EC                Enzyme                                 

glycogenin glucosyltransferase;
priming glucosyltransferase;
UDP-glucose:glycogenin glucosyltransferase
BRITE hierarchy
UDP-alpha-D-glucose:glycogenin alpha-D-glucosyltransferase
UDP-alpha-D-glucose + glycogenin = UDP + alpha-D-glucosylglycogenin [RN:R03681]
UDP-alpha-D-glucose [CPD:C00029];
glycogenin [CPD:C01702]
UDP [CPD:C00015];
alpha-D-glucosylglycogenin [CPD:C02687]
The first reaction of this enzyme is to catalyse its own glucosylation, normally at Tyr-194 of the protein if this group is free. When Tyr-194 is replaced by Thr or Phe, the enzyme's Mn2+-dependent self-glucosylation activity is lost but its intermolecular transglucosylation ability remains [7]. It continues to glucosylate an existing glucosyl group until a length of about 5--13 residues has been formed. Further lengthening of the glycogen chain is then carried out by EC, glycogen (starch) synthase. The enzyme is not highly specific for the donor, using UDP-xylose in addition to UDP-glucose (although not glucosylating or xylosylating a xylosyl group so added). It can also use CDP-glucose and TDP-glucose, but not ADP-glucose or GDP-glucose. Similarly it is not highly specific for the acceptor, using water (i.e. hydrolysing UDP-glucose) among others. Various forms of the enzyme exist, and different forms predominate in different organs. Thus primate liver contains glycogenin-2, of molecular mass 66 kDa, whereas the more widespread form is glycogenin-1, with a molecular mass of 38 kDa.
EC created 1992 (EC created 1984, incorporated 2007)
K00750  glycogenin
HSA: 2992(GYG1) 8908(GYG2)
PTR: 460765(GYG1) 465469(GYG2)
PPS: 100977408(GYG1) 100995852(GYG2)
GGO: 101130219(GYG1) 101153384(GYG2)
PON: 100431369(GYG2) 100434629(GYG1)
NLE: 100579312(GYG1) 100598771(GYG2)
MCC: 712495(GYG1) 720568(GYG2)
MCF: 101926679(GYG1) 102135191 102136979(GYG2)
CSAB: 103231541(GYG2) 103241506(GYG1)
RRO: 104671556(GYG1) 104678275(GYG2)
RBB: 108518298(GYG1) 108537905(GYG2)
CJC: 100405072(GYG1) 100407906(GYG2) 108589838
SBQ: 101048137(GYG2) 101053597(GYG1)
MMU: 27357(Gyg)
RNO: 81675(Gyg1)
CGE: 100751671(Gyg1)
NGI: 103745990(Gyg1)
HGL: 101709254(Gyg2) 101716513(Gyg1)
CCAN: 109682828(Gyg1) 109698210(Gyg2)
OCU: 100009058(GYG1)
TUP: 102473120(GYG1) 102475805(GYG2)
CFA: 491717(GYG2) 611614(GYG1)
AML: 100468752(GYG2) 100473212(GYG1)
UMR: 103666302(GYG2) 103681483(GYG1)
ORO: 101375485(GYG1) 101384616(GYG2)
FCA: 101080946(GYG2) 101082176(GYG1)
PTG: 102959321(GYG2) 102968386(GYG1)
AJU: 106975172(GYG1) 106982065(GYG2)
BTA: 280812(GYG1) 505258(GYG2)
BOM: 102265731(GYG1) 102267728(GYG2)
BIU: 109555288(GYG2) 109563118(GYG1)
PHD: 102332563(GYG2) 102338836(GYG1)
