KEGG   ENZYME: 6.2.1.2
Entry
EC 6.2.1.2                  Enzyme                                 

Name
medium-chain acyl-CoA ligase;
fadK (gene name);
lvaE (gene name);
butyryl-CoA synthetase;
fatty acid thiokinase (medium chain);
acyl-activating enzyme;
fatty acid elongase;
fatty acid activating enzyme;
fatty acyl coenzyme A synthetase;
butyrate---CoA ligase;
butyryl-coenzyme A synthetase;
L-(+)-3-hydroxybutyryl CoA ligase;
short-chain acyl-CoA synthetase;
medium-chain acyl-CoA synthetase;
butanoate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming)
Class
Ligases;
Forming carbon-sulfur bonds;
Acid-thiol ligases
Sysname
medium-chain fatty acid:CoA ligase (AMP-forming)
Reaction(IUBMB)
ATP + a medium-chain fatty acid + CoA = AMP + diphosphate + a medium-chain acyl-CoA [RN:R00389]
Reaction(KEGG)
R00389 > R01176
Substrate
ATP [CPD:C00002];
medium-chain fatty acid [CPD:C21925];
CoA [CPD:C00010]
Product
AMP [CPD:C00020];
diphosphate [CPD:C00013];
medium-chain acyl-CoA [CPD:C21926]
Comment
Acts on fatty acids from C4 to C11 and on the corresponding 3-hydroxy and 2,3- or 3,4-unsaturated acids. The enzyme from the bacterium Pseudomonas putida also acts on 4-oxo and 4-hydroxy derivatives.
History
EC 6.2.1.2 created 1961, modified 2011, modified 2018
Pathway
ec00650  Butanoate metabolism
ec01100  Metabolic pathways
Orthology
K01896  medium-chain acyl-CoA synthetase
K01913  acetate/butyrate---CoA ligase
K23617  medium-chain acyl-CoA ligase, mitochondrial
K23618  acyl-activating enzyme 11/12
K23756  medium-chain acyl-CoA ligase / lipoate-activating enzyme
Genes
HSA: 116285(ACSM1) 123876(ACSM2A) 142827(ACSM6) 341392(ACSM4) 348158(ACSM2B) 54988(ACSM5) 6296(ACSM3) 80221(ACSF2)
PTR: 101058263(ACSM1) 107968805(ACSM5) 107973209 451813(ACSM4) 453974(ACSM2A) 455121(ACSF2) 467918(ACSM2B) 741543(ACSM6) 742192(ACSM3)
PPS: 100968187(ACSM6) 100972336(ACSM1) 100984659(ACSM5) 100986228(ACSF2) 100992481(ACSM4) 100994660(ACSM2A) 100994985(ACSM2B) 100995253(ACSM3)
GGO: 101142919(ACSM6) 101148413(ACSM5) 101149125 101149339(ACSM4) 101149481 101151788(ACSM3) 101151901(ACSF2) 101153106(ACSM1) 115932803
PON: 100171624(ACSM3) 100172872(ACSF2) 100442712 100444065 100444423 100449779(ACSM6) 100452655(ACSM5) 100459933(ACSM4)
NLE: 100583035(ACSF2) 100584025(ACSM5) 100591808(ACSM6) 100599336(ACSM3) 100601481 100604255(ACSM4) 101178788 115833719 115833922
MCC: 100427705 696124(ACSM5) 696244 696498(ACSM1) 696622(ACSM3) 702474(ACSF2) 722167(ACSM4)
MCF: 101864763(ACSF2) 102120589(ACSM5) 102121480(ACSM2B) 102123380(ACSM1) 102124315 102126505(ACSM3) 102142462(ACSM4)
CSAB: 103218505(ACSM4) 103229269(ACSM5) 103229287(ACSM2B) 103229298(ACSM1) 103229351(ACSM3) 103231985(ACSM6) 103242934(ACSF2)
CATY: 105571918(ACSM6) 105579436(ACSF2) 105583065(ACSM4) 105586470(ACSM3) 105586560(ACSM1) 105586584 105586603(ACSM5)
PANU: 100997350 101008358(ACSF2) 101008883(ACSM4) 101017612(ACSM5) 101017967(ACSM2B) 101018326(ACSM1) 101019516(ACSM3)
RRO: 104678561 104680277(ACSF2) 104682073(ACSM5) 104682074(ACSM2B) 104682075(ACSM1) 104682078(ACSM3)
