Contains FAD as prosthetic group. One of several enzymes that catalyse the first step in fatty acids beta-oxidation. The enzyme catalyses the oxidation of saturated short-chain acyl-CoA thioesters to give a trans 2,3-unsaturated product by removal of the two pro-R-hydrogen atoms. The enzyme from beef liver accepts substrates with acyl chain lengths of 3 to 8 carbon atoms. The highest activity was reported with either butanoyl-CoA  or pentanoyl-CoA . The enzyme from rat has only 10% activity with hexanoyl-CoA (compared to butanoyl-CoA) and no activity with octanoyl-CoA . cf. EC 22.214.171.124, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, EC 126.96.36.199, long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and EC 188.8.131.52, very-long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase.
EC 184.108.40.206 created 1961 as EC 220.127.116.11, transferred 1964 to EC 18.104.22.168, transferred 2011 to EC 22.214.171.124, modified 2012
Purification and characterization of short-chain, medium-chain, and long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenases from rat liver mitochondria. Isolation of the holo- and apoenzymes and conversion of the apoenzyme to the holoenzyme.