CHX: 102175944(GYG2) 102184201(GYG1)
OAS: 101103289(GYG1) 101115765(GYG2)
SSC: 100620160(GYG1) 102163050(GYG2)
CFR: 102509684(GYG1) 102514856(GYG2)
CDK: 105089507(GYG1) 105097369(GYG2)
BACU: 103001146(GYG1) 103003273(GYG2)
LVE: 103082327(GYG2) 103089765(GYG1)
OOR: 101289834(GYG1) 101289938(GYG2)
ECB: 100058811(GYG1) 100064536(GYG2)
EPZ: 103558755(GYG1) 103567712(GYG2)
EAI: 106821913(GYG2) 106829422(GYG1)
MYB: 102241317(GYG2) 102244006(GYG1)
MYD: 102758721(GYG2) 102770013(GYG1)
HAI: 109373337(GYG2) 109375862(GYG1)
PALE: 102881568(GYG1) 102897839(GYG2)
LAV: 100655607(GYG2) 100674831(GYG1)
MDO: 100010174(GYG2) 100012580(GYG1)
SHR: 100926747(GYG1) 100931311(GYG2)
OAA: 100075592(GYG2)
GGA: 418660(GYG2) 425050(GYG1)
MGP: 100546787(GYG2) 100549941(GYG1)
CJO: 107305955(GYG2) 107318416(GYG1)
APLA: 101789597(GYG1) 101797402(GYG2)
ACYG: 106035748(GYG2) 106047693(GYG1)
TGU: 100219874(GYG2) 100226558(GYG1)
GFR: 102031328(GYG1) 102033549(GYG2)
FAB: 101817442(GYG2) 101821265(GYG1)
PHI: 102111619(GYG2) 102114605(GYG1)
PMAJ: 107208822(GYG1) 107211785(GYG2)
CCW: 104686004(GYG2) 104688114(GYG1)
FPG: 101918206(GYG2) 101922940(GYG1)
FCH: 102045779(GYG1) 102056432(GYG2)
CLV: 102093487(GYG2) 102093817(GYG1)
EGZ: 104122295(GYG1) 104127467(GYG2)
AAM: 106484200(GYG1) 106491336(GYG2)
ASN: 102371930(GYG1)
AMJ: 102570451(GYG1)
PSS: 102455672(GYG2) 102456769(GYG1)
CMY: 102942072(GYG1) 102942316(GYG2)
CPIC: 101931228(GYG1) 101934586 101951022(GYG2)
ACS: 100557488(gyg2) 100562212(gyg1)
PVT: 110073049(GYG1) 110075590(GYG2)
PBI: 103060810(GYG1) 103068160
GJA: 107123290(GYG2) 107124665(GYG1)
XLA: 100126641(gyg2.L) 398319 446485(gyg1.S) 779133(gyg)
XTR: 394883(gyg1) 496877(gyg2)
NPR: 108785075 108797305(GYG1)
DRE: 406831(gyg1a) 415152(gyg1b) 561803(gyg2)
IPU: 100528900(glyg) 108258917(gyg2) 108278056
PRET: 103456549 103458431(gyg1) 103477311(gyg2)
SFM: 108927809 108935215(gyg1)
LCM: 102348178(GYG1) 102367058(GYG2)
CMK: 103184449(gyg1)
CIN: 100178599
SPU: 754694
APLC: 110981654
DME: Dmel_CG44244(Glycogenin)
DSI: Dsimw501_GD11576(Dsim_GD11576)
MDE: 101889378
AME: 552421
BIM: 100747793
BTER: 100651605
SOC: 105200552
AEC: 105149519
ACEP: 105622442
HST: 105188090
CFO: 105251584
LHU: 105667339
PGC: 109853746
NVI: 100122700
TCA: 656402
DPA: 109541006
NVL: 108564230
BMOR: 101741984
PRAP: 111000962
API: 100164266
TUT: 107368895
CEL: CELE_F56B6.4(gyg-1) CELE_T25E12.5(gyg-2)
CBR: CBG13253 CBG14232(Cbr-uvt-5)
BMY: Bm1_16775
TSP: Tsp_05820
CRG: 105334348
MYI: 110449160
OBI: 106872431
HMG: 100213497
CPAP: 110817512
GRA: 105792073
AIP: 107629895
LJA: Lj0g3v0036679.1(Lj0g3v0036679.1) Lj2g3v2001740.1(Lj2g3v2001740.1) Lj4g3v1273430.1(Lj4g3v1273430.1)
MCHA: 111021355
HAN: 110928800
PPP: 112286539
APRO: F751_5874
