KEGG   ENZYME: 1.13.11.63
Entry
EC 1.13.11.63               Enzyme                                 
Name
beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase;
blh (gene name);
BCO1 (gene name);
BCDO (gene name);
carotene dioxygenase;
carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase;
BCMO1 (misleading);
beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase (incorrect)
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Acting on single donors with incorporation of molecular oxygen (oxygenases);
With incorporation of two atoms of oxygen
Sysname
beta-carotene:oxygen 15,15'-dioxygenase (bond-cleaving)
Reaction(IUBMB)
beta-carotene + O2 = 2 all-trans-retinal [RN:R00032]
Reaction(KEGG)
R00032
Substrate
beta-carotene [CPD:C02094];
O2 [CPD:C00007]
Product
all-trans-retinal [CPD:C00376]
Comment
Requires Fe2+. The enzyme cleaves beta-carotene symmetrically, producing two molecules of all-trans-retinal. Both atoms of the oxygen molecule are incorporated into the products [8]. The enzyme can also process beta-cryptoxanthin, 8'-apo-beta-carotenal, 4'-apo-beta-carotenal, alpha-carotene and gamma-carotene in decreasing order. The presence of at least one unsubstituted beta-ionone ring in a substrate greater than C(30) is mandatory [5]. A prokaryotic enzyme has been reported from the uncultured marine bacterium 66A03, where it is involved in the proteorhodopsin system, which uses retinal as its chromophore [6,7].
History
EC 1.13.11.63 created 2012 (EC 1.14.99.36 created 1972 as EC 1.13.11.21, transferred 2001 to EC 1.14.99.36, incorporated 2015), modified 2016
Pathway
ec00830  Retinol metabolism
ec01100  Metabolic pathways
Orthology
K00515  beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase
K21817  beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase
Genes
HSA53630(BCO1)
PTR468043(BCO1)
PPS100987572(BCO1)
GGO101132534(BCO1)
PON100454129(BCO1)
NLE100603806(BCO1)
MCC721412(BCO1)
MCF102121880(BCO1)
MTHB126943967
CSAB103233367(BCO1)
CATY105598677(BCO1)
PANU101002112(BCO1)
TGE112614365(BCO1)
RRO104671629(BCO1)
RBB108539495(BCO1)
TFN117088107(BCO1)
PTEH111552571(BCO1)
CJC100393264(BCO1)
SBQ101032680(BCO1)
CSYR103267375(BCO1)
MMUR105861200(BCO1)
LCAT123625067(BCO1)
OGA100950108(BCO1)
MMU63857(Bco1)
MCAL110299974(Bco1)
MPAH110337549(Bco1)
RNO114106(Bco1)
MCOC116068084(Bco1)
MUN110549590(Bco1)
CGE100760350(Bco1)
MAUA101840370(Bco1)
PLEU114697444(Bco1)
MORG121447173(Bco1)
MFOT126502803
AAMP119801968(Bco1)
NGI103732128(Bco1)
HGL101724039(Bco1)
CPOC100729027(Bco1)
CCAN109696646(Bco1)
DORD105983036(Bco1)
DSP122126224(Bco1)
NCAR124967580
OCU100358087
OPI101525901(BCO1)
TUP102484616(BCO1)
GVR103591523(BCMO1)
CFA489695(BCO1)
CLUD112646713(BCO1)
VVP112911898(BCO1)
VLG121499453(BCO1)
AML100483748(BCO1)
