KEGG   PATHWAY: hsa04725Help
Entry
hsa04725                    Pathway                                

Name
Cholinergic synapse - Homo sapiens (human)
Description
Acetylcholine (ACh) is a neurotransmitter widely distributed in the central (and also peripheral, autonomic and enteric) nervous system (CNS). In the CNS, ACh facilitates many functions, such as learning, memory, attention and motor control. When released in the synaptic cleft, ACh binds to two distinct types of receptors: Ionotropic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) and metabotropic muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). The activation of nAChR by ACh leads to the rapid influx of Na+ and Ca2+ and subsequent cellular depolarization. Activation of mAChRs is relatively slow (milliseconds to seconds) and, depending on the subtypes present (M1-M5), they directly alter cellular homeostasis of phospholipase C, inositol trisphosphate, cAMP, and free calcium. In the cleft, ACh may also be hydrolyzed by acetylcholinesterase (AChE) into choline and acetate. The choline derived from ACh hydrolysis is recovered by a presynaptic high-affinity choline transporter (CHT).
Class
Organismal Systems; Nervous system
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Cholinergic synapse
hsa04725

All organismsOrtholog table
Disease
H00215  
Periodic paralysis
H00606  
Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy
H00746  
Hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HypoPP)
H00748  
Andersen-Tawil syndrome (ATS)
H00749  
Episodic ataxias
H00770  
Congenital myasthenic syndrome
H00775  
Familial or sporadic hemiplegic migraine
H00806  
Benign familial neonatal and infantile epilepsies
H00807  
Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE)
Drug
D00043  
Isoflurophate (USP)
D00113  
Atropine (USP)
D00138  
Scopolamine (INN)
D00147  
Hyoscyamine (USP)
D00196  
Physostigmine (USP)
D00232  
Methyloctatropine bromide (JAN)
D00270  
Chlorpromazine (USP/INN)
D00397  
Tropicamide (JP16/USP/INN)
D00465  
Oxybutynin (USAN/INN)
D00469  
Pralidoxime chloride (USP)
D00481  
Propantheline bromide (JP16/USP/INN)
D00487  
Pyridostigmine bromide (JP16/USP/INN)
D00524  
Carbachol (JAN/USP/INN)
D00525  
Pilocarpine (JAN/USP)
D00540  
Glycopyrronium bromide (JAN/INN)
D00611  
Mecamylamine hydrochloride (USP)
D00646  
Tolterodine (USAN/INN)
D00661  
Cevimeline hydrochloride hydrate (JAN)
D00667  
Demecarium bromide (USP/INN)
D00670  
Donepezil hydrochloride (JP16/USAN)
D00715  
Hyoscine methobromide (INN)
D00717  
Dicyclomine hydrochloride (JAN/USP)
D00719  
Hyoscyamine sulfate (USP)
D00720  
Mepenzolate bromide (JP16/INN)
D00721  
Methanthelinium bromide (INN)
D00722  
Oxybutynin hydrochloride (JAN)
D00723  
Tridihexethyl chloride (BAN)
D00774  
Orphenadrine citrate (USP)
D00778  
Benztropine mesilate (JAN)
D00779  
Biperiden (JAN/USP/INN)
D00782  
Procyclidine hydrochloride (USP)
D00787  
Trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride (JP16/USP)
D00789  
Chlorpromazine hydrochloride (JP16/USP)
D00994  
Edrophonium chloride (JP16/USP/INN)
D00995  
Neostigmine bromide (JAN/USP/INN)
D00998  
Neostigmine methylsulfate (JP16/USP)
D00999  
Acetylcholine chloride (JP16/USP/INN)
D01000  
Bethanechol chloride (JP16/USP)
D01001  
Ambenonium chloride (JP16/INN)
D01002  
Cyclopentolate hydrochloride (JP16/USP)
D01003  
Hexocyclium metilsulfate (INN)
D01004  
Homatropine hydrobromide (JP16/USP)
D01005  
Isopropamide iodide (JAN/USP/INN)
D01006  
Oxyphencyclimine hydrochloride (JAN)
D01007  
Propiverine hydrochloride (JP16)
D01077  
Atropine methonitrate (JAN/INN)
D01103  
Trospium chloride (JAN/USAN/INN)
D01118  
Profenamine hydrochloride (JAN)
D01148  
Tolterodine tartrate (JAN/USAN)
D01165  
Piperidolate hydrochloride (JAN)
D01175  
Carpronium chloride (JAN/INN)
D01201  
Tiemonium iodide (JAN/INN)
D01228  
Distigmine bromide (JP16/INN)
D01231  
Piroheptine hydrochloride (JAN)
D01269  
Solifenacin succinate (JAN/USAN/INN)
