KEGG   ENZYME: 1.1.1.219
Entry
EC 1.1.1.219                Enzyme                                 
Name
dihydroflavonol 4-reductase;
dihydrokaempferol 4-reductase;
dihydromyricetin reductase;
NADPH-dihydromyricetin reductase;
dihydroquercetin reductase;
DFR (gene name);
cis-3,4-leucopelargonidin:NADP+ 4-oxidoreductase;
dihydroflavanol 4-reductase (incorrect)
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Acting on the CH-OH group of donors;
With NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor
Sysname
(2R,3S,4S)-leucoanthocyanidin:NADP+ 4-oxidoreductase
Reaction(IUBMB)
a (2R,3S,4S)-leucoanthocyanidin + NADP+ = a (2R,3R)-dihydroflavonol + NADPH + H+ [RN:R11500]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
(2R,3S,4S)-leucoanthocyanidin [CPD:C21418];
NADP+ [CPD:C00006]
Product
(2R,3R)-dihydroflavonol [CPD:C21417];
NADPH [CPD:C00005];
H+ [CPD:C00080]
Comment
This plant enzyme, involved in the biosynthesis of anthocyanidins, is known to act on (+)-dihydrokaempferol, (+)-taxifolin, and (+)-dihydromyricetin, although some enzymes may act only on a subset of these compounds. Each dihydroflavonol is reduced to the corresponding cis-flavan-3,4-diol. NAD+ can act instead of NADP+, but more slowly.
History
EC 1.1.1.219 created 1989, modified 2016
Pathway
ec00941  Flavonoid biosynthesis
ec01100  Metabolic pathways
ec01110  Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
Orthology
K00091  dihydroflavonol-4-reductase
K13082  bifunctional dihydroflavonol 4-reductase/flavanone 4-reductase
Genes
ATHAT5G42800(DFR)
ALY9299065 9301555
CRB17877190
CSAT104725195 104760679 104771418
EUSEUTSA_v10003227mg
BRP103839279
BNA106403158 106447075 106448797
BOE106315758
RSZ108826061
THJ104801920
CPAP110820638
CIT102578060
CICCICLE_v10001757mg
PVY116119408
MINC123228680
TCC18591418 18610896
GRA105769058 105772697
GHI107905441 107935085 107938889 107957957
GAB108454128 108480324
DZI111312736 111315336 111315339
EGR104448776
GMX100778253 548087(DFR1) 732626(DFR2)
GSJ114384244 114391094 114392892
PVUPHAVU_001G012700g PHAVU_001G012800g PHAVU_007G246200g
VRA106763833 106764122 106770756 106770772 106771250
VAR108324448 108324922 108336257 108336367
VUN114191920 114193233 114193234 114193708
CCAJ109811985 109811998
APRC113845972 113846034
MTR25482168 25482169
CAM101491984 101492767
LJALj5g3v0108490.1(Lj5g3v0108490.1) Lj5g3v0108500.1(Lj5g3v0108500.1) Lj5g3v0108500.2(Lj5g3v0108500.2) Lj5g3v0108500.3(Lj5g3v0108500.3)
ADU107495990
AHF112697991 112697992 112756300 112756301
LANG109343177
RCN112173668
PPER18788884
PMUM103320869
PAVI110771557
PDUL117615194
MDM103440468 103450464
PXB103928717 103954960
