KEGG   ENZYME: 1.1.99.1
Entry
EC 1.1.99.1                 Enzyme                                 
Name
choline dehydrogenase;
choline oxidase;
choline-cytochrome c reductase;
choline:(acceptor) oxidoreductase;
choline:(acceptor) 1-oxidoreductase
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Acting on the CH-OH group of donors;
With unknown physiological acceptors
Sysname
choline:acceptor 1-oxidoreductase
Reaction(IUBMB)
choline + acceptor = betaine aldehyde + reduced acceptor [RN:R01025]
Reaction(KEGG)
R01025
Substrate
choline [CPD:C00114];
acceptor [CPD:C00028]
Product
betaine aldehyde [CPD:C00576];
reduced acceptor [CPD:C00030]
Comment
A quinoprotein. In many bacteria, plants and animals, the osmoprotectant betaine is synthesized using different enzymes to catalyse the conversion of (1) choline into betaine aldehyde and (2) betaine aldehyde into betaine. In plants, the first reaction is catalysed by EC 1.14.15.7, choline monooxygenase, whereas in animals and many bacteria, it is catalysed by either membrane-bound choline dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.99.1) or soluble choline oxidase (EC 1.1.3.17) [4]. The enzyme involved in the second step, EC 1.2.1.8, betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase, appears to be the same in plants, animals and bacteria.
History
EC 1.1.99.1 created 1961, modified 1989, modified 2005
Pathway
ec00260  Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
ec01100  Metabolic pathways
Orthology
K00108  choline dehydrogenase
Genes
HSA55349(CHDH)
PTR460450(CHDH)
PPS100974785(CHDH)
GGO101141843(CHDH)
PON100450440(CHDH)
NLE100592033(CHDH)
MCC693805(CHDH)
MCF102140074(CHDH)
MTHB126948786
CSAB103227767(CHDH)
CATY105585591(CHDH)
PANU101001365(CHDH)
TGE112618468(CHDH)
RRO104672387(CHDH)
RBB108515200(CHDH)
TFN117083005(CHDH)
PTEH111524371(CHDH)
CJC100398783(CHDH)
SBQ101042824(CHDH)
CSYR103257200(CHDH)
MMUR105875076(CHDH)
LCAT123623165(CHDH)
OGA100954819(CHDH)
MMU218865(Chdh)
MCAL110309494(Chdh)
MPAH110325976(Chdh)
RNO290551(Chdh)
MCOC116084338(Chdh)
MUN110547561(Chdh)
CGE100772204(Chdh)
MAUA101838507(Chdh)
PLEU114686205(Chdh) 114705405
MORG121455302(Chdh)
MFOT126511171
AAMP119827244(Chdh)
NGI103749026(Chdh)
HGL101716121(Chdh)
CPOC100725002(Chdh)
CCAN109674815(Chdh)
DORD105996611(Chdh)
DSP122107995(Chdh)
NCAR124968360
OCU100350567(CHDH)
OPI101524306(CHDH)
TUP102482117(CHDH)
CFA484723(CHDH)
CLUD112665921(CHDH)
VVP112908630(CHDH)
VLG121494866(CHDH)
AML100466948(CHDH)
UMR103674737
UAH113256982(CHDH)
UAR123798765(CHDH)
ELK111143739
LLV125078715
MPUF101693589(CHDH)
ORO101383233(CHDH)
EJU114225093(CHDH)
ZCA113916798(CHDH)
MLX118006051(CHDH)
NSU110584805(CHDH)
FCA101089175(CHDH)
PYU121016839(CHDH)
PBG122487334(CHDH)