D01297  
Pirenzepine hydrochloride (USAN)
D01315  
Methylbenactyzium bromide (JP16/INN)
D01359  
Etomidoline (JAN/INN)
D01377  
Prifinium bromide (JAN/INN)
D01451  
Scopolamine butylbromide (JP16)
D01463  
Diponium bromide (JAN/INN)
D01491  
Butropium bromide (JP16/INN)
D01500  
Trimebutine maleate (JP16)
D01521  
Pipethanate hydrochloride (JAN)
D01538  
Valethamate bromide (JAN)
D01572  
Pralidoxime iodide (JAN/USAN)
D01600  
Diphenylpiperidinomethyldioxolan iodide (JAN)
D01648  
Hyoscyamine methylbromide (JAN)
D01699  
Darifenacin hydrobromide (JAN/USAN)
D01815  
Oxapium iodide (JP16/INN)
D01871  
Metixene hydrochloride (JAN)
D01875  
Tiquizium bromide (JAN/INN)
D01929  
Tiotropium bromide hydrate (JAN)
D01946  
Oxitropium bromide (JAN/INN)
D01955  
Aclatonium napadisilate (JAN)
D01976  
N-Methylscopolamine methylsulfate (JAN)
D01987  
Pipethanate ethobromide (JAN)
D02068  
Tacrine hydrochloride (USP)
D02069  
Atropine sulfate (JP16/USP)
D02070  
Homatropine methylbromide (USP)
D02071  
Scopolamine hydrobromide hydrate (JP16)
D02173  
Galantamine hydrobromide (JAN/USAN)
D02193  
Ecothiopate iodide (JP16/INN)
D02200  
Pilocarpine hydrochloride (JP16/USP)
D02202  
Lobeline hydrochloride (JAN)
D02204  
Hexamethonium bromide (JAN/INN)
D02212  
Ipratropium bromide hydrate (JP16)
D02246  
Biperiden hydrochloride (JP16/USP)
D02247  
Biperiden lactate (JAN/USP)
D02364  
Lobeline (INN)
D02417  
Flutropium bromide (JAN)
D02418  
Physostigmine salicylate (JAN/USP)
D02535  
Timepidium bromide hydrate (JP16)
D02558  
Rivastigmine tartrate
D02565  
Dimetacrine (INN)
D02599  
Orphenadrine hydrochloride
D02729  
Itopride hydrochloride (JAN)
D02750  
Aceclidine (USAN/INN)
D02839  
Altinicline maleate (USAN)
D02876  
Alvameline maleate (USAN)
D03011  
Atropine oxide hydrochloride (USAN)
D03087  
Benzetimide hydrochloride (USAN)
D03099  
Besipirdine hydrochloride (USAN)
D03239  
Ladostigil tartrate (USAN)
D03264  
Mazaticol hydrochloride hydrate (JAN)
D03274  
Chlorpromazine hibenzate (JAN)
D03276  
Profenamine hibenzate (JAN)
D03378  
Caracemide (USAN)
D03654  
Darifenacin (USAN/INN)
D03711  
Dexetimide (USAN/INN)
D03751  
Icopezil maleate (USAN)
D03814  
Atropine methylbromide (JAN)
D03822  
Rivastigmine (JAN/USAN/INN)
D03826  
Physostigmine sulfate (USP)
D04034  
Chlorpromazine phenolphthalinate (JAN)
D04057  
Esoxybutynin chloride (USAN)
D04087  
Ethybenztropine (USAN)
D04116  
Eucatropine hydrochloride (USP XXXII)
D04292  
Galantamine (USAN/INN)
D04479  
Hyoscyamine hydrobromide (USP)
D04970  
Methacholine chloride (USAN/INN)
D05035  
Milameline hydrochloride (USAN)
D05215  
Obidoxime chloride (USAN)
D05276  
Pirenzepine hydrochloride hydrate (JP16)
D05478  
Pilocarpine nitrate (USP)
D05590  
Pralidoxime mesylate (USAN)
D05779  
Sabcomeline hydrochloride (USAN)
D06000  
Talsaclidine fumarate (USAN)
D06015  
Tazomeline citrate (USAN)
D06273  
Imidafenacin (JAN/INN)
D06282  
Varenicline tartrate (USAN)
D06288  
Velnacrine maleate (USAN)
D06330  
Xanomeline (USAN)
D06331  
Xanomeline tartrate (USAN)
D06363  
Ziconotide (USAN/INN)
D07076  
Camylofin (INN)
D07099  
Cimetropium bromide (INN)
D07226  
Fesoterodine (INN)
D07349  
Choline alfoscerate (INN)
D07477  
Atropine oxide (INN)
D07511  
Benzatropine (INN)
D07513  
Benzetimide (INN)
D07667  
Cevimeline (INN)
D07759  
Cyclopentolate (INN)
D07804  
Dexetimide hydrochloride
D07820  
Dicycloverine (INN)
D07869  
Donepezil (INN)
D07951  
Fentonium bromide (INN)
D08094  
Itopride (INN)
D08138  
Lobeline sulfate
D08157  
Mazaticol (INN)
D08209  
Metixene (INN)
D08261  
Neostigmine (BAN)
D08305  
Orphenadrine (INN)
D08325  
Oxyphencyclimine (INN)
D08376  
Pilocarpine borate
D08382  
Piperidolate (INN)
D08384  
Pipethanate (INN)
D08389  
Pirenzepine (INN)
D08395  
Piroheptine (INN)
D08425  
Procyclidine (INN)
D08426  
Profenamine (INN)
D08441  
Propiverine (INN)
D08522  
Solifenacin (INN)
D08555  
Tacrine (INN)
D08595  
Tiemonium methylsulfate
D08638  
Trihexyphenidyl (INN)