UMR103662084(BCO1)
UAH113252529(BCO1)
UAR123791342(BCO1)
ELK111152742
LLV125088686
MPUF101673476(BCO1)
ORO101377344(BCO1)
EJU114199568(BCO1)
ZCA113935462(BCO1)
MLX118023539(BCO1)
NSU110594207(BCO1)
FCA101101606(BCO1)
PYU121009842(BCO1)
PBG122494509(BCO1)
LRUF124511918
PTG102959940(BCO1)
PPAD109245649(BCO1)
AJU106984030(BCO1)
HHV120228696(BCO1)
BTA534696(BCO1)
BOM102266127(BCO1)
BIU109572100(BCO1)
BBUB102398086(BCO1)
BBIS104996513(BCO1)
CHX102179507(BCO1)
OAS101121875(BCO1)
ODA120872886(BCO1)
CCAD122420994(BCO1)
SSC100192320(BCO1)
CFR102513983(BCO1)
CBAI105078898(BCO1)
CDK105089436(BCO1)
VPC102540155(BCO1)
BACU103015035(BCO1)
LVE103072015(BCO1)
OOR101285979(BCO1)
DLE111179470(BCO1)
PSIU116744768(BCO1)
ECB100069873(BCO1)
EPZ103554670(BCO1)
EAI106833126(BCO1)
MYB102263079(BCO1)
MYD102771959(BCO1)
MMYO118671234 118674813(BCO1)
MLF102421551(BCO1)
MNA107525354(BCO1)
PKL118721002(BCO1)
HAI109378342(BCO1)
DRO112300657(BCO1)
SHON118981179(BCO1)
AJM119047106(BCO1)
PDIC114488398(BCO1)
PHAS123805926(BCO1)
MMF118639288(BCO1)
RFQ117035481(BCO1)
PALE102897588(BCO1)
PGIG120622974(BCO1)
PVP105289864(BCO1)
RAY107521326(BCO1)
MJV108396466(BCO1)
TOD119249114(BCO1)
SARA101554888(BCO1)
TMU101341485
ETF101645209(BCO1)
DNM101437188(BCO1)
MDO100031779(BCO1)
GAS123233493(BCO1)
SHR100920512(BCO1)
PCW110212705(BCO1)
OAA103171493(BCO1)
GGA395346(BCO1)
PCOC116243585(BCO1)
MGP100549225(BCO1)
CJO107319380(BCO1)
NMEL110404561(BCO1)
APLA101798614(BCO1)
ACYG106033290(BCO1)
AFUL116493884(BCO1)
TGU100228904(BCO1)
LSR110476344(BCO1)
SCAN103816726(BCO1)
PMOA120508107(BCO1)
OTC121333966(BCO1)
PRUF121348928(BCO1)
GFR102040064(BCO1)
FAB101812113(BCO1)
PHI102103988(BCO1)
PMAJ107209839(BCO1)
CCAE111934459(BCO1)
CCW104691821(BCO1)
CBRC103620112(BCO1)
ETL114070262(BCO1)
ZAB102064471(BCO1)
FPG101914506(BCO1)
FCH102058462(BCO1)
CLV102086476(BCO1)
EGZ104133740(BCO1)
NNI104014550(BCO1)
PLET104619754(BCO1)
PCRI104037861(BCO1)
PCAO104048413(BCO1)
ACUN113484299(BCO1)
TALA104361474(BCO1)
PADL103923863(BCO1)
AFOR103897309(BCO1)
ACHC115346282(BCO1)
HALD104323278(BCO1)
HLE104839388(BCO1)
AGEN126041246
GCL127021148
CCRI104165425(BCO1)
CSTI104553962(BCO1)
EHS104516647(BCO1)
CMAC104473010(BCO1)
MUI104534068(BCO1)
FGA104070117(BCO1)
GSTE104256550(BCO1)
LDI104343421(BCO1)
MNB103772739(BCO1)
OHA104339195(BCO1)
NNT104411150(BCO1)
DPUB104300821(BCO1)
PGUU104468503(BCO1)
ACAR104523219(BCO1)
CPEA104396356(BCO1)
AVIT104276920(BCO1)
CVF104291184(BCO1)
CUCA104059378(BCO1)
TEO104383740(BCO1)
BRHI104490101(BCO1)
AAM106483349(BCO1)
AROW112962937(BCO1)
NPD112949903(BCO1)
TGT104568725(BCO1)
DNE112978848(BCO1)
SCAM104149342(BCO1)
ASN102378066(BCO1)
AMJ102573601(BCO1)
CPOO109310648(BCO1)
GGN109289320(BCO1)
PSS102455966(BCO1)
CMY102929893(BCO1)
CPIC101934984(BCO1)
