KEGG   ENZYME: 1.17.3.2Help
Entry
EC 1.17.3.2                 Enzyme                                 

Name
xanthine oxidase;
hypoxanthine oxidase;
hypoxanthine:oxygen oxidoreductase;
Schardinger enzyme;
xanthine oxidoreductase;
hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase;
xanthine:O2 oxidoreductase;
xanthine:xanthine oxidase
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Acting on CH or CH2 groups;
With oxygen as acceptor
BRITE hierarchy
Sysname
xanthine:oxygen oxidoreductase
Reaction(IUBMB)
xanthine + H2O + O2 = urate + H2O2 [RN:R02107]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
xanthine [CPD:C00385];
H2O [CPD:C00001];
O2 [CPD:C00007]
Product
urate [CPD:C00366];
H2O2 [CPD:C00027]
Comment
An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein (FAD) containing [2Fe-2S] centres. Also oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes, but is distinct from EC 1.2.3.1, aldehyde oxidase. Under some conditions the product is mainly superoxide rather than peroxide: RH + H2O + 2 O2 = ROH + 2 O2.- + 2 H+. The mammalian enzyme predominantly exists as an NAD-dependent dehydrogenase (EC 1.17.1.4, xanthine dehydrogenase). During purification the enzyme is largely converted to the O2-dependent xanthine oxidase form (EC 1.17.3.2). The conversion can be triggered by several mechanisms, including the oxidation of cysteine thiols to form disulfide bonds [4,5,7,10] [which can be catalysed by EC 1.8.4.7, enzyme-thiol transhydrogenase (glutathione-disulfide) in the presence of glutathione disulfide] or limited proteolysis, which results in irreversible conversion. The conversion can also occur in vivo [4,6,10].
Pathway
Purine metabolism
Caffeine metabolism
Drug metabolism - other enzymes
Metabolic pathways
Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
Orthology
K00106  
xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase
Genes
HSA: 
7498(XDH)
PTR: 
470347(XDH)
PPS: 
GGO: 
PON: 
MCC: 
708046(XDH)
MCF: 
MMU: 
22436(Xdh)
RNO: 
497811(Xdh)
CGE: 
HGL: 
TUP: 
CFA: 
483028(XDH)
AML: 
FCA: 
493692(XDH)
BTA: 
280960(XDH)
BOM: 
PHD: 
CHX: 
SSC: 
CFR: 
ECB: 
MYB: 
MDO: 
SHR: 
OAA: 
GGA: 
396025(XDH)
MGP: 
TGU: 
FAB: 
PHI: 
APLA: 
FPG: 
FCH: 
CLV: 
ASN: 
PSS: 
ACS: 
XTR: 
DRE: 
560486(xdh)
TRU: 
MZE: 
OLA: 
XMA: 
BFO: 
CIN: 
SPU: 
576712(XDH)
DME: 
DPO: 
Dpse_GA20500(Dpse_ry)
DAN: 
Dana_GF16930(Dana_Xdh)
DER: 
DPE: 
DSE: 
DSI: 
Dsim_GD18875(Dsim_ry)
DWI: 
DYA: 
DGR: 
DMO: 
DVI: 
Dvir_GJ10353(Dvir_ry)
AGA: 
AAG: 
CQU: 
AME: 
724718(GB17045)
NVI: 
TCA: 
BMOR: 
692751(Xdh1)
API: 
PHU: 
CEL: 
CELE_F55B11.1(F55B11.1)
CBR: 
NVE: 
TAD: 
AQU: 
ATH: 
AT4G34890(XDH1) AT4G34900(XDH2)
ALY: 
CRB: 
EUS: 
CIT: 
CIC: 
GMX: 
MTR: 
CAM: 
FVE: 
CSV: 
RCU: 
POP: 
POPTR_0009s05940g(POPTRDRAFT_804467)
VVI: 
SLY: 
SOT: 
OSA: 
DOSA: 
Os03t0429800-01(Os03g0429800)
BDI: 
SITA: 
SMO: 
PPP: 
CRE: 
VCN: 
MIS: 
CSL: 
CVR: 
GSL: 
CCP: 
PPA: 
NCR: 
SMP: 
PAN: 
TTT: 
MTM: 
MGR: 
FGR: 
NHE: 
VAL: 
SSL: 
BFU: 
ANI: 
NFI: 
AFM: 
AOR: 
AOR_1_1958154(AO090003001099)
ANG: 
ANI_1_902184(An04g05440)
AFV: 
ACT: 
PCS: 
CIM: 
CPW: 
PBL: 
URE: 
ABE: 
TVE: 
AJE: 
PNO: 
PTE: 
ZTR: 
UMA: 
MBR: 
DDI: 
DPP: 
DFA: 
ACAN: 
PTI: 
TPS: 
PIF: 
EHX: 
GTT: 
NGR: 
TVA: 
MFU: 
ARA: 
SACI: 
 » show all
Taxonomy
Reference
1
  Authors
Avis, P.G., Bergel, F. and Bray, R.C.