LRUF124524432
PTG102958076(CHDH)
PPAD109247931(CHDH)
AJU106987035(CHDH)
HHV120239389(CHDH)
BTA505218(CHDH)
BOM102276474(CHDH)
BIU109576192(CHDH)
BBUB102406236(CHDH)
CHX102174168(CHDH)
OAS101106116(CHDH)
ODA120868394(CHDH)
CCAD122424657(CHDH)
SSC100151982(CHDH)
CFR102505452(CHDH)
CBAI105079586
CDK105093165(CHDH)
VPC102528908(CHDH)
BACU103001642(CHDH)
LVE103075217(CHDH)
OOR101277500(CHDH)
DLE111174279(CHDH)
PCAD102980443(CHDH)
PSIU116762725(CHDH)
ECB100059455(CHDH)
EPZ103560750(CHDH)
EAI106822064(CHDH)
MYB102258336(CHDH)
MYD102762687(CHDH)
MMYO118667977(CHDH)
MLF102432547(CHDH)
MNA107534946(CHDH)
PKL118715122(CHDH)
HAI109395945(CHDH)
DRO112301161(CHDH)
SHON118983347(CHDH)
AJM119041389(CHDH)
PDIC114502007(CHDH)
PHAS123814580(CHDH)
MMF118633101(CHDH)
RFQ117036786(CHDH)
PALE102891951(CHDH)
PGIG120606302(CHDH)
PVP105304343(CHDH)
RAY107516537(CHDH)
MJV108402357(CHDH)
TOD119261393(CHDH)
SARA101546045(CHDH)
LAV100659707(CHDH)
TMU101357842
DNM101445053(CHDH)
MDO100014408(CHDH)
GAS123251839(CHDH)
SHR100919229(CHDH)
PCW110197050(CHDH)
OAA100077337(CHDH)
GGA415993(CHDH)
PCOC116239632(CHDH)
MGP100544352(CHDH)
CJO107319875(CHDH)
NMEL110404745(CHDH)
APLA101802751(CHDH)
ACYG106048940(CHDH)
AFUL116493206(CHDH)
TGU100224032(CHDH)
LSR110472557(CHDH)
SCAN103816993(CHDH)
PMOA120495712(CHDH)
OTC121347352(CHDH)
PRUF121352022(CHDH)
GFR102035340(CHDH)
FAB101821674(CHDH)
PHI102103125(CHDH)
PMAJ107210295(CHDH)
CCAE111935127(CHDH)
CCW104683259(CHDH)
CBRC103614293(CHDH)
ETL114058667(CHDH)
ZAB102062168(CHDH)
ACHL103802710(CHDH)
FPG101911446(CHDH)
FCH102053842(CHDH)
CLV102089905(CHDH)
EGZ104126730(CHDH)
NNI104010824(CHDH)
PLET104614230(CHDH)
PCRI104025382(CHDH)
PCAO104047041(CHDH)
ACUN113484826(CHDH)
TALA104357869(CHDH)
PADL103925488(CHDH)
AFOR103903297(CHDH)
ACHC115353736(CHDH)
HALD104317326(CHDH)
CCRI104161552(CHDH)
CSTI104561668(CHDH)
EHS104514233(CHDH)
CMAC104482545(CHDH)
MUI104536755(CHDH)
FGA104070802(CHDH)
GSTE104264661(CHDH)
LDI104342481(CHDH)
MNB103780750(CHDH)
OHA104338431(CHDH)
NNT104405059(CHDH)
DPUB104309358(CHDH)
PGUU104458223(CHDH)
ACAR104521459(CHDH)
AVIT104270140(CHDH)
CVF104282801(CHDH)
CUCA104066717(CHDH)
AAM106488620(CHDH)
AROW112971441(CHDH)
NPD112953129(CHDH)
TGT104580697(CHDH)
DNE112984735(CHDH)
SCAM104152728(CHDH)
ASN102369972(CHDH)
AMJ102576586(CHDH)
CPOO109311326(CHDH)
GGN109289108(CHDH)
PSS102447520(CHDH)
CMY102934056(CHDH)
CPIC101952673(CHDH)
TST117880442(CHDH)
CABI116833082(CHDH)
MRV120409126(CHDH)
ACS100563914(chdh)
PVT110084508(CHDH)
SUND121922565(CHDH)
PBI103055218(CHDH)
PMUR107287673(CHDH)
CTIG120315893 120315894
TSR106544408(CHDH)
PGUT117677163(CHDH)
VKO123034174(CHDH)
PMUA114591685(CHDH)
ZVI118080705(CHDH)
GJA107116834(CHDH)
STOW125428066(CHDH)
XLA108704026(chdh.L)