TST117886728(BCO1)
CABI116819129(BCO1)
MRV120384255(BCO1)
ACS100563614(bco1)
PVT110085493(BCO1)
SUND121914241(BCO1)
VKO123025444(BCO1)
PMUA114601938(BCO1)
ZVI118087078(BCO1)
GJA107105786(BCO1)
STOW125443273(BCO1)
XLA108714030(bco1.L)
XTR100486582(bco1)
NPR108786164(BCO1)
RTEM120917687(BCO1)
BBUF120980552(BCO1)
BGAR122920589(BCO1)
DRE393580(bco1l) 84039(bco1)
SRX107727089 107727092 107730091
SANH107654342 107654352 107686809
SGH107562788 107562794 107584731 107584751
CCAR109107540 109110467 109110468 109110982
CAUA113051774 113106487 113106488
PPRM120492593(bco1) 120492750(bco1l)
MAMB125265772(bco1l) 125265773(bco1)
IPU108271003(bco1) 108271004(bco1l)
PHYP113536683 113536734
SMEO124391287(bco1l) 124391288(bco1)
TFD113646642(bco1l) 113646782(bco1)
AMEX103036396 103036998
EEE113577944 113577951
TRU101076274(bco1) 101078539
TNGGSTEN00007677G001 GSTEN00012538G001
LCO104925853 104935641
NCC104958616(bco1)
CGOB115004956 115025671
ELY117249967(bco1l) 117264319(bco1)
EFO125881481(bco1) 125884830(bco1l)
PLEP121960359(bco1) 121962989(bco1l)
SLUC116051093(bco1) 116055636(bco1l)
ECRA117937666(bco1)
ESP116672117(bco1)
PFLV114549355(bco1) 114551246
GAT120811631(bco1) 120814859(bco1l)
PPUG119198765(bco1) 119220406(bco1l)
MSAM119904985(bco1l) 119908238(bco1)
CUD121506263(bco1l) 121527513(bco1)
ALAT119008343(bco1) 119015125(bco1l)
MZE101482784 101486459
ONL100692880 100706968
OAU116316701(bco1l) 116328308(bco1)
OLA100125487 100125495
OML112151052(bco1) 112156770(bco1l)
XMA102218318 102234994
XCO114137167 114140569
XHE116711965 116715674
PRET103457901 103482517(bco1)
PFOR103155608(bco1)
PLAI106958929(bco1)
PMEI106932827(bco1)
GAF122824343(bco1) 122827072(bco1l)
CVG107093921 107097534
CTUL119771609(bco1l) 119784619(bco1)
GMU124858258(bco1) 124861460(bco1l)
NFU107383014 107384617
KMR108244032(bco1) 108246824(bco1l)
ALIM106517577 106529014
NWH119426267(bco1) 119428916(bco1l)
AOCE111586032 111589149
MCEP124995733(bco1) 125000656(bco1l)
CSEM103376919 103389784
POV109629652 109647352
SSEN122759699(bco1l) 122768293(bco1)
HHIP117754152(bco1) 117773410(bco1l)
HSP118098640(bco1) 118103635(bco1l)
LCF108873195 108883998(bco1)
SDU111237286 111240064
SLAL111646867 111662996
XGL120790011(bco1) 120797958(bco1l)
HCQ109510418 109530150
BPEC110161019(bco1) 110164025
MALB109955625 109963704
BSPL114852864(bco1) 114865931(bco1l)
SASA101448034(bcmo1) 101448035 106562095
STRU115167281 115167282
OTW112249158 112249159 112263687
OMY110506506 110526385 110526946(bco1)
OGO124033772 124033773(bco1) 124035751
ONE115112228 115112229 115112230
SALP111969357 111969360 112068646
SNH120025028 120046805 120046840
CCLU121555741 121555743 121556361 121559480
ELS105009385 105009410
SFM108926275 108934555
PKI111833019(bco1) 111833024
AANG118227562(bco1) 118228527(bco1l)
