Database: UniProt
Entry: VIF_HV2SB
Original site: VIF_HV2SB 
ID   VIF_HV2SB               Reviewed;         215 AA.
AC   P12452;
DT   01-OCT-1989, integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.
DT   01-OCT-1989, sequence version 1.
DT   02-DEC-2020, entry version 84.
DE   RecName: Full=Virion infectivity factor;
DE            Short=Vif;
DE   AltName: Full=Q protein;
DE   AltName: Full=SOR protein;
GN   Name=vif;
OS   Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 subtype A (isolate SBLISY) (HIV-2).
OC   Viruses; Riboviria; Pararnavirae; Artverviricota; Revtraviricetes;
OC   Ortervirales; Retroviridae; Orthoretrovirinae; Lentivirus.
OX   NCBI_TaxID=11718;
OH   NCBI_TaxID=9606; Homo sapiens (Human).
RN   [1]
RX   PubMed=2648404; DOI=10.1073/pnas.86.7.2433;
RA   Franchini G., Fargnoli K.A., Giombini F., Jagodzinski L.L., de Rossi A.,
RA   Bosch M., Biberfeld G., Fenyo A.M., Albert J., Gallo R.C., Wong-Staal F.;
RT   "Molecular and biological characterization of a replication competent human
RT   immunodeficiency type 2 (HIV-2) proviral clone.";
RL   Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86:2433-2437(1989).
CC   -!- FUNCTION: Counteracts the innate antiviral activity of APOBEC3G. Forms
CC       a complex with host APOBEC3G thus preventing the entry of this lethally
CC       hypermutating enzyme into progeny virions. Functions as an adapter
CC       molecule, recruiting APOBEC3G to the ubiquitin-proteasome machinery.
CC       Targets APOBEC3G for degradation through the assembly with elongin BC
CC       complex, CUL5 and RBX1. Binds viral RNA and affects the stability of
CC       viral nucleoprotein core. May play a role in viral morphology (By
CC       similarity). {ECO:0000250}.
CC   -!- SUBUNIT: Homomultimer; in vitro and presumably in vivo. Interacts with
CC       viral Pr55Gag precursor and human APOBEC3G. The interaction between Vif
CC       and APOBEC3G is species-specific, which may play a role in restricting
CC       the replication of HIV to humans. Forms an E3 ligase complex by
CC       interacting with human CUL5 and elongin BC complex (ELOB and ELOC) (By
CC       similarity). {ECO:0000250}.
CC   -!- SUBCELLULAR LOCATION: Host cytoplasm {ECO:0000250}. Host cell membrane
CC       {ECO:0000250}; Peripheral membrane protein {ECO:0000250}; Cytoplasmic
CC       side {ECO:0000250}. Virion {ECO:0000250}. Note=In the cytoplasm, seems
CC       to colocalize with intermediate filament vimentin. A fraction is
CC       associated with the cytoplasmic side of cellular membranes, presumably
CC       via the interaction with Pr55Gag precursor (By similarity).
CC       {ECO:0000250}.
CC   -!- INDUCTION: Expressed late during infection in a Rev-dependent manner.
CC   -!- DOMAIN: The BC-like-box motif mediates the interaction with elongin BC
CC       complex. {ECO:0000250}.
CC   -!- DOMAIN: The HCCH motif (H-x(5)-C-x(18)-C-x(5)-H) mediates the
CC       interaction with CUL5. {ECO:0000250}.
CC   -!- PTM: Processed in virion by the viral protease. {ECO:0000250}.
CC   -!- PTM: Highly phosphorylated on serine and threonine residues.
CC       {ECO:0000250}.
CC   -!- PTM: Polyubiquitinated and degraded by the proteasome in the presence
CC       of APOBEC3G. {ECO:0000250}.
CC   -!- MISCELLANEOUS: Required for replication in 'nonpermissive' cells,
CC       including primary T-cells, macrophages and certain T-cell lines, but is
CC       dispensable for replication in 'permissive' cell lines, such as 293T
CC       cells. In nonpermissive cells, Vif-defective viruses can produce
CC       virions, but they fail to complete reverse transcription and cannot
CC       successfully infect new cells.
CC   -!- MISCELLANEOUS: Vif-defective viruses show catastrophic failure in
CC       reverse transcription due to APOBEC-induced mutations that initiate a
CC       DNA base repair pathway and compromise the structural integrity of the
CC       ssDNA. In the absence of Vif, the virion is morphologically abnormal.
CC   -!- SIMILARITY: Belongs to the primate lentivirus group Vif protein family.
CC       {ECO:0000305}.
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DR   EMBL; J04498; AAB00747.1; -; Genomic_DNA.
DR   Proteomes; UP000007427; Genome.
DR   GO; GO:0030430; C:host cell cytoplasm; IEA:UniProtKB-SubCell.
DR   GO; GO:0020002; C:host cell plasma membrane; IEA:UniProtKB-SubCell.
DR   GO; GO:0016020; C:membrane; IEA:UniProtKB-KW.
DR   GO; GO:0019012; C:virion; IEA:UniProtKB-SubCell.
DR   GO; GO:0019058; P:viral life cycle; IEA:InterPro.
DR   InterPro; IPR000475; Vif.
DR   Pfam; PF00559; Vif; 1.
PE   2: Evidence at transcript level;
KW   AIDS; Host cell membrane; Host cytoplasm; Host membrane;
KW   Host-virus interaction; Membrane; Phosphoprotein; Ubl conjugation;
KW   Ubl conjugation pathway; Virion.
FT   CHAIN           1..215
FT                   /note="Virion infectivity factor"
FT                   /id="PRO_0000085322"
FT   REGION          154..167
FT                   /note="Multimerization"
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000250"
FT   MOTIF           110..141
FT                   /note="HCCH motif"
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000250"
FT   MOTIF           147..156
FT                   /note="BC-box-like motif"
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000250"
FT   MOD_RES         98
FT                   /note="Phosphothreonine; by host MAP4K1"
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000250"
FT   MOD_RES         147
FT                   /note="Phosphoserine; by host"
FT                   /evidence="ECO:0000250"
SQ   SEQUENCE   215 AA;  25242 MW;  A6FAAA618D69CAC0 CRC64;
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