Acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen;
With reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen into the other donor
The reaction sequence starts with the incorporation of a molecule of oxygen into reduced FMN bound to the enzyme, forming luciferase peroxyflavin. The peroxyflavin interacts with an aliphatic long-chain aldehyde, producing a highly fluorescent species believed to be luciferase hydroxyflavin. The enzyme is highly specific for reduced FMN and for long-chain aliphatic aldehydes with eight carbons or more. The highest efficiency is achieved with tetradecanal. cf. EC 18.104.22.168, dinoflagellate luciferase.