KEGG   ENZYME: 1.14.14.14Help
Entry
EC 1.14.14.14               Enzyme                                 

Name
aromatase;
CYP19A1 (gene name);
estrogen synthetase (incorrect)
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen;
With reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen into the other donor
BRITE hierarchy
Sysname
testosterone monooxygenase (17beta-estradiol-forming)
Reaction(IUBMB)
(1) testosterone + 3 O2 + 3 reduced flavoproteins = 17beta-estradiol + formate + 4 H2O + 3 oxidized flavoproteins (overall reaction) [RN:R10511];
(1a) testosterone + O2 + a reduced flavoprotein = 19-hydroxytestosterone + H2O + an oxidized flavoprotein [RN:R02501];
(1b) 19-hydroxytestosterone + O2 + a reduced flavoprotein = 19-oxotestosterone + 2 H2O + an oxidized flavoprotein [RN:R04761];
(1c) 19-oxotestosterone + O2 + a reduced flavoprotein = 17beta-estradiol + formate + H2O + an oxidized flavoprotein [RN:R03087];
(2) androst-4-ene-3,17-dione + 3 O2 + 3 reduced flavoproteins = estrone + formate + 4 H2O + 3 oxidized flavoproteins (overall reaction) [RN:R10515];
(2a) androst-4-ene-3,17-dione + O2 + a reduced flavoprotein = 19-hydroxyandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione + H2O + an oxidized flavoprotein [RN:R01840];
(2b) 19-hydroxyandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione + O2 + a reduced flavoprotein = 19-oxo-androst-4-ene-3,17-dione + 2 H2O + an oxidized flavoprotein [RN:R04759];
(2c) 19-oxoandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione + O2 + a reduced flavoprotein = estrone + formate + H2O + an oxidized flavoprotein [RN:R02351]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
testosterone [CPD:C00535];
O2 [CPD:C00007];
reduced flavoprotein [CPD:C03024];
19-hydroxytestosterone [CPD:C05294];
19-oxotestosterone [CPD:C05295];
androst-4-ene-3,17-dione [CPD:C00280];
19-hydroxyandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione [CPD:C05290];
19-oxoandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione [CPD:C05297]
Product
17beta-estradiol;
formate [CPD:C00058];
H2O [CPD:C00001];
oxidized flavoprotein [CPD:C03161];
19-hydroxytestosterone [CPD:C05294];
19-oxotestosterone [CPD:C05295];
estrone [CPD:C00468];
19-hydroxyandrost-4-ene-3,17-dione [CPD:C05290];
19-oxo-androst-4-ene-3,17-dione
Comment
A cytochrome P-450. The enzyme catalyses three sequential hydroxylations of the androgens androst-4-ene-3,17-dione and testosterone, resulting in their aromatization and forming the estrogens estrone and 17beta-estradiol, respectively.
History
EC 1.14.14.14 created 2013
Pathway
Steroid hormone biosynthesis
Metabolic pathways
Orthology
K07434  
aromatase
Genes
HSA: 
1588(CYP19A1)
PTR: 
453433(CYP19A1)
PPS: 
GGO: 
PON: 
NLE: 
MCC: 
678697(CYP19A1)
MCF: 
102117886(CYP19)
RRO: 
CJC: 
100411557(CYP19A1)
MMU: 
13075(Cyp19a1)
RNO: 
25147(Cyp19a1)
CGE: 
NGI: 
HGL: 
OCU: 
100328545(CYP19A1)
TUP: 
CFA: 
494003(CYP19A1)
AML: 
UMR: 
FCA: 
101094932(CYP19A1)
PTG: 
BTA: 
281740(CYP19A1)
BOM: 
PHD: 
CHX: 
OAS: 
100144423(CYP19)
SSC: 
403331(CYP19A1) 403332(CYP19A2) 403333(CYP19A3)
CFR: 
BACU: 
LVE: 
ECB: 
100009712(CYP19A1)
MYB: 
MYD: 
PALE: 
MDO: 
SHR: 
OAA: 
GGA: 
414854(CYP19A1)
MGP: 
CJO: 
107318718(P-450AROM)
APLA: 
TGU: 
751777(CYP19A1)
GFR: 
FAB: 
PHI: 
CCW: 
FPG: 
FCH: 
CLV: 
AAM: 
ASN: 
AMJ: 
102566432(CYP19A1)
PSS: 
CMY: 
ACS: 
100565397(cyp19a1)
PBI: 
GJA: 
XLA: 
373656(cyp19a1)
XTR: 
100036594(cyp19a1)
DRE: 
30390(cyp19a1a) 60640(cyp19a1b)
TRU: 
100379639(pfcyp19b-tstr) 101076508(pfcyp19a)
MZE: 
OLA: 
100125815(cyp19b) 101174651(Aromatase)
XMA: 
LCM: 
CMK: 
BFO: 
CVR: 
 » show all
Taxonomy
Reference
1  [PMID:4370479]
  Authors
Thompson EA Jr, Siiteri PK
  Title
The involvement of human placental microsomal cytochrome P-450 in aromatization.
  Journal
J. Biol. Chem. 249 (1974) 5373-8.
Reference
2  [PMID:7217091]
  Authors
Fishman J, Goto J
  Title
Mechanism of estrogen biosynthesis. Participation of multiple enzyme sites in placental aromatase hydroxylations.
  Journal
J. Biol. Chem. 256 (1981) 4466-71.
Reference
3  [PMID:3104339]
  Authors
Kellis JT Jr, Vickery LE
  Title
Purification and characterization of human placental aromatase cytochrome P-450.
  Journal
J. Biol. Chem. 262 (1987) 4413-20.
Reference
4  [PMID:19129847]
  Authors
Ghosh D, Griswold J, Erman M, Pangborn W
  Title
Structural basis for androgen specificity and oestrogen synthesis in human aromatase.
  Journal
Nature. 457 (2009) 219-23.
  Sequence
[hsa:1588]
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 

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