KEGG   PATHWAY: dre04744
Entry
dre04744                    Pathway                                
Name
Phototransduction - Danio rerio (zebrafish)
Description
Phototransduction is a biochemical process by which the photoreceptor cells generate electrical signals in response to captured photons. The vertebrate cascade starts with the absorption of photons by the photoreceptive pigments, the rhodopsins, which consist of a membrane embedded chromophore, 11-cis-retinal, and a G-protein-coupled receptor, opsin. The photon isomerizes 11-cis-retinal to all-trans-retinal which induces a structural change that activates the opsin. This triggers hydrolysis of cGMP by activating a transducinphosphodiesterase 6 (PDE6) cascade, which results in closure of the cGMP-gated cation channels (CNG) in the plasma membrane and membrane hyperpolarization. The hyperpolarization of the membrane potential of the photoreceptor cell modulates the release of neurotransmitters to downstream cells. Recovery from light involves the deactivation of the light- activated intermediates: photolyzed rhodopsin is phosphorylated by rhodopsin kinase (RK) and subsequently capped off by arrestin; GTP-binding transducin alpha subunit deactivates through a process that is stimulated by RGS9.
Class
Organismal Systems; Sensory system
Pathway map
dre04744  Phototransduction
dre04744

Other DBs
GO: 0009586
Organism
Danio rerio (zebrafish) [GN:dre]
Gene
30295  rho; rhodopsin [KO:K04250]
30459  exorh; extra-ocular rhodopsin [KO:K04250]
30504  opn1mw4; green-sensitive opsin-4 [KO:K04250]
562845  rhol; rhodopsin, like [KO:K04250]
30503  opn1mw1; green-sensitive opsin-1 [KO:K04250]
360152  opn1mw3; green-sensitive opsin-3 [KO:K04250]
360151  opn1mw2; green-sensitive opsin-2 [KO:K04250]
550406  grk1b; rhodopsin kinase GRK1b [KO:K00909] [EC:2.7.11.14]
564152  grk1a; rhodopsin kinase GRK1 [KO:K00909] [EC:2.7.11.14]
373871  grk7b; rhodopsin kinase grk7-b [KO:K00909] [EC:2.7.11.14]
566120  grk7a; rhodopsin kinase grk7a [KO:K00909] [EC:2.7.11.14]
570333  rcvrna; recoverin a [KO:K13764]
335650  rcvrn2; recoverin 2 [KO:K13764]
572207  rcvrn3; recoverin 3 [KO:K13764]
792903  rcvrnb; recoverin b [KO:K13764]
792319  saga; S-arrestin a [KO:K19627]
140428  gnat1; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(t) subunit alpha-1 [KO:K04631]
140429  gnat2; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(t) subunit alpha-2 [KO:K04631]
322104  gnb1a; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-1 [KO:K04536]
406796  gnb1b; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 1b [KO:K04536]
335656  gngt1; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(T) subunit gamma-T1 [KO:K04548]
793087  rgs9b; regulator of G-protein signaling 9b [KO:K13765]
767636  rgs9a; regulator of G-protein signaling 9a [KO:K13765]
368410  pde6a; rod cGMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase subunit alpha [KO:K08718] [EC:3.1.4.35]
559332  pde6b; rod cGMP-specific 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase subunit beta [KO:K13756] [EC:3.1.4.35]
554700  pde6gb; phosphodiesterase 6G, cGMP-specific, rod, gamma, paralog b [KO:K13759]
553708  pde6ga; phosphodiesterase 6G, cGMP-specific, rod, gamma, paralog a [KO:K13759]
140426  gucy2d; retinal guanylyl cyclase 1 [KO:K12321] [EC:4.6.1.2]
140425  gc2; retinal guanylyl cyclase 2 [KO:K12322] [EC:4.6.1.2]
140424  gucy2f; retinal guanylyl cyclase 2 [KO:K12322] [EC:4.6.1.2]
140430  guca1a; guanylyl cyclase-activating protein 1 [KO:K08328]
140431  guca1b; guanylyl cyclase-activating protein 2 [KO:K08328]
494573  guca1d; guanylate cyclase activator 1d [KO:K08328]
373099  guca1c; guanylyl cyclase-activating protein 3 [KO:K08328]
393629  guca1e; guanylate cyclase activator 1e [KO:K08328]
100330921  si:ch211-103a14.5; guanylyl cyclase-activating protein 1-like [KO:K08328]
494572  guca1g; guanylate cyclase activator 1g [KO:K08328]
558299  slc24a1; sodium/potassium/calcium exchanger 1 isoform X1 [KO:K13749]
321808  calm3b; calmodulin 3b (phosphorylase kinase, delta) [KO:K02183]
192322  calm2b; calmodulin 2b, (phosphorylase kinase, delta) [KO:K02183]
368217  calm1b; calmodulin-1b [KO:K02183]
406660  calm1a; calmodulin-1a [KO:K02183]
336121  calm2a; calmodulin 2a (phosphorylase kinase, delta) [KO:K02183]
327379  calm3a; calmodulin 3a (phosphorylase kinase, delta) [KO:K02183]
560151  calml4a; calmodulin-like protein 4a [KO:K02183]
100321746  calml4b; calmodulin-like protein 4 [KO:K02183]
572249  cnga1; cGMP-gated cation channel alpha-1 [KO:K04948]
100001558  cnga1a; cyclic nucleotide gated channel subunit alpha 1a [KO:K04948]
568211  cngb1a; cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel beta-1 isoform X10 [KO:K04952]
Compound
C00076  Calcium cation
C00144  GMP
C00238  Potassium cation
C00305  Magnesium cation
C00376  Retinal
C00942  3',5'-Cyclic GMP
C01330  Sodium cation
C02110  11-cis-Retinal
Reference
  Authors
Yau KW, Hardie RC
  Title
Phototransduction motifs and variations.
