crocetin dialdehyde synthase;
Acting on single donors with incorporation of molecular oxygen (oxygenases);
With incorporation of two atoms of oxygen
zeaxanthin:oxygen 7',8'-oxidoreductase (bond-cleaving)
zeaxanthin + 2 O2 = crocetin dialdehyde + 2 3beta-hydroxy-beta-cyclocitral (overall reaction) [RN:
(1a) zeaxanthin + O2 = 3beta-hydroxy-8'-apo-beta-carotenal + 3beta-hydroxy-beta-cyclocitral [RN:
(1b) 3beta-hydroxy-8'-apo-beta-carotenal + O2 = crocetin dialdehyde + 3beta-hydroxy-beta-cyclocitral [RN:
crocetin dialdehyde [CPD:
The enzyme, characterized from the plant Crocus sativus (saffron), acts twice, cleaving 3beta-hydroxy-beta-cyclocitral off each 3-hydroxy end group. It is part of the zeaxanthin degradation pathway in that plant, leading to the different compounds that impart the color, flavor and aroma of the saffron spice. The enzyme can similarly cleave the 7-8 double bond of other carotenoids with a 3-hydroxy-beta-carotenoid end group.
EC 220.127.116.11 created 2011 as EC 18.104.22.168, modified 2014, transferred 2017 to EC 22.214.171.124
ec00999 Biosynthesis of various plant secondary metabolites
ec01110 Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
K22458 crocetin dialdehyde synthase
Frusciante S, Diretto G, Bruno M, Ferrante P, Pietrella M, Prado-Cabrero A, Rubio-Moraga A, Beyer P, Gomez-Gomez L, Al-Babili S, Giuliano G
Novel carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase catalyzes the first dedicated step in saffron crocin biosynthesis.
Ahrazem O, Rubio-Moraga A, Berman J, Capell T, Christou P, Zhu C, Gomez-Gomez L
The carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase CCD2 catalysing the synthesis of crocetin in spring crocuses and saffron is a plastidial enzyme.
Ahrazem O, Diretto G, Argandona J, Rubio-Moraga A, Julve JM, Orzaez D, Granell A, Gomez-Gomez L
Evolutionarily distinct carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases are responsible for crocetin production in Buddleja davidii.