J., Madu R.C., Mapua P.,
RA   Martindale A.D., Martinez E., Massey E., Mawhiney S., Meador M.G.,
RA   Mendez S., Mercado C., Mercado I.C., Merritt C.E., Miner Z.L., Minja E.,
RA   Mitchell T., Mohabbat F., Mohabbat K., Montgomery B., Moore N., Morris S.,
RA   Munidasa M., Ngo R.N., Nguyen N.B., Nickerson E., Nwaokelemeh O.O.,
RA   Nwokenkwo S., Obregon M., Oguh M., Oragunye N., Oviedo R.J., Parish B.J.,
RA   Parker D.N., Parrish J., Parks K.L., Paul H.A., Payton B.A., Perez A.,
RA   Perrin W., Pickens A., Primus E.L., Pu L.-L., Puazo M., Quiles M.M.,
RA   Quiroz J.B., Rabata D., Reeves K., Ruiz S.J., Shao H., Sisson I.,
RA   Sonaike T., Sorelle R.P., Sutton A.E., Svatek A.F., Svetz L.A.,
RA   Tamerisa K.S., Taylor T.R., Teague B., Thomas N., Thorn R.D., Trejos Z.Y.,
RA   Trevino B.K., Ukegbu O.N., Urban J.B., Vasquez L.I., Vera V.A.,
RA   Villasana D.M., Wang L., Ward-Moore S., Warren J.T., Wei X., White F.,
RA   Williamson A.L., Wleczyk R., Wooden H.S., Wooden S.H., Yen J., Yoon L.,
RA   Yoon V., Zorrilla S.E., Nelson D., Kucherlapati R., Weinstock G.,
RA   Gibbs R.A.;
RT   "The finished DNA sequence of human chromosome 12.";
RL   Nature 440:346-351(2006).
RN   [9]
RP   NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM 1).
RC   TISSUE=Brain, and Lymph;
RX   PubMed=15489334; DOI=10.1101/gr.2596504;
RG   The MGC Project Team;
RT   "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project:
RT   the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).";
RL   Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004).
RN   [10]
RP   PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 18-517 (ISOFORM 1).
RC   TISSUE=Liver;
RX   PubMed=4065146; DOI=10.1111/j.1432-1033.1985.tb09260.x;
RA   Hempel J., Kaiser R., Joernvall H.;
RT   "Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase from human liver. Primary structure,
RT   differences in relation to the cytosolic enzyme, and functional
RT   correlations.";
RL   Eur. J. Biochem. 153:13-28(1985).
RN   [11]
RP   NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] OF 119-517 (ISOFORM 1).
RC   TISSUE=Liver;
RX   PubMed=2987944; DOI=10.1073/pnas.82.11.3771;
RA   Hsu L.C., Tani K., Fujiyoshi T., Kurachi K., Yoshida A.;
RT   "Cloning of cDNAs for human aldehyde dehydrogenases 1 and 2.";
RL   Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 82:3771-3775(1985).
RN   [12]
RP   NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] OF 119-517 (ISOFORM 1).
RX   PubMed=4015823; DOI=10.1016/0741-8329(85)90024-2;
RA   Yoshida A., Ikawa M., Hsu L.C., Tani K.;
RT   "Molecular abnormality and cDNA cloning of human aldehyde dehydrogenases.";
RL   Alcohol 2:103-106(1985).
RN   [13]
RP   PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 160-172 AND 325-338, AND IDENTIFICATION BY MASS
RP   SPECTROMETRY.
RC   TISSUE=Brain, and Cajal-Retzius cell;
RA   Lubec G., Vishwanath V.;
RL   Submitted (MAR-2007) to UniProtKB.
RN   [14]
RP   PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 196-226 AND 325-338.
RC   TISSUE=Adipocyte;
RX   PubMed=15242332; DOI=10.1042/bj20040647;
RA   Aboulaich N., Vainonen J.P., Stralfors P., Vener A.V.;
RT   "Vectorial proteomics reveal targeting, phosphorylation and specific
RT   fragmentation of polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF) at the
RT   surface of caveolae in human adipocytes.";
RL   Biochem. J. 383:237-248(2004).