  Journal
Cell 139:246-64 (2009)
DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2009.09.029
Reference
  Authors
Koch KW, Duda T, Sharma RK
  Title
Photoreceptor specific guanylate cyclases in vertebrate phototransduction.
  Journal
Mol Cell Biochem 230:97-106 (2002)
Reference
PMID:9803480
  Authors
Jindrova H
  Title
Vertebrate phototransduction: activation, recovery, and adaptation.
  Journal
Physiol Res 47:155-68 (1998)
Reference
  Authors
Ebrey T, Koutalos Y
  Title
Vertebrate photoreceptors.
  Journal
Prog Retin Eye Res 20:49-94 (2001)
DOI:10.1016/S1350-9462(00)00014-8
Reference
  Authors
Pepe IM
  Title
Recent advances in our understanding of rhodopsin and phototransduction.
  Journal
Prog Retin Eye Res 20:733-59 (2001)
DOI:10.1016/S1350-9462(01)00013-1
Reference
  Authors
Kramer RH, Molokanova E
  Title
Modulation of cyclic-nucleotide-gated channels and regulation of vertebrate phototransduction.
  Journal
J Exp Biol 204:2921-31 (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Larhammar D, Nordstrom K, Larsson TA
  Title
Evolution of vertebrate rod and cone phototransduction genes.
  Journal
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 364:2867-80 (2009)
DOI:10.1098/rstb.2009.0077
Reference
  Authors
Dizhoor AM, Olshevskaya EV, Peshenko IV
  Title
Mg2+/Ca2+ cation binding cycle of guanylyl cyclase activating proteins (GCAPs): role in regulation of photoreceptor guanylyl cyclase.
  Journal
Mol Cell Biochem 334:117-24 (2010)
DOI:10.1007/s11010-009-0328-6
Reference
  Authors
Krizaj D, Copenhagen DR
  Title
Calcium regulation in photoreceptors.
  Journal
Front Biosci 7:d2023-44 (2002)
Reference
PMID:9893707
  Authors
Shichida Y, Imai H
  Title
Visual pigment: G-protein-coupled receptor for light signals.
  Journal
Cell Mol Life Sci 54:1299-315 (1998)
DOI:10.1007/s000180050256
Reference
PMID:9419388
  Authors
Pugh EN Jr, Duda T, Sitaramayya A, Sharma RK
  Title
Photoreceptor guanylate cyclases: a review.
  Journal
Biosci Rep 17:429-73 (1997)
DOI:10.1023/A:1027365520442
Reference
  Authors
Luo DG, Xue T, Yau KW
  Title
How vision begins: an odyssey.
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:9855-62 (2008)
DOI:10.1073/pnas.0708405105
Reference
  Authors
Peshenko IV, Dizhoor AM
  Title
Activation and inhibition of photoreceptor guanylyl cyclase by guanylyl cyclase activating protein 1 (GCAP-1): the functional role of Mg2+/Ca2+ exchange in EF-hand domains.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 282:21645-52 (2007)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M702368200
Reference
  Authors
Ridge KD, Abdulaev NG, Sousa M, Palczewski K
  Title
Phototransduction: crystal clear.
  Journal
Trends Biochem Sci 28:479-87 (2003)
DOI:10.1016/S0968-0004(03)00172-5
Related
pathway
dre00830  Retinol metabolism
KO pathway
ko04744   

DBGET integrated database retrieval system