ZJU107420289 107420293
MNT21384592 21404779
RCU8288959
JCU105633822 105633823 105633824 110008657
HBR110638079 110638080 110638081 110655218 110655234
MESC110605890 110615791 110615792
POP7454367 7471942
PEU105113121 105128763
PALZ118052800 118062127
JRE108991381
QSU111984642 111984643
QLO115974365 115974366
TWL119995119 120008961 120012083
VVI100233141(DFR) 100259090 100267635
VRI117905400 117906273 117906599
SLY544150
SPEN107010988
SOT102577487 102587107(DFR)
SSTN125846336
CANN107860031
NTA107797232(Dfr2) 107803097(Dfr1)
NSY104212411
NTO104112288
NAU109208181 109232046
INI109177611(DFR-A) 109177619(DFR-B) 109177620(DFR-C)
ITR115997971 115999112 115999903
SIND105165774
OEU111409594
EGT105965285
SSPL121768372 121769161
ECAD122602690
LSV111897350
CCAV112508614
DCR108216819 108220625 108222116 108222765 108222766 108224331 108224780
CSIN114263316 114299086 114299087 114306385
BVG104889670
SOE110794664
CQI110702165 110702205 110724547 110738821
NNU104589331 104589332 104590621 104601829
MING122070773 122070775 122075392 122076687 122086119 122086459 122094122
TSS122660095 122661531 122662474 122666599 122666608
PSOM113333459 113345760
NCOL116247360 116268364
DOSAOs01t0633500-00(Os01g0633500)
OBR102721875
BDI100845692
ATS109757643
TDC119268458 119276348
TAES100125685 123070190 123078633
TUA125544210
SBI8058202 8058203 8075972 8076097
ZMA100272982 100286107
SITA101769770
SVS117854796
PVIR120676859 120707535
PHAI112892049
PDA103712715
EGU105033295 105048473
MUS103979760 103981125 103982813
DCT110101655
PEQ110038738
AOF109843175
ATR18422615 18422618 18422620
FAUFraau_3210
DJAHY57_12660
DYEEO087_12880
DCSISN74_17635
DTLH8F01_19315
DTADYST_00505
AVNAvin_20730
AVLAvCA_20730
AVDAvCA6_20730
TTUTERTU_3244
MPADKEF85_05875
MESLKKZ03_12775
NOCNoc_0999
NHLNhal_2984
NWANwat_2036
NWRE3U44_12890
NTTTAO_1098
NTGNSCAC_0727(dfrA)
ACIIC4901_05380
ATYA9R16_011110
SALNSALB1_2152
RPJN234_32360
REHH16_B2168(h16_B2168)
CNCCNE_2c21530(dfrA)
CUHBJN34_33320
REUReut_B4897
RMERmet_4170
CTIRALTA_B1951
CBWRR42_s2390
CCUPBKK81_26470
CUPBKK80_29845
CUUBKK79_20495
CPAUEHF44_19165
COXE0W60_04435
CCAMM5D45_21450
BMABMAA1958
BMVBMASAVP1_0976
BMLBMA10229_1262
BMNBMA10247_A2237
BMALDM55_3834
BMAEDM78_4753
BMAQDM76_4531
BMAIDM57_06275
BMAFDM51_3641
BMAZBM44_3794
BMABBM45_4568
BPSBPSS2165
BPMBURPS1710b_A1280(hpnA)
BPLBURPS1106A_A2924
BPDBURPS668_A3049
BPSEBDL_5633
BPSMBBQ_3946
BPSUBBN_5652
BPSDBBX_4800
BPZBP1026B_II2330
BPQBPC006_II2878
BPKBBK_4938
BPSHDR55_5571
BPSABBU_3830
BPSOX996_5343
BUTX994_4891
BTEBTH_II2241
BTQBTQ_5529
BTJBTJ_4185
BTZBTL_4995
BTDBTI_4584
BTVBTHA_5227
BTHEBTN_4653
BTHMBTRA_4920
BTHADR62_4760