RN   [15]
RP   NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] OF 214-500, AND VARIANT VAL-337.
RC   TISSUE=Liver;
RX   PubMed=3610592;
RA   Agarwal D.P., Goedde H.W.;
RT   "Human aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes and alcohol sensitivity.";
RL   Isozymes Curr. Top. Biol. Med. Res. 16:21-48(1987).
RN   [16]
RP   DESCRIPTION OF ORIGIN OF CONFLICTS BETWEEN THE SEQUENCE DESCRIBED IN
RP   PUBMED:4065146 AND DNA SEQUENCES.
RX   PubMed=3653404; DOI=10.1016/0014-5793(87)80198-9;
RA   Hempel J., Hoeoeg J.-O., Joernvall H.;
RT   "Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase. Homology of putative targeting
RT   sequence to that of carbamyl phosphate synthetase I revealed by correlation
RT   of cDNA and protein data.";
RL   FEBS Lett. 222:95-98(1987).
RN   [17]
RP   IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
RX   PubMed=21269460; DOI=10.1186/1752-0509-5-17;
RA   Burkard T.R., Planyavsky M., Kaupe I., Breitwieser F.P., Buerckstuemmer T.,
RA   Bennett K.L., Superti-Furga G., Colinge J.;
RT   "Initial characterization of the human central proteome.";
RL   BMC Syst. Biol. 5:17-17(2011).
RN   [18]
RP   IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
RC   TISSUE=Liver;
RX   PubMed=24275569; DOI=10.1016/j.jprot.2013.11.014;
RA   Bian Y., Song C., Cheng K., Dong M., Wang F., Huang J., Sun D., Wang L.,
RA   Ye M., Zou H.;
RT   "An enzyme assisted RP-RPLC approach for in-depth analysis of human liver
RT   phosphoproteome.";
RL   J. Proteomics 96:253-262(2014).
RN   [19]
RP   X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (2.58 ANGSTROMS).
RX   PubMed=10631996; DOI=10.1110/ps.8.12.2784;
RA   Ni L., Zhou J., Hurley T.D., Weiner H.;
RT   "Human liver mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase: three-dimensional
RT   structure and the restoration of solubility and activity of chimeric
RT   forms.";
RL   Protein Sci. 8:2784-2790(1999).
RN   [20]
RP   VARIANT LYS-504.
RX   PubMed=6582480; DOI=10.1073/pnas.81.1.258;
RA   Yoshida A., Huang I.-Y., Ikawa M.;
RT   "Molecular abnormality of an inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase variant
RT   commonly found in Orientals.";
RL   Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 81:258-261(1984).
RN   [21]
RP   VARIANT LYS-496.
RX   PubMed=8561277; DOI=10.1111/j.1530-0277.1995.tb01587.x;
RA   Novoradovsky A., Tsai S.J., Goldfarb L., Peterson R., Long J.C.,
RA   Goldman D.;
RT   "Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphism in Asian and American
RT   Indian populations: detection of new ALDH2 alleles.";
RL   Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 19:1105-1110(1995).
CC   -!- CATALYTIC ACTIVITY:
CC       Reaction=an aldehyde + H2O + NAD(+) = a carboxylate + 2 H(+) + NADH;
CC         Xref=Rhea:RHEA:16185, ChEBI:CHEBI:15377, ChEBI:CHEBI:15378,
CC         ChEBI:CHEBI:17478, ChEBI:CHEBI:29067, ChEBI:CHEBI:57540,
CC         ChEBI:CHEBI:57945; EC=1.2.1.3;
CC   -!- PATHWAY: Alcohol metabolism; ethanol degradation; acetate from ethanol:
CC       step 2/2.
CC   -!- SUBUNIT: Homotetramer.
CC   -!- SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Mitochondrion matrix.