D08639  
Trimebutine (INN)
D08669  
Varenicline (INN)
D08686  
Ziconotide acetate
D08837  
Aclidinium bromide (JAN/USAN/INN)
D08838  
Acotiamide hydrochloride hydrate (JAN)
D08923  
Fesoterodine fumarate (JAN/USP)
D08935  
Ispronicline (INN/USAN)
D08987  
Rivanicline galactarate (USAN)
D09367  
Pozanicline (USAN)
D09368  
Pozanicline tartrate (USAN)
D09382  
Sofinicline (USAN)
D09383  
Sofinicline benzenesulfonate (USAN)
D09402  
Darotropium bromide (USAN/INN)
D09750  
Ipidacrine hydrochloride hydrate (JAN)
D09752  
Carpronium chloride hydrate (JAN)
D09917  
Latrepirdine (USAN/INN)
D09918  
Latrepirdine dihydrochloride (USAN)
D10111  
Dexmecamylamine (USAN)
D10112  
Dexmecamylamine hydrochloride (USAN)
D10180  
Umeclidinium (USAN)
D10181  
Umeclidinium bromide (JAN/USAN)
Other DBs
BSID: 
GO: 
Organism
Homo sapiens (human) [GN:hsa]
Gene
1103  
CHAT; choline O-acetyltransferase [KO:K00623] [EC:2.3.1.6]
43  
ACHE; acetylcholinesterase (Yt blood group) [KO:K01049] [EC:3.1.1.7]
6572  
SLC18A3; solute carrier family 18 (vesicular acetylcholine transporter), member 3 [KO:K14636]
1128  
CHRM1; cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 1 [KO:K04129]
1131  
CHRM3; cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 3 [KO:K04131]
1133  
CHRM5; cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 5 [KO:K04133]
2776  
GNAQ; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), q polypeptide [KO:K04634]
2767  
GNA11; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha 11 (Gq class) [KO:K04635]
23236  
PLCB1; phospholipase C, beta 1 (phosphoinositide-specific) [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
5330  
PLCB2; phospholipase C, beta 2 [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
5331  
PLCB3; phospholipase C, beta 3 (phosphatidylinositol-specific) [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
5332  
PLCB4; phospholipase C, beta 4 [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
3708  
ITPR1; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, type 1 [KO:K04958]
3709  
ITPR2; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, type 2 [KO:K04959]
3710  
ITPR3; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, type 3 [KO:K04960]
5578  
PRKCA; protein kinase C, alpha [KO:K02677] [EC:2.7.11.13]
5579  
PRKCB; protein kinase C, beta [KO:K02677] [EC:2.7.11.13]
5582  
PRKCG; protein kinase C, gamma [KO:K02677] [EC:2.7.11.13]
3784  
KCNQ1; potassium voltage-gated channel, KQT-like subfamily, member 1 [KO:K04926]
3785  
KCNQ2; potassium voltage-gated channel, KQT-like subfamily, member 2 [KO:K04927]
3786  
KCNQ3; potassium voltage-gated channel, KQT-like subfamily, member 3 [KO:K04928]
9132  
KCNQ4; potassium voltage-gated channel, KQT-like subfamily, member 4 [KO:K04929]
56479  
KCNQ5; potassium voltage-gated channel, KQT-like subfamily, member 5 [KO:K04930]
3759  
KCNJ2; potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 2 [KO:K04996]
3768  
KCNJ12; potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 12 [KO:K05005]
3761  
KCNJ4; potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 4 [KO:K04998]
3770  
KCNJ14; potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 14 [KO:K05007]
1129  
CHRM2; cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 2 [KO:K04130]
1132  
CHRM4; cholinergic receptor, muscarinic 4 [KO:K04132]
2770  
GNAI1; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 1 [KO:K04630]
2773  
GNAI3; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 3 [KO:K04630]
2771  
GNAI2; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 2 [KO:K04630]
2775  
GNAO1; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha activating activity polypeptide O [KO:K04534]
2782  
GNB1; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 1 [KO:K04536]
2783  
GNB2; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 2 [KO:K04537]
2784  
GNB3; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 3 [KO:K07825]
59345  