RBB: 108513900(ACSM5) 108513927 108513946(ACSM1) 108514016(ACSM3) 108516427(ACSF2)
TFN: 117067216(ACSF2) 117077786 117087527(ACSM3) 117087530(ACSM1) 117087533 117087534(ACSM5) 117090923(ACSM4)
PTEH: 111537571(ACSF2) 111551185(ACSM5) 111551195(ACSM3) 111551197(ACSM1) 111551198 111555897(ACSM4)
CJC: 100385335(ACSF2) 100385629(ACSM5) 100385986(ACSM2B) 100386695(ACSM3) 100390897(ACSM4) 100392977(ACSM6)
SBQ: 101039328(ACSM6) 101048755 101049288 101050441(ACSM3) 101050654(ACSM4) 101054189(ACSF2)
MMUR: 105855227(ACSM5) 105855229 105855230(ACSM1) 105885117(ACSF2) 105885317(ACSM3) 105885318(ACSM4) 105885320(ACSM6)
MMU: 117147(Acsm1) 20216(Acsm3) 233799(Acsm2) 233801(Acsm4) 264895(Acsf2) 272428(Acsm5)
MCAL: 110297662(Acsm5) 110297667(Acsm1) 110297791(Acsm2b) 110298435(Acsm4) 110298807(Acsm3) 110304550(Acsf2)
MPAH: 110316032(Acsm3) 110323274(Acsm5) 110324507(Acsm4) 110325118(Acsm2b) 110326344(Acsm1) 110331605(Acsf2)
RNO: 246263(Acsm2) 24763(Acsm3) 353317(Acsm4) 361637(Acsm5) 361638(Acsm1) 619561(Acsf2)
MCOC: 116077682(Acsf2) 116100882 116102866(Acsm5) 116102869(Acsm1) 116102872(Acsm4) 116102877(Acsm3)
PLEU: 114692157(Acsm5) 114692158 114692159(Acsm1) 114692160(Acsm4) 114692164(Acsm3) 114692891(Acsf2)
NGI: 103738389(Acsf2) 103742760(Acsm3) 103742762(Acsm4) 103742763(Acsm1) 103742764(Acsm2a) 103742767(Acsm5)
HGL: 101698533(Acsm4) 101703873(Acsm3) 101706188(Acsf2) 101711830(Acsm5) 101712192(Acsm2a) 101712893(Acsm1)
CCAN: 109678356(Acsm3) 109681504(Acsf2) 109696818(Acsm2b) 109696819(Acsm5) 109696824(Acsm1) 109699471(Acsm4)
OCU: 100340861(ACSF2) 100342192(ACSM2B) 100345414(ACSM3) 100350992(ACSM4) 100352247(ACSM1) 100352493(ACSM5) 100354024
TUP: 102472841(ACSF2) 102475928(ACSM4) 102478447(ACSM3) 102480423(ACSM1) 102480846(ACSM5)
CFA: 479821 479822 480551(ACSF2) 608888(ACSM3) 609009(ACSM5)
VVP: 112917860(ACSF2) 112923250 112923378(ACSM5) 112923379 112923386(ACSM3)
VLG: 121473552(ACSF2) 121486563(ACSM3) 121486678 121487415 121487669(ACSM5)
AML: 100465944(ACSM3) 100466940(ACSM4) 100474727(ACSF2) 100474845(ACSM1) 100475101 100476094(ACSM5)
UMR: 103660404(ACSF2) 103668660(ACSM5) 103668661(ACSM1) 103668662
ORO: 101366672 101367835(ACSM1) 101370381(ACSF2) 101376361(ACSM5) 101382988(ACSM3) 101384131(ACSM4)
MPUF: 101674522(ACSM3) 101680153 101688355(ACSM1) 101688643 101688926(ACSM5) 101691085(ACSF2)
EJU: 114199691(ACSM1) 114199696 114201158(ACSF2) 114202178(ACSM3) 114202184
FCA: 101082455(ACSM3) 101083228 101083474 101090661(ACSF2) 101092980(ACSM5)
PTG: 102954003 102954285(ACSM5) 102957684(ACSM4) 102965614(ACSF2) 102968571(ACSM3)
PPAD: 109247289(ACSF2) 109255539(ACSM3) 109255541 109278418(ACSM5) 109278419
AJU: 106970464 106970521(ACSM3) 106970530 106970531(ACSM5) 106985171(ACSF2)
BTA: 100298888(ACSM5) 100299006(ACSM4) 282576(ACSM1) 512227(ACSM2B) 533798(ACSM3) 768237(ACSF2)
BOM: 102269733(ACSM3) 102270868(ACSM4) 102271152(ACSM1) 102271620(ACSM2B) 102273415(ACSM5) 102286919(ACSF2)
BIU: 109574170(ACSF2) 109578487(ACSM3) 109578603(ACSM1) 109578666(ACSM2B) 109578712(ACSM5)
BBUB: 102394278(ACSF2) 102400565(ACSM1) 102403896(ACSM3) 102412341 102413115