CC   -!- ALTERNATIVE PRODUCTS:
CC       Event=Alternative splicing; Named isoforms=2;
CC       Name=1;
CC         IsoId=P05091-1; Sequence=Displayed;
CC       Name=2;
CC         IsoId=P05091-2; Sequence=VSP_046715;
CC   -!- POLYMORPHISM: Genetic variation in ALDH2 is responsible for individual
CC       differences in responses to drinking alcohol [MIM:610251]. Allele
CC       ALDH2*2 is associated with a very high incidence of acute alcohol
CC       intoxication in Orientals and South American Indians, as compared to
CC       Caucasians. {ECO:0000269|PubMed:8561277}.
CC   -!- SIMILARITY: Belongs to the aldehyde dehydrogenase family.
CC       {ECO:0000305}.
CC   -!- SEQUENCE CAUTION:
CC       Sequence=AAA62825.1; Type=Frameshift; Evidence={ECO:0000305};
CC       Sequence=CAA68290.1; Type=Frameshift; Evidence={ECO:0000305};
CC       Sequence=CAA68290.1; Type=Miscellaneous discrepancy; Evidence={ECO:0000305};
CC   -!- WEB RESOURCE: Name=Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and
CC       Haematology;
CC       URL="http://atlasgeneticsoncology.org/Genes/ALDH2ID250.html";
DR   EMBL; X05409; CAA28990.1; -; mRNA.
DR   EMBL; Y00109; CAA68290.1; ALT_SEQ; mRNA.
DR   EMBL; M20456; AAA51693.1; -; Genomic_DNA.
DR   EMBL; M20444; AAA51693.1; JOINED; Genomic_DNA.
DR   EMBL; M20445; AAA51693.1; JOINED; Genomic_DNA.
DR   EMBL; M20446; AAA51693.1; JOINED; Genomic_DNA.
DR   EMBL; M20447; AAA51693.1; JOINED; Genomic_DNA.
DR   EMBL; M20448; AAA51693.1; JOINED; Genomic_DNA.
DR   EMBL; M20449; AAA51693.1; JOINED; Genomic_DNA.
DR   EMBL; M20450; AAA51693.1; JOINED; Genomic_DNA.
DR   EMBL; M20451; AAA51693.1; JOINED; Genomic_DNA.
DR   EMBL; M20452; AAA51693.1; JOINED; Genomic_DNA.
DR   EMBL; M20453; AAA51693.1; JOINED; Genomic_DNA.
DR   EMBL; M20454; AAA51693.1; JOINED; Genomic_DNA.
DR   EMBL; AY621070; AAT41621.1; -; mRNA.
DR   EMBL; CR456991; CAG33272.1; -; mRNA.
DR   EMBL; AK301375; BAG62916.1; -; mRNA.
DR   EMBL; AC002996; -; NOT_ANNOTATED_CDS; Genomic_DNA.
DR   EMBL; AC003029; -; NOT_ANNOTATED_CDS; Genomic_DNA.
DR   EMBL; BC002967; AAH02967.1; -; mRNA.
DR   EMBL; BC071839; AAH71839.1; -; mRNA.
DR   EMBL; K03001; AAB59500.1; -; mRNA.
DR   EMBL; M26760; AAA51694.1; -; mRNA.
DR   EMBL; M54931; AAA62825.1; ALT_FRAME; mRNA.
DR   CCDS; CCDS55885.1; -. [P05091-2]
DR   CCDS; CCDS9155.1; -. [P05091-1]
DR   PIR; A29975; DEHUE2.
DR   RefSeq; NP_000681.2; NM_000690.3. [P05091-1]
DR   RefSeq; NP_001191818.1; NM_001204889.1. [P05091-2]
DR   PDB; 1CW3; X-ray; 2.58 A; A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H=24-517.
DR   PDB; 1NZW; X-ray; 2.65 A; A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H=18-517.
DR   PDB; 1NZX; X-ray; 2.45 A; A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H=18-517.
DR   PDB; 1NZZ; X-ray; 2.45 A; A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H=18-517.
DR   PDB; 1O00; X-ray; 2.60 A; A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H=18-517.
