KEGG   ENZYME: 1.14.15.21
Entry
EC 1.14.15.21               Enzyme                                 
Name
zeaxanthin epoxidase;
Zea-epoxidase
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen;
With reduced iron-sulfur protein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen into the other donor
Sysname
zeaxanthin,reduced ferredoxin:oxygen oxidoreductase
Reaction(IUBMB)
zeaxanthin + 4 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 4 H+ + 2 O2 = violaxanthin + 4 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H2O (overall reaction) [RN:R10070];
(1a) zeaxanthin + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H+ + O2 = antheraxanthin + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H2O [RN:R06946];
(1b) antheraxanthin + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H+ + O2 = violaxanthin + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H2O [RN:R06947]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
zeaxanthin [CPD:C06098];
reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster [CPD:C00138];
H+ [CPD:C00080];
O2 [CPD:C00007];
antheraxanthin [CPD:C08579]
Product
violaxanthin [CPD:C08614];
oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster [CPD:C00139];
H2O [CPD:C00001];
antheraxanthin [CPD:C08579]
Comment
A flavoprotein (FAD) that is active under conditions of low light. Along with EC 1.23.5.1, violaxanthin de-epoxidase, this enzyme forms part of the xanthophyll (or violaxanthin) cycle, which is involved in protecting the plant against damage by excess light. It will also epoxidize lutein in some higher-plant species.
History
EC 1.14.15.21 created 2005 as EC 1.14.13.90, transferred 2016 to EC 1.14.15.21
Pathway
ec00906  Carotenoid biosynthesis
ec01100  Metabolic pathways
ec01110  Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
Orthology
K09838  zeaxanthin epoxidase
Genes
ATHAT5G67030(ABA1)
ALY9301107
CRB17874727
CSAT104727329 104762863
EUSEUTSA_v10003769mg
BRP103829545 103837729 117126611
BNA106358361 106390346 111210027
BOE106306069 106319391
RSZ108813450 108828240
THJ104819235 104827149
CPAP110814468
CIT102577984 102619293
CICCICLE_v10025089mg CICLE_v10027323mg
PVY116112416 116133203
MINC123199364
TCC18611131
GRA105803918
GHI107897837 107913245
GAB108463934
DZI111292629 111299980
EGR104418568 104418569
GMX100778602 100800186(ZEP) 100820171
GSJ114377089 114393093 114404121
PVUPHAVU_002G018700g PHAVU_003G243800g PHAVU_011G214600g
VRA106755462 106755730 106755821 106768400 106776942
VAR108323517 108335973
VUN114170043 114173829 114178865
CCAJ109787680 109801086 109817357 109817363
APRC113852544 113857682 113868826
MTR11408584 11419279 120577445
CAM101492490 101503567
LJALj0g3v0062999.1(Lj0g3v0062999.1) Lj2g3v1874610.1(Lj2g3v1874610.1)
ADU107479906 107487794
AIP107626771 107642776
AHF112720473 112748652 112798600 112800583
LANG109332775 109348163 109363245
FVE101306850
RCN112187551
PPER18770963 18787006 18787624
PMUM103330551 103339888 107881084
PAVI110752502 110765909 110771233
PDUL117617273 117618697 117634023
MDM103401379 103403091 103414285 103438489
PXB103935128 103937745 103945929 103947190 103956812
ZJU107424800
MNT21394338
CSV101212903(ZEP)
CMO103497391(ZEP)
BHJ120088239
MCHA111017923
CMAX111499585
CMOS111451383
CPEP111795247
RCU8262901 8289205
JCU105639709 105650340
HBR110662928 110669315
MESC110625192 110630126
POP18094985 7462609 7489733
PEU105109333 105112019 105138970
PALZ118045617 118045708 118047855
JRE109009082
QSU111988546 112035747
QLO115952579 115984217 115986353 115994403
TWL120014403
VVI100232944(ZEP) 100257960
VRI117918878 117927500
SLY544162(ZEP)
SPEN107011108
SOT102592281(ZEP)
SSTN125848750
CANN107860302
NTA107763949 107797654(ABA2)
NSY104218557
NTO104104310
NAU109209776
INI109189028(ZEP1) 109189029
ITR116020015
SIND105161901 105168657 105168669 105177618
OEU111383342
EGT105955898 105969527 105972925
SSPL121762282 121777711
HAN110895635 110937288