CHX: 102180366(ACSM5) 102181180(ACSM2B) 102182065(ACSF2) 102182274(ACSM1) 102183382(ACSM4) 102185052(ACSM3)
OAS: 101105582(ACSF2) 101112785(ACSM5) 101120131 101120375(ACSM1) 101120794(ACSM4) 101121307(ACSM3)
ODA: 120867327(ACSF2) 120875439(ACSM5) 120875507(ACSM3) 120875522(ACSM2B) 120875532(ACSM1) 120882537(ACSM4)
SSC: 100510957(ACSM2B) 100511318(ACSM5) 100512220(ACSM3) 100512595(ACSM4) 100512859(ACSF2)
CFR: 102504377(ACSM5) 102504633 102504896(ACSM1) 102505166(ACSM4) 102505419(ACSM3) 102521532(ACSF2)
CBAI: 105064613(ACSF2) 105073703(ACSM4) 105073706(ACSM3) 105073707(ACSM1) 105073708 105073709(ACSM5)
CDK: 105091128(ACSM3) 105091129(ACSM1) 105091130(ACSM2B) 105091131(ACSM5) 105091161(ACSM4) 105097727(ACSF2)
LVE: 103069868(ACSF2) 103073448(ACSM3) 103077137(ACSM5) 103089263
PCAD: 102985736(ACSM5) 102988009 102995241(ACSF2) 112064828
MYD: 102755299(ACSM2A) 102755589(ACSM3) 102760086(ACSM4) 102762433 102773394(ACSF2)
HAI: 109380753(ACSF2) 109386530(ACSM1) 109386545 109386559(ACSM3) 109386584(ACSM2B) 109386585
DRO: 112304836 112304838(ACSM2B) 112316241(ACSF2)
AJM: 119037430(ACSF2) 119040944 119053529(ACSM4)
PALE: 102878400(ACSM3) 102887888(ACSF2)
PGIG: 120584568(ACSM3) 120588953(ACSF2) 120600542 120600543
LAV: 100668288 100668576(ACSM1) 100669114(ACSF2) 100669418(ACSM3)
GGA: 422102(ACSF2) 426991(ACSM4L) 426992(ACSM5) 426999(ACSM3)
PCOC: 116230333 116230337 116230342(ACSM3) 116232386(ACSF2)
GGN: 109297652(ACSF2)
XLA: 108701096(acsf2.L) 108702792(acsf2.S) 444799(acsm3.L)
XTR: 100491087(acsm3) 100497121(acsf2)
NPR: 108791737(ACSM3) 108796400(ACSF2)
DRE: 100002035(acsm3) 751707(acsf2)
CCAR: 109099152 109099931(acsf2) 109111417(acsm3)
IPU: 108258929 108273869(acsf2) 108280839(acsm3)
AMEX: 103031662 103037666(acsf2)
EEE: 113568123 113579428(acsf2)
NCC: 104944427 104960330(acsf2)
ECRA: 117936519(acsf2) 117958155
GAT: 120819593(acsf2) 120827896
MSAM: 119890778 119915557(acsf2)
MZE: 101484291(acsf2) 101486716
OAU: 116317706 116335621(acsf2)
OLA: 101165265(acsf2)
OML: 112154391(acsf2)
XMA: 102237186
PRET: 103468809(acsf2) 103481746
CTUL: 119782479(acsf2) 119794862
ALIM: 106529911(acsf2) 106535991
LCF: 108892016
XGL: 120786869 120794531(acsf2)
HCQ: 109518556(acsf2) 109524735
SALP: 111956980(acsm3) 111977493(acsf2)
ELS: 105006992(acsf2) 105024576(acsm3)
SFM: 108926102(acsm3) 108935721(acsf2)
PKI: 111845537(acsm3) 111849153 111849182(acsf2)
AANG: 118216853(acsf2) 118220180(acsm3)
LOC: 102682727 102685872(acsf2)
PSPA: 121295712(acsf2) 121309588 121330849(acsm3)
ARUT: 117418309(acsm3) 117423316(acsf2)
LCM: 102348417(ACSM3) 102361353(ACSF2)
CMK: 103175647(acsf2) 103188271(acsm3)
RTP: 109914823(acsm3) 109914830 109930172(acsf2)
CIN: 100181179
DME: Dmel_CG12512(CG12512)
DSE: 6613476
DSI: Dsimw501_GD22652(Dsim_GD22652)
DAN: 6498321
DPE: 6593305
DMN: 108162311
DWI: 6642228
DGR: 6561729
DAZ: 108610068
DNV: 115562762
DHE: 111599074
DVI: 6628125
MDE: 101893361
ACOZ: 120957580
AARA: 120903490
AME: 552475(ACSF2)
ACER: 107996159
BIM: 100747755
BBIF: 117212275
BTER: 100648190
CCAL: 108623646