DR   PDB; 1O01; X-ray; 2.15 A; A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H=18-517.
DR   PDB; 1O02; X-ray; 1.90 A; A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H=18-517.
DR   PDB; 1O04; X-ray; 1.42 A; A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H=18-517.
DR   PDB; 1O05; X-ray; 2.25 A; A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H=18-517.
DR   PDB; 1ZUM; X-ray; 2.10 A; A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H/I/J/K/L=18-517.
DR   PDB; 2ONM; X-ray; 2.50 A; A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H/I/J/K/L=18-517.
DR   PDB; 2ONN; X-ray; 2.75 A; A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H=18-517.
DR   PDB; 2ONO; X-ray; 2.15 A; A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H=18-517.
DR   PDB; 2ONP; X-ray; 2.00 A; A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H=18-517.
DR   PDB; 2VLE; X-ray; 2.40 A; A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H=24-517.
DR   PDB; 3INJ; X-ray; 1.69 A; A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H=18-517.
DR   PDB; 3INL; X-ray; 1.86 A; A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H=18-517.
DR   PDB; 3N80; X-ray; 1.50 A; A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H=18-517.
DR   PDB; 3N81; X-ray; 1.70 A; A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H=18-517.
DR   PDB; 3N82; X-ray; 2.25 A; A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H=18-517.
DR   PDB; 3N83; X-ray; 1.90 A; A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H=18-517.
DR   PDB; 3SZ9; X-ray; 2.10 A; A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H=18-517.
DR   PDB; 4FQF; X-ray; 2.28 A; A/B/C/D=18-517.
DR   PDB; 4FR8; X-ray; 2.20 A; A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H=18-517.
DR   PDB; 4KWF; X-ray; 2.31 A; A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H=24-517.
DR   PDB; 4KWG; X-ray; 2.10 A; A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H=24-517.
DR   PDB; 5L13; X-ray; 2.40 A; A/B/C/D/E/F/G/H=1-517.
DR   PDBsum; 1CW3; -.
DR   PDBsum; 1NZW; -.
DR   PDBsum; 1NZX; -.
DR   PDBsum; 1NZZ; -.
DR   PDBsum; 1O00; -.
DR   PDBsum; 1O01; -.
DR   PDBsum; 1O02; -.
DR   PDBsum; 1O04; -.
DR   PDBsum; 1O05; -.
DR   PDBsum; 1ZUM; -.
DR   PDBsum; 2ONM; -.
DR   PDBsum; 2ONN; -.
DR   PDBsum; 2ONO; -.
DR   PDBsum; 2ONP; -.
DR   PDBsum; 2VLE; -.
DR   PDBsum; 3INJ; -.
DR   PDBsum; 3INL; -.
DR   PDBsum; 3N80; -.
DR   PDBsum; 3N81; -.
DR   PDBsum; 3N82; -.
DR   PDBsum; 3N83; -.
DR   PDBsum; 3SZ9; -.
DR   PDBsum; 4FQF; -.
DR   PDBsum; 4FR8; -.
DR   PDBsum; 4KWF; -.
DR   PDBsum; 4KWG; -.
DR   PDBsum; 5L13; -.
DR   SMR; P05091; -.
DR   BioGrid; 106719; 56.
DR   DIP; DIP-40262N; -.
DR   IntAct; P05091; 42.
DR   MINT; P05091; -.
DR   STRING; 9606.ENSP00000261733; -.
DR   BindingDB; P05091; -.
DR   ChEMBL; CHEMBL1935; -.
DR   DrugBank; DB01612; Amyl Nitrite.
DR   DrugBank; DB06770; Benzyl alcohol.
DR   DrugBank; DB04381; Crotonaldehyde.
DR   DrugBank; DB02115; Daidzin.
DR   DrugBank; DB00822; Disulfiram.
DR   DrugBank; DB00536; Guanidine.
DR   DrugBank; DB00157; NADH.
DR   DrugBank; DB00435; Nitric Oxide.
DR   DrugBank; DB00727; Nitroglycerin.