XTR116410481(chdh)
NPR108786051(CHDH)
BBUF120979494(CHDH)
BGAR122943425(CHDH)
DRE100331020(chdh)
SRX107711786 107730636
SANH107678343
SGH107594972(chdh)
CAUA113107803(chdh)
PPRM120481125(chdh)
MAMB125280516(chdh)
IPU108265456(chdh)
PHYP113533247(chdh)
SMEO124399901(chdh)
TFD113655975(chdh)
AMEX103039657(chdh)
EEE113580449(chdh)
TRU101067005(chdh)
TNGGSTEN00022584G001
LCO104926932(chdh)
NCC104966554(chdh)
ELY117258178(chdh)
EFO125891152(chdh)
PLEP121946663(chdh)
SLUC116040627(chdh)
ECRA117947515(chdh)
ESP116692932(chdh)
PFLV114559455(chdh)
GAT120829873(chdh)
PPUG119222221(chdh)
MSAM119905704(chdh)
CUD121517889(chdh)
ALAT119023271(chdh)
MZE101475567(chdh)
ONL100711832(chdh)
OAU116324675(chdh)
OLA101161152(chdh)
OML112159384(chdh)
XMA102234684(chdh)
XCO114148243(chdh)
XHE116725107(chdh)
PRET103468014(chdh)
PFOR103156029(chdh)
PLAI106939512(chdh)
PMEI106905037(chdh)
GAF122830275 122840164
CVG107086681(chdh)
CTUL119789231(chdh)
GMU124869366(chdh)
NFU107390581(chdh)
KMR108236777(chdh)
ALIM106513072(chdh)
NWH119417106(chdh)
AOCE111584411(chdh)
MCEP124998995(chdh)
CSEM103384979(chdh)
POV109630733(chdh)
SSEN122776618(chdh)
HHIP117765096(chdh)
HSP118111330(chdh)
LCF108891652
SDU111220515(chdh)
SLAL111670676(chdh)
XGL120803821(chdh)
HCQ109517778(chdh)
BPEC110174714(chdh)
MALB109969133(chdh)
BSPL114859480(chdh)
SASA106571975(chdh)
STRU115166218(chdh)
OTW112215829(chdh)
OMY110532065(chdh)
OGO124031759(chdh)
ONE115131955(chdh)
SALP111966268(chdh)
SNH120059462(chdh)
CCLU121538135(chdh)
ELS105025281(chdh)
SFM108925566(chdh)
PKI111833379(chdh)
AANG118208115(chdh)
LOC102694289(chdh)
PSPA121298472 121328247
ARUT117411968 117971355
LCM102355562(CHDH)
CMK103185069(chdh)
RTP109934292
BFO118411304 118417035
BBEL109466814 109480468
CIN100183857
SCLV120327694 120337910 120337924 120338198
SPU587688 589191 591798 591835
APLC110978694
SKO100366344
DGR6565252
DAZ108619299
DNV108656495
DHE111591878
MDE101887202 101889541
LCQ111684127
CQUCpipJ_CPIJ017019
AME726236
BIM100741911
BTER100644055 100644129
CCAL108625032
OBB114880673 114880828
SOC105200919
MPHA105831892 105838063 105838656
AEC105147850
ACEP105625568
PBAR105432543
VEM105561871 105562286 105565223
HST105188204
DQU106746191 106750733
CFO105257222
FEX115233006
LHU105669988
PGC109852286 109856662 109859839
OBO105278498
PCF106784072
PFUC122519691
VPS122630492
NVI100120791 100120817 100120924 107981588
TCA656781
DPA109543349
BMOR101735405 101736392 101741114
BMAN114241059 114241119 114241400 114252877 114252878 114252881 114252882
PMAC106709870
ZCE119836258
HAW110370922 110371492
TNL113492200 113503158
API100158867
AGS114125863 114131861
RMD113554565 113560546
BTAB109034483
DCI103514945
CLEC106673970
FOC113216295
FCD110857143 110857391 110857673 110859613 110861019