GNB4; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 4 [KO:K04538]
10681  
GNB5; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta 5 [KO:K04539]
54331  
GNG2; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 2 [KO:K07826]
2785  
GNG3; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 3 [KO:K04540]
2786  
GNG4; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 4 [KO:K04541]
2787  
GNG5; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 5 [KO:K04542]
2788  
GNG7; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 7 [KO:K04543]
94235  
GNG8; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 8 [KO:K04544]
2790  
GNG10; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 10 [KO:K04545]
2791  
GNG11; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 11 [KO:K04546]
55970  
GNG12; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 12 [KO:K04347]
648044  
guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein); K04347 guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-12 [KO:K04347]
51764  
GNG13; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 13 [KO:K04547]
2792  
GNGT1; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma transducing activity polypeptide 1 [KO:K04548]
2793  
GNGT2; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma transducing activity polypeptide 2 [KO:K04549]
3760  
KCNJ3; potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 3 [KO:K04997]
3763  
KCNJ6; potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 6 [KO:K05000]
3265  
HRAS; Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog [KO:K02833]
3845  
KRAS; Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog [KO:K07827]
4893  
NRAS; neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog [KO:K07828]
5604  
MAP2K1; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 [KO:K04368] [EC:2.7.12.2]
5594  
MAPK1; mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
5595  
MAPK3; mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
2353  
FOS; FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog [KO:K04379]
1139  
CHRNA7; cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha 7 (neuronal) [KO:K04809]
1137  
CHRNA4; cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha 4 (neuronal) [KO:K04806]
1141  
CHRNB2; cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, beta 2 (neuronal) [KO:K04813]
1136  
CHRNA3; cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha 3 (neuronal) [KO:K04805]
1143  
CHRNB4; cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, beta 4 (neuronal) [KO:K04815]
8973  
CHRNA6; cholinergic receptor, nicotinic, alpha 6 (neuronal) [KO:K04808]
107  
ADCY1; adenylate cyclase 1 (brain) [KO:K08041] [EC:4.6.1.1]
108  
ADCY2; adenylate cyclase 2 (brain) [KO:K08042] [EC:4.6.1.1]
109  
ADCY3; adenylate cyclase 3 [KO:K08043] [EC:4.6.1.1]
196883  
ADCY4; adenylate cyclase 4 [KO:K08044] [EC:4.6.1.1]
111  
ADCY5; adenylate cyclase 5 [KO:K08045] [EC:4.6.1.1]
112  
ADCY6; adenylate cyclase 6 [KO:K08046] [EC:4.6.1.1]
113  
ADCY7; adenylate cyclase 7 [KO:K08047] [EC:4.6.1.1]
114  
ADCY8; adenylate cyclase 8 (brain) [KO:K08048] [EC:4.6.1.1]
115  
ADCY9; adenylate cyclase 9 [KO:K08049] [EC:4.6.1.1]
5566  
PRKACA; protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, alpha [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
5567  
PRKACB; protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, beta [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
5568  
PRKACG; protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, gamma [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
5613  
PRKX; protein kinase, X-linked [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
1385  
CREB1; cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 [KO:K05870]
468  
ATF4; activating transcription factor 4 [KO:K04374]
10488  
CREB3; cAMP responsive element binding protein 3 [KO:K09048]
90993  
CREB3L1; cAMP responsive element binding protein 3-like 1 [KO:K09048]
64764  