DR   DrugBank; DB09117; Paraldehyde.
DR   DrugBank; DB06154; Pentaerythritol tetranitrate.
DR   DrugCentral; P05091; -.
DR   GuidetoPHARMACOLOGY; 2595; -.
DR   iPTMnet; P05091; -.
DR   PhosphoSitePlus; P05091; -.
DR   SwissPalm; P05091; -.
DR   BioMuta; ALDH2; -.
DR   DMDM; 118504; -.
DR   REPRODUCTION-2DPAGE; IPI00006663; -.
DR   REPRODUCTION-2DPAGE; P05091; -.
DR   UCD-2DPAGE; P05091; -.
DR   CPTAC; CPTAC-12; -.
DR   CPTAC; CPTAC-13; -.
DR   CPTAC; CPTAC-14; -.
DR   EPD; P05091; -.
DR   jPOST; P05091; -.
DR   MassIVE; P05091; -.
DR   MaxQB; P05091; -.
DR   PaxDb; P05091; -.
DR   PeptideAtlas; P05091; -.
DR   PRIDE; P05091; -.
DR   ProteomicsDB; 18413; -.
DR   ProteomicsDB; 51788; -. [P05091-1]
DR   DNASU; 217; -.
DR   Ensembl; ENST00000261733; ENSP00000261733; ENSG00000111275. [P05091-1]
DR   Ensembl; ENST00000416293; ENSP00000403349; ENSG00000111275. [P05091-2]
DR   GeneID; 217; -.
DR   KEGG; hsa:217; -.
DR   UCSC; uc001tst.4; human. [P05091-1]
DR   CTD; 217; -.
DR   DisGeNET; 217; -.
DR   GeneCards; ALDH2; -.
DR   HGNC; HGNC:404; ALDH2.
DR   HPA; HPA051065; -.
DR   MalaCards; ALDH2; -.
DR   MIM; 100650; gene+phenotype.
DR   MIM; 610251; phenotype.
DR   neXtProt; NX_P05091; -.
DR   OpenTargets; ENSG00000111275; -.
DR   PharmGKB; PA24696; -.
DR   eggNOG; KOG2450; Eukaryota.
DR   eggNOG; COG1012; LUCA.
DR   GeneTree; ENSGT00940000156240; -.
DR   HOGENOM; CLU_005391_0_1_1; -.
DR   InParanoid; P05091; -.
DR   KO; K00128; -.
DR   OMA; NYIVGGL; -.
DR   OrthoDB; 100626at2759; -.
DR   PhylomeDB; P05091; -.
DR   TreeFam; TF300455; -.
DR   BioCyc; MetaCyc:MONOMER66-302; -.
DR   BRENDA; 1.2.1.3; 2681.
DR   Reactome; R-HSA-380612; Metabolism of serotonin.
DR   Reactome; R-HSA-71384; Ethanol oxidation.
DR   SABIO-RK; P05091; -.
DR   UniPathway; UPA00780; UER00768.
DR   ChiTaRS; ALDH2; human.
DR   EvolutionaryTrace; P05091; -.
DR   GeneWiki; ALDH2; -.
DR   GenomeRNAi; 217; -.
DR   Pharos; P05091; Tclin.
DR   PRO; PR:P05091; -.
DR   Proteomes; UP000005640; Chromosome 12.
DR   RNAct; P05091; protein.
DR   Bgee; ENSG00000111275; Expressed in liver and 230 other tissues.
DR   ExpressionAtlas; P05091; baseline and differential.
DR   Genevisible; P05091; HS.
DR   GO; GO:0070062; C:extracellular exosome; HDA:UniProtKB.
DR   GO; GO:0005759; C:mitochondrial matrix; TAS:Reactome.
DR   GO; GO:0004029; F:aldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD+) activity; IDA:CACAO.
DR   GO; GO:0004030; F:aldehyde dehydrogenase [NAD(P)+] activity; TAS:ProtInc.
DR   GO; GO:0009055; F:electron transfer activity; TAS:UniProtKB.