PVM113814830 113818181
PJA122243196
PCHN125034621
HAME121858037 121858794 121865995
PCLA123759459
PTRU123504944
HAZT108672069
EAF111702573
LSM121121642
DSV119437444 119444220 119449156
RSAN119386962 119391876 119399582
RMP119159804 119178320
CSCU111635024
PTEP107453228
CELCELE_C34C6.4(chdh-1)
CBRCBG_11120
BMYBM_BM2560(Bm2560)
LOALOAG_03547
NAINECAME_17480
HROHELRODRAFT_183667 HELRODRAFT_183668 HELRODRAFT_91842 HELRODRAFT_91852
LGILOTGIDRAFT_179199
PCAN112576604
BGT106070106
GAE121388457 121391242
HRF124113340
HRJ124262239
CRG105337749 105339123
MYI110458447
PMAX117337447 117338018 117338019 117338087 117338208 117338611
MMER123525544 123548319
OBI106867067 106882133
OSN115221456 115221457 115221581
LAK106178838
SMMSmp_094500 Smp_212180
SHXMS3_00002892 MS3_00003572
OVIT265_01605
NVE5510553
EPA110234114 110237353 110239488 110239490 110239508 110239509 110239510 110249474
ATEN116297991 116306577
ADF107341977
AMIL114958518
PDAM113669249 113669254 113669255
SPIS111322997 111322998 111322999
DGT114535944 114544769
HMG100200022 100206241 100215517
MBRMONBRDRAFT_34269
ACANACA1_060710
SMINv1.2.024813.t1(symbB.v1.2.024813.t1)
NGDNGA_0429100
PIFPITG_02954 PITG_02961 PITG_02968 PITG_15033 PITG_21308
PSOJPHYSODRAFT_284485 PHYSODRAFT_313518 PHYSODRAFT_471041 PHYSODRAFT_473674
SPARSPRG_00793
TBRTb10.70.7840
TBGTbgDal_X430
NGRNAEGRDRAFT_74589
ECOb0311(betA)
ECJJW0303(betA)
ECDECDH10B_0298(betA)
ECOKECMDS42_0234(betA)
ECEZ0398(betA)
ECSECs_0357(betA)
ECFECH74115_0373(betA)
ETWECSP_0366(betA)
ELXCDCO157_0348
EOIECO111_0345(betA)
EOJECO26_0345(betA)
EOHECO103_0288(betA)
ECOOECRM13514_0541(betA)
ECOHECRM13516_0287(betA)
ESLO3K_19945
ESOO3O_05355
ESMO3M_19925
ECKEC55989_0313(betA)
ECGE2348C_0273(betA)
EOKG2583_0415(betA)
ELRECO55CA74_01975
ELHETEC_0367
ECWEcE24377A_0326(betA)
EUNUMNK88_358(betA)
ECPECP_0386
ENAECNA114_0302(betA)
ECOSEC958_0463(betA)
ECVAPECO1_1679(betA)
ECOAAPECO78_05080
ECXEcHS_A0370(betA)
ECMEcSMS35_0342(betA)
ECYECSE_0332
ECRECIAI1_0308(betA)
EUMECUMN_0349(betA)
ECTECIAI39_0375(betA)
EOCCE10_0276(betA)
EBRECB_00267(betA)
EBLECD_00267(betA)
EBEB21_00270(betA)
EBDECBD_3347
ECIUTI89_C0340(betA)
EIHECOK1_0305(betA)
ECZECS88_0319(betA)
ECCc0431(betA)
ELOEC042_0344(betA)
ELNNRG857_01525
ESEECSF_0289
ECLEcolC_3312
EKOEKO11_3534
EKFKO11_22045(betA)
EABECABU_c04070(betA)
EDHEcDH1_3295
EDJECDH1ME8569_0299(betA)
ELUUM146_15745
ELWECW_m0385(betA)
ELLWFL_01890(betA)
ELCi14_0416(betA)
ELDi02_0416(betA)
ELPP12B_c0330(betA)
ELFLF82_0219(betA)
ECOIECOPMV1_00314(betA)
SFVSFV_0322(betA)
SHQA0259_05225
ENCECL_03123
ENLA3UG_05915
ECLGEC036_11390
ECLEECNIH2_06570
ECLNECNIH4_16710
ECLIECNIH5_05700
ECLXLI66_05575
ECLYLI62_06480
ECLZLI64_06085
EHMAB284_19320
EXFBFV63_05700
ECLAECNIH3_05710