CREB3L2; cAMP responsive element binding protein 3-like 2 [KO:K09048]
84699  
CREB3L3; cAMP responsive element binding protein 3-like 3 [KO:K09048]
148327  
CREB3L4; cAMP responsive element binding protein 3-like 4 [KO:K09048]
9586  
CREB5; cAMP responsive element binding protein 5 [KO:K09047]
815  
CAMK2A; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha [KO:K04515] [EC:2.7.11.17]
817  
CAMK2D; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta [KO:K04515] [EC:2.7.11.17]
816  
CAMK2B; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II beta [KO:K04515] [EC:2.7.11.17]
818  
CAMK2G; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gamma [KO:K04515] [EC:2.7.11.17]
814  
CAMK4; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV [KO:K05869] [EC:2.7.11.17]
3717  
JAK2; Janus kinase 2 [KO:K04447] [EC:2.7.10.2]
2534  
FYN; FYN oncogene related to SRC, FGR, YES [KO:K05703] [EC:2.7.10.2]
5290  
PIK3CA; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5293  
PIK3CD; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit delta [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5291  
PIK3CB; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit beta [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5294  
PIK3CG; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit gamma [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5295  
PIK3R1; phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 1 (alpha) [KO:K02649]
23533  
PIK3R5; phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 5 [KO:K02649]
5296  
PIK3R2; phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 2 (beta) [KO:K02649]
8503  
PIK3R3; phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 3 (gamma) [KO:K02649]
207  
AKT1; v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
208  
AKT2; v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 2 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
10000  
AKT3; v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 3 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
596  
BCL2; B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 [KO:K02161]
773  
CACNA1A; calcium channel, voltage-dependent, P/Q type, alpha 1A subunit [KO:K04344]
774  
CACNA1B; calcium channel, voltage-dependent, N type, alpha 1B subunit [KO:K04849]
775  
CACNA1C; calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit [KO:K04850]
776  
CACNA1D; calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1D subunit [KO:K04851]
778  
CACNA1F; calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1F subunit [KO:K04853]
779  
CACNA1S; calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1S subunit [KO:K04857]
60482  
SLC5A7; solute carrier family 5 (sodium/choline cotransporter), member 7 [KO:K14387]
Compound
C00010  
CoA
C00024  
Acetyl-CoA
C00033  
Acetate
C00076  
Calcium cation
C00114  
Choline
C00165  
Diacylglycerol
C00238  
Potassium cation
C00575  
3',5'-Cyclic AMP
C01245  
D-myo-Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate
C01330  
Sodium cation
C01996  
Acetylcholine
C04637  
1-Phosphatidyl-D-myo-inositol 4,5-bisphosphate
Reference
  Authors
Nestler EJ, Hyman SE, Malenka RC.
  Title
Molecular neuropharmacology: A foundation for clinical neuroscience
  Journal
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Nicholls JG, Martin AR, Wallace BG, Fuchs PA.
  Title
From neuron to brain, 4th ed.
  Journal
Sunderland, MA: Sinauer associates (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Dajas-Bailador F, Wonnacott S
  Title
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and the regulation of neuronal signalling.
  Journal
Trends Pharmacol Sci 25:317-24 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Resende RR, Adhikari A
  Title
Cholinergic receptor pathways involved in apoptosis, cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation.
  Journal
Cell Commun Signal 7:20 (2009)
Reference
  Authors
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