  Title
Cellular constituents. The chemistry of xanthine oxidase. Part I. The preparation of a crystalline xanthine oxidase from cow's milk.
  Journal
J. Chem. Soc. (Lond.) (1955) 1100-1105.
Reference
2  [PMID:6960894]
  Authors
Battelli MG, Lorenzoni E.
  Title
Purification and properties of a new glutathione-dependent thiol:disulphide oxidoreductase from rat liver.
  Journal
Biochem. J. 207 (1982) 133-8.
  Organism
Rattus norvegicus [GN:rno]
Reference
3
  Authors
Bray, R.C.
  Title
Xanthine oxidase.
  Journal
In: Boyer, P.D., Lardy, H. and Myrback, K. (Eds.), The Enzymes, 2nd ed., vol. 7, Academic Press, New York, 1963, p. 533-556.
Reference
4  [PMID:4342395]
  Authors
Corte ED, Stirpe F.
  Title
The regulation of rat liver xanthine oxidase. Involvement of thiol groups in the conversion of the enzyme activity from dehydrogenase (type D) into oxidase (type O) and purification of the enzyme.
  Journal
Biochem. J. 126 (1972) 739-45.
  Organism
Rattus norvegicus [GN:rno]
Reference
5  [PMID:3459393]
  Authors
Ikegami T, Nishino T
  Title
The presence of desulfo xanthine dehydrogenase in purified and crude enzyme preparations from rat liver.
  Journal
Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 247 (1986) 254-60.
Reference
6  [PMID:3294898]
  Authors
Engerson TD, McKelvey TG, Rhyne DB, Boggio EB, Snyder SJ, Jones HP
  Title
Conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase to oxidase in ischemic rat tissues.
  Journal
J. Clin. Invest. 79 (1987) 1564-70.
Reference
7  [PMID:2610112]
  Authors
Saito T, Nishino T, Tsushima K
  Title
Interconversion between NAD-dependent and O2-dependent types of rat liver xanthine dehydrogenase and difference in kinetic and redox properties between them.
  Journal
Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 253B (1989) 179-83.
Reference
8  [PMID:2350174]
  Authors
Carpani G, Racchi M, Ghezzi P, Terao M, Garattini E.
  Title
Purification and characterization of mouse liver xanthine oxidase.
  Journal
Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 279 (1990) 237-41.
  Organism
mouse [GN:mmu]
Reference
9  [PMID:11092937]
  Authors
Eger BT, Okamoto K, Enroth C, Sato M, Nishino T, Pai EF, Nishino T.
  Title
Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of xanthine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase isolated from bovine milk.
  Journal
Acta. Crystallogr. D. Biol. Crystallogr. 56 Pt 12 (2000) 1656-8.
  Organism
Bos taurus [GN:bta]
Reference
10 [PMID:18513323]
  Authors
Nishino T, Okamoto K, Eger BT, Pai EF, Nishino T
  Title
Mammalian xanthine oxidoreductase - mechanism of transition from xanthine dehydrogenase to xanthine oxidase.
  Journal
FEBS. J. 275 (2008) 3278-89.
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 
UM-BBD (Biocatalysis/Biodegradation Database): 
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 
CAS: 
9002-17-9

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