BTHLBG87_4985
BOKDM82_4152
BOCBG90_3874
BUUWS70_18155
BSAVWS86_19535
BHGI6G56_30185
BVIBcep1808_3713
BURBcep18194_B0109
BCMBcenmc03_4723
BCHBcen2424_5549
BCJBCAM2735
BCENDM39_5146
BCEWDM40_3320
BCEOI35_6621
BAMBamb_4873
BACBamMC406_5420
BMJBMULJ_05269
BMUBmul_3257
BMKDM80_4636
BMULNP80_3298
BCTGEM_5671
BCEDDM42_5249
BCEPAPZ15_24195
BDLAK34_3168
BPYRABD05_22035
BCONNL30_17550
BUBBW23_3932
BDFWI26_26250
BLATWK25_29185
BTEIWS51_10355
BSEMWJ12_33580
BPSLWS57_00730
BMECWJ16_32030
BSTGWT74_32410
BSTLBBJ41_27520
BANNJFN94_17795
BGLbglu_2g22140
BGUKS03_3703
BUGBC1001_4750
BGFBC1003_4514
BGDbgla_2g29050
BGOBM43_6644
BYIBYI23_B013890
BUKMYA_3346
BUEBRPE67_BCDS00850
BULBW21_4106
BUQAC233_26295
BGPBGL_2c28800(hpnA)
BPLAbpln_2g28820
BUDAQ610_20385
BUMAXG89_19135
BUIAX768_28910
BURKDM992_25330
BXEBxe_B0022
BXBDR64_5386
BPHBphy_4126
BGEBC1002_5072
BPXBUPH_01315
BPYBphyt_7040
BUZAYM40_35425
BFNOI25_5490
BCAIK788_0000698
PSPWBJG93_21610
PARABTO02_22325
PARBCJU94_28485
PHSC2L64_18430
PTERC2L65_16265
PGPCUJ91_29940
PCJCUJ87_28125
PTSCUJ90_23595
PCAFDSC91_003043
PMEGFNZ07_04800
PTROG5S35_20695
PGISI6I06_27975
PACPFAZ97_23660
PACSFAZ98_19060
PEWKZJ38_23970
PDIOPDMSB3_3354.1(dfrA)
BRHRBRH_03438
PPKU875_17005
PPNODA70_09075
PPNMLV28_21730
PRBX636_17415
PPULRO07_16120
PSPUNA29_21030
PAPISG18_00180
PVEUC34_07375
POXMB84_11715
PTXABW99_02805
PFGAB870_18070
PNRAT302_26685
PANDDRB87_06640
PFIBPI93_020465
PCOMNTU39_08390
CABASBC2_70250(auaH_2)
BUOBRPE64_BCDS00980
MANCIV454_19055
MFYHH212_18900
BBAGE1O_05350
NITNAL212_2369
NIINit79A3_1555
NCOAAW31_03945
NURATY38_00430
NMUNmul_A2281
NLCEBAPG3_014585
NIZNNRS527_02446
GSUGSU0687(hpnA)
GSKKN400_0661(hpnA)
GMEGmet_2821(hpnA)
GPIGPICK_04080
GBZJZM60_01930
GEMGM21_0884
GEBGM18_3440
GEFFO488_12195
GURGura_1019
GEOGeob_3663(hpnA)
GLOGlov_2234
GBMGbem_3361(hpnA)
GBNGEOBRER4_08480(hpnA)
GERKP004_03720
GSUBKP001_11690
GNTKP003_03540
GPLM1B72_17020
PPDPpro_1190
DSADesal_2362
DHYDESAM_23203(dfrA)
DEKDSLASN_17110(hpnA)
AFWAnae109_4084
AORYAMOR_12140(hpnA_2)
APAUAMPC_20810(hpnA_2) AMPC_36120
AVMJQX13_31295
PAUUE8A73_007830 E8A73_025805 E8A73_027450
DAODesac_0411
SFUSfum_0864
BBAEFRD01_17460
STARG3545_15505
MEAMex_1p1814
MDIMETDI2701
MEXMext_1940
MCHMchl_2216
MPOMpop_1831
MZAB2G69_17160
MRDMrad2831_5422
METM446_6351
MNOMnod_7142
MORMOC_5997
METAY590_09020
MAQUMaq22A_c25235(wcaG)
MPHYMCBMB27_04723
MEEDA075_06165
METDC0214_10775
METXA3862_03565
METSDK389_19275
METIDK427_24615
MMESMMSR116_24445
MTEADK419_25000
MINDmvi_55650
MOGMMB17_13730
MTADM6G65_20545
BIDBind_3152
MSLMsil_3239
MTUNMTUNDRAET4_2109(dfrA)
MLGCWB41_01825
HDNHden_0472
HDTHYPDE_24863
HMCHYPMC_3776
RHZRHPLAN_37710