LOC102689435 102696484
PSPA121296499(bco1l) 121326205(bco1)
ARUT117424349(bco1l) 117425608(bco1)
PSEX120535467(bco1l) 120535468
LCM102362963(BCO1)
CMK103175958
RTP109916528(bco1)
BFO118405416 118405420 118409706 118412454 118425838 118430335
BBEL109465708 109471927 109480033
CIN778841(bco)
SCLV120348520
SPU591892
APLC110986645 110986662
BCOO119069541
HHAL106681006
FCD110846545 110846938 110847115 110852649
PJA122242565 122256722
PCHN125046915
HAME121860386
PTRU123504625 123505767 123505907 123509946
HAZT108667193
LSM121113504 121114102 121114104 121117655 121117825 121117914 121118101 121118198 121118435 121119625 121119626 121120559 121120616 121122055 121126346 121126375 121126376 121126378 121126379 121126380 121126381 121126382 121126416 121128363 121128393 121128394 121128395 121131005 121131006 121131698 121131699 121131800
PPOI119095839 119095906
DSV119442737 119442747 119442761 119442768 119448967
RSAN119383762 119394830 119395194
RMP119161033 119178121
SDM118193732
NAINECAME_15663
LGILOTGIDRAFT_167306 LOTGIDRAFT_175541 LOTGIDRAFT_195993 LOTGIDRAFT_209535
PCAN112574255
BGT106056055
HRF124127802 124136145 124136147 124136226
HRJ124274827 124284641 124284642 124284668
CRG105321989 109619332 117690758
MYI110456893 110462741
PMAX117326864 117327756 117338088 117338261 117338502 117344162 117344260 117344880
MMER123546756
EPA110233465
ATEN116297854
GTTGUITHDRAFT_118319
PAMPANA_1898
PLFPANA5342_2296
PAJPAJ_1228
PAQPAGR_g2209
PVAPvag_1853
PEYEE896_07445
PDISD8B20_19485
VHAVIBHAR_02165
VCAM892_02500
PMAICF386_07920
PORAPT59_18960
PPSLBJP27_10835
MBSMRBBS_2788(blh)
MPQABA45_08860 ABA45_13165
GNIGNIT_0397
GPSC427_1920
HJABST95_01490
AFUSEYZ66_11085
LHALHA_1128
LGTE4T54_11430
LANTTUM19329_07900
FPTBZ13_1936
FPMLA56_173
FPZLA55_706
FPJLA02_1759
FRTF7308_1637
FHACDV26_03535
FRCKX01_1812
FMIF0R74_01890
TCYThicy_1504
SSALSPISAL_04630 SPISAL_04965
SPIUSPICUR_05390
SROSBBH56_04725
SPIZGJ672_05090
KUSB9G99_08295
KMAB9H00_06615
SALNSALB1_1269
NBACUN60_05475
PVACHC248_03361(blh_2)
VAAAX767_17620
MBACBN1209_0334
MBATBN1208_0602
SMULSMUL_1186
SHALSHALO_1176
SULSSdiek1_1252
SULJSJPD1_1205
SULTFA592_12225
ABUAbu_0438
ABTABED_0413
ABLA7H1H_0441
ACREACRYA_0570
AELLAELL_0594
ADZADFLV_0590
ARCABLL_0583
PACOAACT_0703
APAIAPAC_0479
HEBRAEBR_3045
MDIMETDI1925
MCHMchl_1482
MZAB2G69_13880
METM446_0536
MAQUMaq22A_1p32950
MMESMMSR116_06350
MTEADK419_23825
MINDmvi_44840
MTADM6G65_25305
LIZLGH83_10610
OATOAN307_c45390
OAROA238_c48300
SSANNX02_06035
SPAUDRN02_011400
SPHRBSY17_1104
POQKZX46_01835
PMEAKTC28_20505
ANHA6F65_02464
EGNBMF35_b0120
POTE2E27_08100
ABGAsbog_01119(blh)
LCKHN018_01610
PUBSAR11_0123
PELSAR11G3_00688
PEGE5R92_05675
APCHIMB59_00004220
APMHIMB5_00001280
APBSAR116_2131
MRFMJO55_25675
MMAGMMAD_28640
MPSCMPSYJ_12920