ECLCECR091_05690
EAUDI57_12920
EKBBFV64_05625
ENOECENHK_05990
EECEcWSU1_01153(betA)
ELGBH714_01880
ECANCWI88_16555(betA)
ERNBFV67_05400
ECLSLI67_006670
ECHGFY206_06980(betA)
ESHC1N69_05755(betA)
ENRH650_21670
ENXNI40_005445
LNICWR52_06545(betA)
EBGFAI37_00820(betA)
ENDA4308_09695
ENZG0034_05740(betA)
ENSHWQ15_14180(betA)
ENKLOC22_16445(betA)
EHUD5067_0016970(betA)
EMORL6Y89_05615(betA)
ENBELK40_06330(betA)
ESAESA_02049
CSKES15_2205
CSZCSSP291_09715
CSJCSK29544_03339
CCONAFK62_08800
CDMAFK67_08920
CSIP262_03185
CMJAFK66_010765
CUIAFK65_08795
CMWAFK63_09710
CTUCTU_19200(betA)
KPNKPN_00584
KPUKP1_1528(betA)
KPMKPHS_14150
KPPA79E_3657
KPHKPNIH24_21715
KPZKPNIH27_06560
KPVKPNIH29_07250
KPWKPNIH30_07285
KPYKPNIH31_07165
KPGKPNIH32_07390
KPCKPNIH10_07075
KPQKPR0928_06985
KPTVK055_1953(betA)
KPOKPN2242_05770
KPRKPR_3975(betA)
KPJN559_3743
KPID364_03065
KPAKPNJ1_04001
KPSKPNJ2_04045
KPXPMK1_02911(betA)
KPBFH42_23945
KPNEKU54_019370
KPNULI86_19195
KPNKBN49_1638(betA)
KVAKvar_3785
KPEKPK_3995(betA)
KPKA593_17370
KVDKR75_14830
KVQSP68_21460
KOXKOX_13810
KOEA225_1581
KOYJ415_23730
KMIVW41_11350
KOKKONIH1_07760
KOCAB185_28360
KQUAVR78_11575
EAEEAE_13515
EARCCG31269
KLLBJF97_08145
KARLGL98_18400(betA)
KGRJJJ10_20415(betA)
RORRORB6_12150
RPLNB1209_19850
RAODSD31_08845 DSD31_18700(betA)
CKOCKO_02584
CSEDJY391_15510(betA)
CAMAF384_02490
CAFAL524_19795(betA)
CFARCI104_07185(betA)
CIRC2U53_16400(betA)
CTELGBC03_23100(betA)
CNTJT31_00970
CEMLH23_17000
CENLH86_15980
CLAPNCTC11466_02246(betA)
PGELG71_22060
KSAC813_08810
KCOBWI95_02770
KOTEH164_19485(betA)
KPSEIP581_06095(betA)
KOBHF650_03315(betA)
LPNUKQ929_15385(betA)
LAZA8A57_05825
BUFD8682_12395(betA)
BFTMNO13_21145(betA)
IZHFEM41_17925(betA)
PSGCG163CM_25970(betA)
EBFD782_3547
EBUCUC76_08495(betA)
YPEYPO1165(betA)
YPAYPA_1073
YPNYPN_2836
YPMYP_0994(betA)
YPPYPDSF_2532
YPZYPZ3_1055(betA)
YPTA1122_19710
YPDYPD4_1014(betA)
YPXYPD8_1113(betA)
YPWCH59_679(betA)
YPJCH55_3926(betA)
YPVBZ15_2392(betA)
YPLCH46_3967(betA)
YPSYPTB1195(betA)
YPOBZ17_1332(betA)
YPIYpsIP31758_2831(betA)
YPYYPK_2917
YPBYPTS_1275
YPQDJ40_1046(betA)
YPUBZ21_458(betA)
YPRBZ20_797(betA)
YPCBZ23_789(betA)
YPFBZ19_593(betA)
YSIBF17_14875
SMARSM39_0957(betA)
SMACSMDB11_0785(betA)
SMWSMWW4_v1c14960(betA)
SPESpro_1515
SRRSerAS9_1486
SRLSOD_c13940(betA)
SRYM621_07735
SPLYQ5A_007570(betA)
SRSSerAS12_1486
SRASerAS13_1487
SMAFD781_1433
SLQM495_07140
SERFL085_20980
SERSSERRSCBI_07105
SRZAXX16_3659
SERASer39006_016970(betA)
SERQCWC46_16970(betA)
SERMCLM71_06995(betA)
SQUE4343_08570(betA)
SFJSAMEA4384070_1557(betA)
SOFNCTC11214_05409(betA)
SSURATE40_004295
SURIJ0X03_16240(betA)
SRHZFO014_02850(betA)
SENPKHA73_07775(betA)
SFOZ042_24805
RAHRahaq_1390
RACEJHW33_01410(betA)
RAQRahaq2_1449