ERC: Ecym_5197
KMX: KLMA_10347(GLG1)
NCS: NCAS_0B08120(NCAS0B08120)
NDI: NDAI_0B05430(NDAI0B05430)
TPF: TPHA_0A02970(TPHA0A02970)
TBL: TBLA_0D05740(TBLA0D05740)
TDL: TDEL_0H00940(TDEL0H00940)
KAF: KAFR_0G00660(KAFR0G00660)
PIC: PICST_76484(GLG2) PICST_86206(GLG1)
CAL: CAALFM_C101360CA(CaO19.3325) CAALFM_C306450WA(GLG2)
SLB: AWJ20_3597(GLG1)
NCR: NCU06698(gnn)
MAW: MAC_08571
CMT: CCM_03980
MBE: MBM_09939
ABE: ARB_05633
TVE: TRV_05535
PTE: PTT_07198
SMIN: v1.2.002165.t1(symbB.v1.2.002165.t1) v1.2.009238.t1(symbB.v1.2.009238.t1) v1.2.025564.t1(symbB.v1.2.025564.t1)
 » show all
1  [PMID:809265]
Krisman CR, Barengo R.
A precursor of glycogen biosynthesis: alpha-1,4-glucan-protein.
Eur. J. Biochem. 52 (1975) 117-23.
2  [PMID:3121316]
Pitcher J, Smythe C, Campbell DG, Cohen P.
Identification of the 38-kDa subunit of rabbit skeletal muscle glycogen synthase as glycogenin.
Eur. J. Biochem. 169 (1987) 497-502.
3  [PMID:2970965]
Pitcher J, Smythe C, Cohen P.
Glycogenin is the priming glucosyltransferase required for the initiation of glycogen biogenesis in rabbit skeletal muscle.
Eur. J. Biochem. 176 (1988) 391-5.
Kennedy, L.D., Kirkman, B.R., Lomako, J., Rodriguez, I.R. and Whelan, W.J.
The biogenesis of rabbit-muscle glycogen.
In: Berman, M.C. and Opie, L.A. (Eds.), Membranes and Muscle, ICSU Press/IRL Press, Oxford, 1985, p. 65-84.
5  [PMID:4062948]
Rodriguez IR, Whelan WJ.
A novel glycosyl-amino acid linkage: rabbit-muscle glycogen is covalently linked to a protein via tyrosine.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 132 (1985) 829-36.
6  [PMID:2973423]
Lomako J, Lomako WM, Whelan WJ.
A self-glucosylating protein is the primer for rabbit muscle glycogen biosynthesis.
FASEB. J. 2 (1988) 3097-103.
7  [PMID:7797519]
Alonso MD, Lomako J, Lomako WM, Whelan WJ.
Catalytic activities of glycogenin additional to autocatalytic self-glucosylation.
J. Biol. Chem. 270 (1995) 15315-9.
8  [PMID:7672505]
Alonso MD, Lomako J, Lomako WM, Whelan WJ.
A new look at the biogenesis of glycogen.
FASEB. J. 9 (1995) 1126-37.
9  [PMID:9857012]
Mu J, Roach PJ.
Characterization of human glycogenin-2, a self-glucosylating initiator of liver glycogen metabolism.
J. Biol. Chem. 273 (1998) 34850-6.
10 [PMID:12051921]
Gibbons BJ, Roach PJ, Hurley TD.
Crystal structure of the autocatalytic initiator of glycogen biosynthesis, glycogenin.
J. Mol. Biol. 319 (2002) 463-77.
Other DBs
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IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature:
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database:
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database:
CAS: 117590-73-5

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