Synaptic vesicle cycle - Homo sapiens (human)
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Communication between neurons is mediated by the release of neurotransmitter from synaptic vesicles (SVs). At the nerve terminal, SVs cycle through repetitive episodes of exocytosis and endocytosis. SVs are filled with neurotransmitters by active transport. The loaded SVs are then docked at a specialized region of the presynaptic plasma membrane known as the active zone, where they undergo a priming reaction. Upon arrival of an action potential, Ca2+ enters through voltage-gated channels and neurotransmitter is released by exocytosis, usually in less than a millisecond. After fusion, the vesicle is retrieved by endocytosis and reloaded for another round of exocytosis.