DR   GO; GO:0043878; F:glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD+) (non-phosphorylating) activity; IEA:UniProtKB-EC.
DR   GO; GO:0051287; F:NAD binding; ISS:CAFA.
DR   GO; GO:0006066; P:alcohol metabolic process; TAS:ProtInc.
DR   GO; GO:0005975; P:carbohydrate metabolic process; TAS:ProtInc.
DR   GO; GO:0006068; P:ethanol catabolic process; IEA:UniProtKB-UniPathway.
DR   GO; GO:0006069; P:ethanol oxidation; TAS:Reactome.
DR   Gene3D; 3.40.309.10; -; 1.
DR   Gene3D; 3.40.605.10; -; 1.
DR   InterPro; IPR016161; Ald_DH/histidinol_DH.
DR   InterPro; IPR016163; Ald_DH_C.
DR   InterPro; IPR016160; Ald_DH_CS_CYS.
DR   InterPro; IPR029510; Ald_DH_CS_GLU.
DR   InterPro; IPR016162; Ald_DH_N.
DR   InterPro; IPR015590; Aldehyde_DH_dom.
DR   Pfam; PF00171; Aldedh; 1.
DR   SUPFAM; SSF53720; SSF53720; 1.
DR   PROSITE; PS00070; ALDEHYDE_DEHYDR_CYS; 1.
DR   PROSITE; PS00687; ALDEHYDE_DEHYDR_GLU; 1.
PE   1: Evidence at protein level;
KW   3D-structure; Acetylation; Alternative splicing; Direct protein sequencing;
KW   Mitochondrion; NAD; Oxidoreductase; Polymorphism; Reference proteome;
KW   Transit peptide.
FT   TRANSIT         1..17
FT                   /note="Mitochondrion"
FT   CHAIN           18..517
FT                   /note="Aldehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrial"
FT                   /id="PRO_0000007168"
FT   NP_BIND         262..267
FT                   /note="NAD"
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000250"
FT   ACT_SITE        285
FT                   /note="Proton acceptor"
FT   ACT_SITE        319
FT                   /note="Nucleophile"
FT   SITE            186
FT                   /note="Transition state stabilizer"
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P20000"
FT   MOD_RES         52
FT                   /note="N6-acetyllysine"
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P47738"
FT   MOD_RES         73
FT                   /note="N6-acetyllysine"
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P47738"
FT   MOD_RES         78
FT                   /note="N6-acetyllysine"
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P47738"
FT   MOD_RES         159
FT                   /note="N6-acetyllysine"
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P47738"
FT   MOD_RES         368
FT                   /note="N6-acetyllysine"
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P47738"
FT   MOD_RES         383
FT                   /note="N6-acetyllysine"
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P47738"
FT   MOD_RES         426
FT                   /note="N6-acetyllysine"
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P47738"
FT   MOD_RES         428
FT                   /note="N6-acetyllysine"
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P47738"
FT   MOD_RES         451
FT                   /note="N6-acetyllysine"
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000250|UniProtKB:P47738"
FT   VAR_SEQ         74..120
FT                   /note="Missing (in isoform 2)"
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000303|PubMed:14702039"
FT                   /id="VSP_046715"
FT   VARIANT         337
FT                   /note="E -> V (in dbSNP:rs1062136)"
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000269|PubMed:3610592"
FT                   /id="VAR_011869"
FT   VARIANT         496
FT                   /note="E -> K (in allele ALDH2*3; dbSNP:rs769724893)"
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000269|PubMed:8561277"
FT                   /id="VAR_011302"
FT   VARIANT         504
FT                   /note="E -> K (in allele ALDH2*2; drastic reduction of
FT                   enzyme activity; dbSNP:rs671)"
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000269|PubMed:6582480"
FT                   /id="VAR_002248"
FT   CONFLICT        7..12
FT                   /note="RFGPRL -> ARAPP (in Ref. 1; CAA28990)"
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000305"
FT   CONFLICT        18
FT                   /note="S -> A (in Ref. 10; AA sequence)"
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000305"
FT   CONFLICT        60
FT                   /note="S -> F (in Ref. 6; CAG33272)"
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000305"
FT   CONFLICT        80..85
FT                   /note="VKAARA -> REGRPG (in Ref. 1; CAA28990)"
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000305"
FT   CONFLICT        101
FT                   /note="R -> S (in Ref. 1; CAA28990)"
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000305"
FT   CONFLICT        116
FT                   /note="R -> Q (in Ref. 5; AAT41621)"
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000305"
FT   CONFLICT        216
FT                   /note="L -> S (in Ref. 15; AAA62825)"
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000305"
FT   CONFLICT        218
FT                   /note="A -> R (in Ref. 15; AAA62825)"
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000305"
FT   CONFLICT        247
FT                   /note="A -> P (in Ref. 15; AAA62825)"
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000305"