RPLAA4Z71_06455
AQGHRU87_05270
CUGC1N91_16245
PSAIC3B54_11887
MALKMalAC0309_0248
MANTBHD05_05645
GLNF1C58_11220
NAQUENKNEFLB_02147
GOBGobs_1772
PLANA1s21148_02090
PLAKA1s21155_01950
PSUFA1sIA56_01840
PVSA1sIA79_01705
RXYRxyl_2039
RUBGBA63_13005
RMARGBA65_04425
DEZDKM44_03960
DEINDAAJ005_04430
DPHEHF33_03845
TTLTtJL18_1347
TOSTheos_1452
TAQTO73_1641
TIMGMBLW1_12210
IPAIsop_3504
PHMPSMK_04480
SRUSRU_0742(brp) SRU_2210
SRMSRM_00919(brp) SRM_02436
HHYHalhy_1746
PEJFYC62_03975
ALMAO498_12735
MDAIPZ59_15070
SLISlin_1644
RSIRunsl_0236
RUNDR864_24190
FIBA6C57_11670
HYEAM218_05110
HYPA0257_12995 A0257_17635
HYZAXW84_04905
HNVDDQ68_20730
HQIH9L05_17065
HRSHER32_02330
MTTFtrac_2394
FPFDCC35_13955
FBTD770_15435
FUVJR347_00595
MAREEJ994_09040
KDIKrodi_2219
DOKMED134_07114(blh)
DDOI597_1807
DODDCS32_00600
SPONHME9304_00763
PTQP700755_000150
NDODDD_0295
NOMAAT17_12000
NSDBST91_06760
NOBCW736_07965
NOJEJ995_00755
POMMED152_12849(blh)
WINWPG_3400
WIJBWZ20_14700
SYISB49_08600
FORFORMB_24820
FOHFORMA_17840
KOSKORDIASMS9_04160
MUREQY75_09985
CAGGHYG79_12445
BBAUAEM51_06095
CPRVCYPRO_0401
HALVNG_1465G(brp) VNG_2136G(blh)
HSLOE_3102R(brp) OE_3980R(blh)
HHBHhub_3440(blh)
HAGSJT689_07280 JT689_09935
HABOJRZ79_05710 JRZ79_08315
HLULT972_00770
HANRLJ422_05960 LJ422_08585
HALXM0R89_09860
HAXZM0R88_10080
SAIMK0C01_06250 K0C01_07125
HARAAArcS_2587 AArcS_2786
HMArrnAC1901(brp) rrnAC2066(blh)
HHIHAH_2414(brp) HAH_2561(blh)
HHNHISP_12290 HISP_13030
HABSG26_04605 SG26_05300
HTABVU17_11745 BVU17_12385
HALJG9465_06230 G9465_06635
HSINKDQ40_00565 KDQ40_01360
NPHNP_0206A(brp) NP_0650A(blh)
NMONmlp_1292(blh) Nmlp_3577(brp)
HUTHuta_0319 Huta_1440
HTIHTIA_0506 HTIA_1600
HALAHrd1104_00340 Hrd1104_03710
HMUHmuk_1285 Hmuk_1685
HALZE5139_09590 E5139_11550
HALLLC1Hm_0499
HAZPGBQ70_09585 GBQ70_11545
HSNDV733_07115 DV733_09840
HDSHSR122_0173 HSR122_2589
HRRHZS55_01685
HPELHZS54_02175
HLTI7X12_05355 I7X12_10570
SSAIN0B31_16915 N0B31_19500
HWAHQ_1019A(blh) HQ_1864A(brp)
HWCHqrw_1021(blh) Hqrw_2002(brp)
HAQDU484_04385
HAJDU500_04860
HAERDU502_02365
HRAEI982_09635 EI982_11175
HLMDV707_02690
HLAHlac_2732
HALPDOS48_12490 DOS48_13600
HALBEKH57_08315 EKH57_10900
HEZZEO776_04180 EO776_15185
HALQHrr1229_003125 Hrr1229_006995
HSSJ7656_01740 J7656_12680
HSAIHPS36_03025 HPS36_07240
HAZZKI388_01665 KI388_13165
SRUBC2R22_20235
HAEhalTADL_3129
HRMK6T25_06255 K6T25_12715
HACBHbl1158_11745 Hbl1158_16015
HDFAArcSl_2784(blh) AArcSl_2791(blh2)
HLOJ0X27_12460
HXAHalxa_3251
NATNJ7G_2814
NPENatpe_0344
NPLFGF80_05455
HALYHYG82_10755
HJTDVR14_11035
NGENatgr_0246
HLCCHINAEXTREME13545 CHINAEXTREME13555
NAJB1756_10770
NAGAArcMg_0473 AArcMg_0575
NANAArc1_0484 AArc1_0587
NBGDV706_12805
 » show all
Reference
1  [PMID:5946623]
  Authors
Goodman DS, Huang HS, Shiratori T.