MBRYB1812_14330
MROSEHO51_12825
MHEYH2LOC_010895
MPARF7D14_03200
MTWCQW49_00140
LIZLGH83_10455
CAULKCG34_23170
ZMOZMO0867
ZMNZa10_0425
ZMMZmob_0430
ZMBZZ6_0428
ZMIZCP4_0444
ZMCA265_00439
ZMRA254_00439
ZMPZymop_0398
NORFA702_05060
SPHMG432_09205
SPANAWL63_21295
SPHAD3Y57_13870
SARIH5J25_10665
SMORLHA26_09995
POQKZX46_17600
PMEAKTC28_15790
GOXGOX2253
GOHB932_2749
GOYGLS_c23960
GALA0U94_06135
GTIFXF46_13790
GSPIGS75_12730
GFAMKW11_14220
GBEGbCGDNIH1_1978
GBHGbCGDNIH2_1978
GBCGbCGDNIH3_1978
GBSGbCGDNIH4_1978
ACRAcry_0121
AMVACMV_01460
GDIGDI1625(dfrA)
GDJGdia_1830
GXYGLX_17380
GXLH845_3224
KNAB0W47_08895
KEUS101446_02254
KSCCD178_01164
KREGWK63_14340
APTAPA01_02000
APWAPA42C_02000
APFAPA03_02000
APUAPA07_02000
APGAPA12_02000
APQAPA22_02000
APXAPA26_02000
APZAPA32_02000
APKAPA386B_1688(dfrA)
ASZASN_2213(dfrA)
ASVWG31_01040
AACEA0U92_11700
APERA0U91_06950
APOMCPF11_06300
ATOCIW82_01565
AASCA4S02_11540
ACETDS739_01140
AOTAcetOri_orf02392
AOYEOV40_001065
ACEKFLP30_07025
ABGAsbog_02601(hpnA)
KBAA0U89_01790
RGIRGI145_09705
ROSCTJ15_07715
RMUCFOB66_09740
RMTIAI58_18570
NCHA0U93_07570
COQD9V35_08245
COMMGN303_08045
NTND5366_10570
NEHE3E11_07640
SSAME3D00_09640
SWFE3E12_06905
BOBGN304_03795
BOMBGT348_03320
EBLAJGUZn3_04130(auaH)
LCKHN018_00165
KHAIFJ82_01360
PARZDTQ13_08050
SRFLHU95_12760
RAPRHOA_2344(dfrA)
NAOY958_22695
RRURru_A0058
RRFF11_00295
RPMRSPPHO_02410
MAGamb1364
MAGXXM1_1987
MAGNWV31_17670
HTQFRZ44_32440
HADHFRZ61_15090
MAGQMGMAQ_1498
AFRAFE_2122
AFELferr_1781
ACUAtc_2238
ACZAcaty_c2078
AFIAcife_1272
AFJAFERRID_02560
ATXGCD22_00870(dfrA)
AFPK1Y48_00770
AACAaci_2444
AADTC41_2734
AACOK1I37_18760
PABSJIR001_12400
MSTOMSTO_53950
MSEOMSEO_00710
MHERK3U94_02810
MVMMJO54_02810
NPSKRR39_14815
PBROHOP40_04965
PARNNBH00_05775 NBH00_16585
SBAEDSM104329_03993(auaH_3) DSM104329_04524(auaH_4)
SYNslr1706(dfrA)
SYZMYO_16700(dfrA)
SYYSYNGTS_0664(dfrA)
SYTSYNGTI_0664(dfrA)
SYSSYNPCCN_0663(dfrA)
SYQSYNPCCP_0663(dfrA)
SYJD082_01900(dfrA)
SYOC7I86_03435
SYNESyn6312_3377
SYNPSyn7502_02008
AMRAM1_1585
WNAKA717_37735
TVNNIES2134_111790
SLWBRW62_04305
TELtlr1370
THNNK55_02315
THECFFX45_09215
LENLEP3755_03810
LBOLBWT_48430
KOVK9N68_25125
LSCKIK02_09830
LSKJ5X98_15045
GENGM3709_904
MPKVL20_1331
MIQB5D77_05605
CANCyan10605_1274
CYUUCYN_10050
CYTcce_2231(dfrA)
CWACwatDRAFT_4086
CYPPCC8801_2029
CYHCyan8802_2055
CYCPCC7424_3275
CYJCyan7822_0051
CYNCyan7425_5153
TERTery_3280
PAGHNIES204_17840
PPSUNO713_03029(dfrA)
MICMic7113_6078
MPROBJP34_13610
PHORJWS08_19530
PYHNEA10_14875
GVIglr1747
GLJGKIL_2057
GMLISF26_19080
ANAalr4268
NPUNpun_F5286
NOSNos7107_3777
NOPNos7524_0567
NONNOS3756_09000
NFLCOO91_01517
NOECLI64_08015