ECAD122593863 122609961
LSV111885712 111917120
CCAV112512572 112526755
DCR108196307 108216832
CSIN114270560 114312109
BVG104883753
SOE110777504
CQI110682308 110717340
NNU104597550 104606289
MING122079657
TSS122643843 122661356
PSOM113324401 113346654 113356850
NCOL116245964 116259094
OSA4335984
DOSAOs04t0448900-00(Os04g0448900)
OBR102712906
BDI100835175
ATS109743907
TDC119355295 119364429
TAES123045605 123053443 542878
TUA125529059
SBI110436123
ZMA100285076 103641704
SITA101780465 101781949
SVS117863401
PVIR120641165 120680516
PHAI112899746
PDA103712512
EGU105058237
MUS103992210
DCT110097029
PEQ110037253 110039065
AOF109844541
ATR18432804 18439793
SMOSELMODRAFT_172667(Zep1-1) SELMODRAFT_234460(Zep1-2)
PPP112281448 112289573
CRECHLRE_02g082550v5
VCNVOLCADRAFT_75879
CSLCOCSUDRAFT_42814
CVRCHLNCDRAFT_138731(ZEP)
APROF751_2668
OLUOSTLU_1611(ZEP)
OTAOT_ostta02g02500 OT_ostta16g00670
BPGBathy07g04390 Bathy14g02700
MISMICPUN_82567(ZEP1)
MPPMICPUCDRAFT_19991(ZEP1) MICPUCDRAFT_24859(ZEP2)
SMINv1.2.016478.t1(symbB.v1.2.016478.t1) v1.2.016479.t1(symbB.v1.2.016479.t1) v1.2.019826.t1(symbB.v1.2.019826.t1)
PTIPHATRDRAFT_45845(ZEP1) PHATRDRAFT_56488(ZEP2) PHATRDRAFT_56492(ZEP3)
FCYFRACYDRAFT_208380(ZEP_3) FRACYDRAFT_232148(ZEP_1) FRACYDRAFT_260743(ZEP_2)
TPSTHAPSDRAFT_261390 THAPSDRAFT_270370
AAFAURANDRAFT_31758 AURANDRAFT_71741
EHXEMIHUDRAFT_440259 EMIHUDRAFT_444553 EMIHUDRAFT_456674 EMIHUDRAFT_457120 EMIHUDRAFT_462793
GTTGUITHDRAFT_159412(ZEP)
 » show all
Reference
1  [PMID:8521963]
  Authors
Buch K, Stransky H, Hager A.
  Title
FAD is a further essential cofactor of the NAD(P)H and O2-dependent zeaxanthin-epoxidase.
  Journal
FEBS Lett 376:45-8 (1995)
DOI:10.1016/0014-5793(95)01243-9
Reference
2  [PMID:9624110]
  Authors
Bugos RC, Hieber AD, Yamamoto HY
  Title
Xanthophyll cycle enzymes are members of the lipocalin family, the first identified from plants.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 273:15321-4 (1998)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.273.25.15321
Reference
3  [PMID:10890531]
  Authors
Thompson AJ, Jackson AC, Parker RA, Morpeth DR, Burbidge A, Taylor IB.
  Title
Abscisic acid biosynthesis in tomato: regulation of zeaxanthin epoxidase and 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase mRNAs by light/dark cycles, water stress and abscisic acid.
  Journal
Plant Mol Biol 42:833-45 (2000)
DOI:10.1023/a:1006448428401
Reference
4  [PMID:11058750]
  Authors
Hieber AD, Bugos RC, Yamamoto HY.
  Title
Plant lipocalins: violaxanthin de-epoxidase and zeaxanthin epoxidase.
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 1482:84-91 (2000)
DOI:10.1016/S0167-4838(00)00141-2
Reference
5  [PMID:11506368]
  Authors
Frommolt R, Goss R, Wilhelm C.
  Title
The de-epoxidase and epoxidase reactions of Mantoniella squamata (Prasinophyceae) exhibit different substrate-specific reaction kinetics compared to spinach.
  Journal
Planta 213:446-56 (2001)
DOI:10.1007/s004250100589
Reference
6
  Authors
Frommolt, R., Goss, R. and Wilhelm, C.
  Title
Erratum Report. The de-epoxidase and epoxidase reactions of Mantoniella squamata (Prasinophyceae) exhibit different substrate-specific reaction kinetics compared to spinach.
  Journal
Planta 213:492 (2001)
Reference
7  [PMID:12844265]
  Authors
Matsubara S, Morosinotto T, Bassi R, Christian AL, Fischer-Schliebs E, Luttge U, Orthen B, Franco AC, Scarano FR, Forster B, Pogson BJ, Osmond CB.
  Title
Occurrence of the lutein-epoxide cycle in mistletoes of the Loranthaceae and Viscaceae.
  Journal
Planta 217:868-79 (2003)
DOI:10.1007/s00425-003-1059-7
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 1.14.15.21
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 1.14.15.21
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 1.14.15.21
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 1.14.15.21
CAS: 149718-34-3

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