  Title
Mechanism of the biosynthesis of vitamin A from beta-carotene.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 241:1929-32 (1966)
Reference
2
  Authors
Goodman, D.S., Huang, H.S., Kanai, M. and Shiratori, T.
  Title
The enzymatic conversion of all-trans beta-carotene into retinal.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 242:3543-3554 (1967)
Reference
3  [PMID:11401432]
  Authors
Yan W, Jang GF, Haeseleer F, Esumi N, Chang J, Kerrigan M, Campochiaro M, Campochiaro P, Palczewski K, Zack DJ
  Title
Cloning and characterization of a human beta,beta-carotene-15,15'-dioxygenase that is highly expressed in the retinal pigment epithelium.
  Journal
Genomics 72:193-202 (2001)
DOI:10.1006/geno.2000.6476
  Sequence
[hsa:53630] [mmu:63857]
Reference
4  [PMID:11458349]
  Authors
Leuenberger MG, Engeloch-Jarret C, Woggon WD.
  Title
The Reaction Mechanism of the Enzyme-Catalyzed Central Cleavage of beta-Carotene  to Retinal This research was supported by F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG and the Swiss National Science Foundation. We are grateful to F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG for a generous gift of carotenoids and Dr. Claus Bornemann for preliminary experiments.
  Journal
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 40:2613-2617 (2001)
DOI:10.1002/1521-3773(20010716)40:14<2613::AID-ANIE2613>3.0.CO;2-Z
Reference
5  [PMID:18979213]
  Authors
Kim YS, Oh DK
  Title
Substrate specificity of a recombinant chicken beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase that converts beta-carotene into retinal.
  Journal
Biotechnol Lett 31:403-8 (2009)
DOI:10.1007/s10529-008-9873-4
Reference
6  [PMID:19366683]
  Authors
Kim YS, Kim NH, Yeom SJ, Kim SW, Oh DK
  Title
In vitro characterization of a recombinant Blh protein from an uncultured marine bacterium as a beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 284:15781-93 (2009)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M109.002618
  Sequence
Reference
7  [PMID:20229064]
  Authors
Kim YS, Park CS, Oh DK
  Title
Retinal production from beta-carotene by beta-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase from an unculturable marine bacterium.
  Journal
Biotechnol Lett 32:957-61 (2010)
DOI:10.1007/s10529-010-0239-3
  Sequence
Reference
8  [PMID:24668807]
  Authors
dela Sena C, Riedl KM, Narayanasamy S, Curley RW Jr, Schwartz SJ, Harrison EH
  Title
The human enzyme that converts dietary provitamin A carotenoids to vitamin A is a dioxygenase.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 289:13661-6 (2014)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.557710
  Sequence
[hsa:53630]
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 1.13.11.63
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 1.13.11.63
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 1.13.11.63
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 1.13.11.63

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