OBB: 114872080
MGEN: 117227142
NMEA: 116432590
CGIG: 122396048
SOC: 105205760
MPHA: 105841057
AEC: 105150500
ACEP: 105625916
PBAR: 105422241
VEM: 105568201
HST: 105188587
DQU: 106744856
FEX: 115246313
LHU: 105671936
PGC: 109857104
OBO: 105274909
PCF: 106786684
NVI: 100122351
CSOL: 105364123
MDL: 103575983
CCIN: 107266024
TCA: 662861
ATD: 109593924
NVL: 108566415
APLN: 108743655
OTU: 111426037
BMOR: 101742019
BMAN: 114250555
MSEX: 115440636
BANY: 112053239
PPOT: 106106790
PXU: 106123976
PRAP: 111002740
ZCE: 119834420
HAW: 110384428
TNL: 113497778
CLEC: 106664881
NLU: 111055988
TUT: 107365887
CBR: CBG18597(Cbr-acs-2) CBG18959
BGT: 106066559
ATH: AT1G65890(AAE12) AT1G66120(AAE11) AT3G16910(AAE7)
LJA: Lj0g3v0112059.1(Lj0g3v0112059.1) Lj0g3v0188849.1(Lj0g3v0188849.1) Lj4g3v2269810.1(Lj4g3v2269810.1) Lj4g3v2270890.1(Lj4g3v2270890.1) Lj6g3v0378000.1(Lj6g3v0378000.1) Lj6g3v1549210.1(Lj6g3v1549210.1)
MCHA: 111009333
DOSA: Os03t0130100-01(Os03g0130100) Os03t0305000-01(Os03g0305000) Os03t0305100-01(Os03g0305100) Os09t0555800-00(Os09g0555800)
PPP: 112286775
DML: Dmul_11310(acsA1)
DAL: Dalk_0007
SMAZ: LH19_18430
SWI: Swit_4371
SMIC: SmB9_03750
HMO: HM1_0898
SAY: TPY_0169(acs)
CTHM: CFE_1747
MPSE: MPSD_39150
MGAD: MGAD_59150
MSAR: MSAR_07670
MHIB: MHIB_08500
KVR: CIB50_0000777(fadK)
 » show all
Reference
1  [PMID:13084616]
  Authors
MAHLER HR, WAKIL SJ, BOCK RM.
  Title
Studies on fatty acid oxidation. I. Enzymatic activation of fatty acids.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 204:453-68 (1953)
Reference
2  [PMID:14285249]
  Authors
MASSARO EJ, LENNARZ WJ.
  Title
THE PARTIAL PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A BACTERIAL FATTY ACYL COENZYME A SYNTHETASE.
  Journal
Biochemistry 4:85-90 (1965)
DOI:10.1021/bi00877a015
Reference
3  [PMID:14253428]
  Authors
WEBSTER LT Jr, GEROWIN LD, RAKITA L.
  Title
PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF A BUTYRYL COENZYME A SYNTHETASE FROM BOVINE HEART MITOCHONDRIA.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 240:29-33 (1965)
Reference
4  [PMID:15213221]
  Authors
Morgan-Kiss RM, Cronan JE
  Title
The Escherichia coli fadK (ydiD) gene encodes an anerobically regulated short chain acyl-CoA synthetase.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 279:37324-33 (2004)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M405233200
Reference
5  [PMID:28947739]
  Authors
Rand JM, Pisithkul T, Clark RL, Thiede JM, Mehrer CR, Agnew DE, Campbell CE, Markley AL, Price MN, Ray J, Wetmore KM, Suh Y, Arkin AP, Deutschbauer AM, Amador-Noguez D, Pfleger BF
  Title
A metabolic pathway for catabolizing levulinic acid in bacteria.
  Journal
Nat Microbiol 2:1624-1634 (2017)
DOI:10.1038/s41564-017-0028-z
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 6.2.1.2
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 6.2.1.2
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 6.2.1.2
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 6.2.1.2
CAS: 9080-51-7

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