FT   CONFLICT        332
FT                   /note="Y -> C (in Ref. 7; BAG62916)"
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000305"
FT   CONFLICT        362
FT                   /note="V -> L (in Ref. 6; CAG33272)"
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000305"
FT   CONFLICT        380
FT                   /note="E -> Q (in Ref. 4; AAA51693)"
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000305"
FT   STRAND          38..41
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   STRAND          44..46
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   STRAND          53..57
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   TURN            59..61
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   STRAND          64..69
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   HELIX           73..86
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   HELIX           92..95
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   HELIX           98..114
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   HELIX           116..127
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   HELIX           131..136
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   HELIX           138..152
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   TURN            153..155
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   STRAND          158..161
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   STRAND          164..175
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   STRAND          178..182
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   STRAND          185..187
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   HELIX           188..201
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   STRAND          205..209
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   STRAND          212..214
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:4KWF"
FT   HELIX           216..228
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   STRAND          234..237
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   TURN            242..244
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   HELIX           245..250
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   STRAND          257..262
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   HELIX           264..276
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   STRAND          281..285
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   STRAND          290..294
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   HELIX           300..312
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   HELIX           313..316
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   STRAND          322..328
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   HELIX           329..345
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   HELIX           364..379
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   STRAND          383..386
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   STRAND          389..391
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:3INL"
FT   STRAND          393..396
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   STRAND          401..405
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   HELIX           411..414
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   STRAND          419..427
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   HELIX           430..438
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   STRAND          439..441
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:3INL"
FT   STRAND          444..449
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   HELIX           453..462
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   STRAND          465..471
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   STRAND          478..480
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:2ONO"
FT   HELIX           486..488
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   STRAND          489..491
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   HELIX           496..502
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
FT   STRAND          503..511
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000244|PDB:1O04"
SQ   SEQUENCE   517 AA;  56381 MW;  E8F74D44D285A00E CRC64;
     MLRAAARFGP RLGRRLLSAA ATQAVPAPNQ QPEVFCNQIF INNEWHDAVS RKTFPTVNPS
     TGEVICQVAE GDKEDVDKAV KAARAAFQLG SPWRRMDASH RGRLLNRLAD LIERDRTYLA
     ALETLDNGKP YVISYLVDLD MVLKCLRYYA GWADKYHGKT IPIDGDFFSY TRHEPVGVCG
     QIIPWNFPLL MQAWKLGPAL ATGNVVVMKV AEQTPLTALY VANLIKEAGF PPGVVNIVPG
     FGPTAGAAIA SHEDVDKVAF TGSTEIGRVI QVAAGSSNLK RVTLELGGKS PNIIMSDADM
     DWAVEQAHFA LFFNQGQCCC AGSRTFVQED IYDEFVERSV ARAKSRVVGN PFDSKTEQGP
     QVDETQFKKI LGYINTGKQE GAKLLCGGGI AADRGYFIQP TVFGDVQDGM TIAKEEIFGP
     VMQILKFKTI EEVVGRANNS TYGLAAAVFT KDLDKANYLS QALQAGTVWV NCYDVFGAQS
     PFGGYKMSGS GRELGEYGLQ AYTEVKTVTV KVPQKNS
//
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