KEGG   ENZYME: 1.14.15.7Help
Entry
EC 1.14.15.7                Enzyme                                 

Name
choline monooxygenase
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen;
With reduced iron-sulfur protein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen into the other donor
BRITE hierarchy
Sysname
choline,reduced-ferredoxin:oxygen oxidoreductase
Reaction(IUBMB)
choline + O2 + 2 reduced ferredoxin + 2 H+ = betaine aldehyde hydrate + H2O + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [RN:R05739]
Reaction(KEGG)
R05739;
(other) R07409
Show
Substrate
choline [CPD:C00114];
O2 [CPD:C00007];
reduced ferredoxin [CPD:C00138];
H+ [CPD:C00080]
Product
betaine aldehyde hydrate [CPD:C07345];
H2O [CPD:C00001];
oxidized ferredoxin [CPD:C00139]
Comment
The spinach enzyme, which is located in the chloroplast, contains a Rieske-type [2Fe-2S] cluster, and probably also a mononuclear Fe centre. Requires Mg2+. Catalyses the first step of glycine betaine synthesis. In many bacteria, plants and animals, betaine is synthesized in two steps: (1) choline to betaine aldehyde and (2) betaine aldehyde to betaine. Different enzymes are involved in the first reaction. In plants, the reaction is catalysed by this enzyme whereas in animals and many bacteria it is catalysed by either membrane-bound EC 1.1.99.1 (choline dehydrogenase) or soluble EC 1.1.3.17 (choline oxidase) [7]. The enzyme involved in the second step, EC 1.2.1.8 (betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase), appears to be the same in plants, animals and bacteria. In some bacteria, betaine is synthesized from glycine through the actions of EC 2.1.1.156 (glycine/sarcosine N-methyltransferase) and EC 2.1.1.157 (sarcosine/dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase).
History
EC 1.14.15.7 created 2001, modified 2002 (EC 1.14.14.4 created 2000, incorporated 2002), modified 2005, modified 2011
Pathway
Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
Orthology
K00499  
choline monooxygenase
Genes
BFO: 
SKO: 
ATH: 
ALY: 
CRB: 
EUS: 
BRP: 
BNA: 
THJ: 
CIT: 
CIC: 
TCC: 
GRA: 
EGR: 
GMX: 
PVU: 
VRA: 
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MTR: 
CAM: 
ADU: 
AIP: 
LJA: 
Lj4g3v2139640.3(Lj4g3v2139640.3)
LANG: 
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PMUM: 
MDM: 
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POP: 
POPTR_0006s07230g(POPTRDRAFT_866249)
VVI: 
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INI: 
SIND: 
BVG: 
NNU: 
OSA: 
9272377(cmo1)
OBR: 
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MUS: 
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PPP: 
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MIS: 
MICPUN_68852(TIC55-6)
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LPN: 
LPH: 
LPO: 
LPU: 
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LPF: 
LPP: 
LPC: 
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LHA: 
SSAL: 
OCE: 
REH: 
H16_A2735(h16_A2735)
BMA: 
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BMAE: 
BMAQ: 
BMAI: 
BMAF: 
BMAZ: 
BMAB: 
BPS: 
BPM: 
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BPSM: 
BPSU: 
BPSD: 
BPZ: 
BPQ: 
BPK: 
BPSH: 
BPSA: 
BPSO: 
BUT: 
BTE: 
BTQ: 
BTJ: 
BTZ: 
BTD: 
BTV: 
BTHE: 
BTHM: 
BTHA: 
BTHL: 
BOK: 
BOC: 
BVI: 
BVE: 
BUR: 
BCN: 
BCH: 
BCM: 
BCJ: 
BCEN: 
BCEW: 
BCEO: 
BAM: 
BAC: 
BMU: 
BMJ: 
BMK: 
BMUL: 
BCT: 
BCED: 
BDL: 
BPYR: 
BCON: 
BUB: 
BGL: 
BGP: 
BGU: 
BUG: 
BGE: 
BGF: 
BGD: 
BGO: 
BYI: 
BUK: 
BUO: 
BUE: 
BUL: 
BPLA: 
BUD: 
BXE: 
BXB: 
BPH: 
BRH: 
BPX: 
BPY: 
AJS: 
VEI: 
HAR: 
HOH: 
PLA: 
MMR: 
PUB: 
APC: 
APM: 
RXY: 
RRS: 
RCA: 
CAP: 
MRB: 
MRE: 
MSV: 
FGI: 
SUS: 
GBA: 
HHY: 
SCN: 
FBC: 
 » show all
Taxonomy
Reference
1  [PMID:16666757]
  Authors
Brouquisse R, Weigel P, Rhodes D, Yocum CF, Hanson AD.
  Title
Evidence for a Ferredoxin-Dependent Choline Monooxygenase from Spinach Chloroplast Stroma.
  Journal
Plant. Physiol. 90 (1989) 322-329.
Reference
2  [PMID:12228495]
  Authors
Burnet M, Lafontaine PJ, Hanson AD.
  Title
Assay, Purification, and Partial Characterization of Choline Monooxygenase from Spinach.
  Journal
Plant. Physiol. 108 (1995) 581-588.
Reference
3  [PMID:9096415]
  Authors
Rathinasabapathi B, Burnet M, Russell BL, Gage DA, Liao PC, Nye GJ, Scott P, Golbeck JH, Hanson AD.
  Title
Choline monooxygenase, an unusual iron-sulfur enzyme catalyzing the first step of glycine betaine synthesis in plants: prosthetic group characterization and cDNA cloning.
  Journal
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 94 (1997) 3454-8.
  Sequence
Reference
4  [PMID:9489025]
  Authors
Russell BL, Rathinasabapathi B, Hanson AD.
  Title
Osmotic stress induces expression of choline monooxygenase in sugar beet and amaranth.
  Journal
Plant. Physiol. 116 (1998) 859-65.
  Sequence
[bvg:104897072]
Reference
5
  Authors
Nuccio, M.L., Russell, B.L., Nolte, K.D., Rathinasabapathi, B., Gage, D.A. and Hanson, A.D.
  Title
Glycine betaine synthesis in transgenic tobacco expressing choline monooxygenase is limited by the endogenous choline supply.
  Journal
Plant J. 16 (1998) 101-110.
Reference
6  [PMID:9881168]
  Authors
Nuccio ML, Russell BL, Nolte KD, Rathinasabapathi B, Gage DA, Hanson AD.
  Title
The endogenous choline supply limits glycine betaine synthesis in transgenic tobacco expressing choline monooxygenase.
  Journal
Plant. J. 16 (1998) 487-96.
Reference
7  [PMID:12466265]
  Authors
Waditee R, Tanaka Y, Aoki K, Hibino T, Jikuya H, Takano J, Takabe T, Takabe T.
  Title
Isolation and functional characterization of N-methyltransferases that catalyze betaine synthesis from glycine in a halotolerant photosynthetic organism Aphanothece halophytica.
  Journal
J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 4932-42.
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 
CAS: 
118390-76-4

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