RAAQ7S_06710
RVCJ9880_14885(betA)
GQUAWC35_04565
EAMEGXP68_14120(betA)
RBADH2866_14285(betA)
ECAECA1746(betA)
PATREV46_08345
PATOGZ59_28560(betA)
PCTPC1_2554
PCCPCC21_026590
PCVBCS7_12800
PPOABJK05_08065
PBRAB5S52_08590
PPUJE2566_13260(betA)
PARII2D83_13610(betA)
PVZOA04_16870(betA)
PPAVLOZ86_08805(betA)
PPOOLW347_12975(betA)
DDDDda3937_03411(betA)
DSOA4U42_01130
CEDLH89_20980
DFNCVE23_14010(betA)
DICDpoa569_001469(betA)
BRBEH207_06980(betA)
EAMEAMY_1715(betA)
EAYEAM_1687(betA)
ETAETA_17810(betA)
EPYEpC_18720(betA)
EPREPYR_02018(betA)
EBIEbC_19420(betA)
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TPROGa0080559_TMP2121 Ga0080559_TMP4890
PABYGa0080574_TMP1128 Ga0080574_TMP3570
SUAMBOO69_05095
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ROMEI983_05625(betA) EI983_11800
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RHPLPB142_06190
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TXITH3_10835
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SEPPSEB_02168
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SHASH0429(betA)
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SDTSPSE_0241(betA)
SDPNCTC12225_00291(betA_1) NCTC12225_00292(betA_2)
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Reference
1
  Authors
Ameyama, M., Shinagawa, E., Matsuchita, K., Takimoto, K., Nakashima, K. and Adachi, O.
  Title
Mammalian choline dehydrogenase is a quinoprotein.
  Journal
Agric Biol Chem 49:3623-3626 (1985)
Reference
2  [PMID:13249959]
  Authors
EBISUZAKI K, WILLIAMS JN Jr.
  Title
Preparation and partial purification of soluble choline dehydrogenase from liver mitochondria.
  Journal
Biochem J 60:644-6 (1955)
DOI:10.1042/bj0600644
Reference
3  [PMID:12676692]
  Authors
Gadda G, McAllister-Wilkins EE.
  Title
Cloning, expression, and purification of choline dehydrogenase from the moderate halophile Halomonas elongata.
  Journal
Appl Environ Microbiol 69:2126-32 (2003)
DOI:10.1128/AEM.69.4.2126-2132.2003
Reference
4  [PMID:12466265]
  Authors
Waditee R, Tanaka Y, Aoki K, Hibino T, Jikuya H, Takano J, Takabe T, Takabe T
  Title
Isolation and functional characterization of N-methyltransferases that catalyze betaine synthesis from glycine in a halotolerant photosynthetic organism Aphanothece halophytica.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 278:4932-42 (2003)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M210970200
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 1.1.99.1
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 1.1.99.1
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 1.1.99.1
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 1.1.99.1
CAS: 9028-67-5

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