Flavonoid biosynthesis - Reference pathway
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Flavonoids are a major class of plant secondary metabolites that serves a multitude of functions including pigments and antioxidant activity. Flavonoids are synthesized from phenylpropanoid derivatives by condensation with malonyl-CoA. For example, condensation of p-coumaroyl-CoA (C6-C3) with three malonyl-CoA (C3) molecules results in naringenin chalcone with a diphenylpropane (C6-C3-C6) unit, which is converted to naringenin with the flavone (2-phenylchromen-4-one) backbone by conjugate ring closure. These and further modifications yield a variety of structural forms including chalcones, flavanones, dihyroflavonols, and flavans, anthocyanins, flavones and flavonols, and isoflavonoids.