NSHGXM_03722
AVAAva_1218
ANBANA_C20332(hpnA)
ACYAnacy_0168
AWAAA650_03395
ANNEH233_20040
CSGCylst_2363
RSINB6N60_02734
CALOCal7507_4142
CALTCal6303_5149
CALNNIES2098_01200
FISFIS3754_04770
DOUBMF77_02898
DFSHGD76_21760
DHTNG743_10225
CCURIAR63_06210
CRKL3I90_15240
AFLOHEQ12_15720
TOQHCG51_00675
NCNBZZ01_05200
PLPPle7327_0595
SCSSta7437_2744
STANSTA3757_25960
CEOETSB_0279(dfrA)
CERRGRSB_0234(dfrA)
THUGKNN16_02930 KNN16_11905
PMETG4Y79_02345
CCZCCALI_00062
UAMUABAM_02401
LKBLPTSP3_g03350(hpnA)
ABAAcid345_1741
ACAACP_0818
ACMAciX9_1595
GMAAciX8_1349
GRWFTO74_09355
GRBGOB94_00730
TSAAciPR4_1988
TRSTerro_1973
TALBFTW19_15270
ABASACPOL_1268
EDAGWR55_04265
EDGH7846_10370
ADINH7849_03115
ORPMOP44_14980
SUSAcid_1261
PFERIRI77_14390
CTMCabther_B0616
CVLJ8C06_12430
CHLOJ8C02_11690
MCOSGM418_08950
NDENIDE0700
NMVNITMOv2_0575(dfrA)
NIONITINOP_0338(dfrA)
NJANSJP_1681(dfrA)
NKFNkreftii_003436
NIFW02_29230(dfrA)
LFCLFE_1759
LFILFML04_0860
LFPY981_03790
LEGABH19_09310
NLIG3M70_03330
BANABARAN1_1139(dfrA)
BIHBIP78_1399
MOXDAMO_0002(dfrA)
 » show all
Reference
1  [PMID:24241054]
  Authors
Heller W, Forkmann G, Britsch L, Grisebach H
  Title
Enzymatic reduction of (+)-dihydroflavonols to flavan-3,4-cis-diols with flower extracts from Matthiola incana and its role in anthocyanin biosynthesis.
  Journal
Planta 165:284-7 (1985)
DOI:10.1007/BF00395052
Reference
2  [PMID:16664326]
  Authors
Stafford HA, Lester HH.
  Title
Flavan-3-ol Biosynthesis : The Conversion of (+)-Dihydromyricetin to Its Flavan-3,4-Diol (Leucodelphinidin) and to (+)-Gallocatechin by Reductases Extracted from Tissue Cultures of Ginkgo biloba and Pseudotsuga menziesii.
  Journal
Plant Physiol 78:791-794 (1985)
DOI:10.1104/pp.78.4.791
Reference
3  [PMID:3293532]
  Authors
Fischer D, Stich K, Britsch L, Grisebach H
  Title
Purification and characterization of (+)dihydroflavonol (3-hydroxyflavanone) 4-reductase from flowers of Dahlia variabilis.
  Journal
Arch Biochem Biophys 264:40-7 (1988)
DOI:10.1016/0003-9861(88)90567-X
Reference
4  [PMID:21701830]
  Authors
Li H, Qiu J, Chen F, Lv X, Fu C, Zhao D, Hua X, Zhao Q
  Title
Molecular characterization and expression analysis of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) gene in Saussurea medusa.
  Journal
Mol Biol Rep 39:2991-9 (2012)
DOI:10.1007/s11033-011-1061-2
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 1.1.1.219
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 1.1.1.219
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 1.1.1.219
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 1.1.1.219
CAS: 83682-99-9

DBGET integrated database retrieval system