KEGG   PATHWAY: ko00010Help
Entry
ko00010                     Pathway                                

Name
Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
Description
Glycolysis is the process of converting glucose into pyruvate and generating small amounts of ATP (energy) and NADH (reducing power). It is a central pathway that produces important precursor metabolites: six-carbon compounds of glucose-6P and fructose-6P and three-carbon compounds of glycerone-P, glyceraldehyde-3P, glycerate-3P, phosphoenolpyruvate, and pyruvate [MD:M00001]. Acetyl-CoA, another important precursor metabolite, is produced by oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate [MD:M00307]. When the enzyme genes of this pathway are examined in completely sequenced genomes, the reaction steps of three-carbon compounds from glycerone-P to pyruvate form a conserved core module [MD:M00002], which is found in almost all organisms and which sometimes contains operon structures in bacterial genomes. Gluconeogenesis is a synthesis pathway of glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors. It is essentially a reversal of glycolysis with minor variations of alternative paths [MD:M00003].
Class
Metabolism; Carbohydrate metabolism
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
ko00010

All organismsOrtholog table
Module
M00001  
Glycolysis (Embden-Meyerhof pathway), glucose => pyruvate [PATH:ko00010]
M00002  
Glycolysis, core module involving three-carbon compounds [PATH:ko00010]
M00003  
Gluconeogenesis, oxaloacetate => fructose-6P [PATH:ko00010]
M00114  
Ascorbate biosynthesis, plants, glucose-6P => ascorbate [PATH:ko00010]
M00265  
PTS system, glucose-specific II component [PATH:ko00010]
M00266  
PTS system, maltose/glucose-specific II component [PATH:ko00010]
M00272  
PTS system, beta-glucoside (arbutin/salicin/cellobiose)-specific II component [PATH:ko00010]
M00307  
Pyruvate oxidation, pyruvate => acetyl-CoA [PATH:ko00010]
M00809  
PTS system, glucose-specific II component [PATH:ko00010]
Disease
H00069  
Glycogen storage diseases (GSD)
H00071  
Hereditary fructose intolerance
H00072  
Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency
H00114  
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency
H00664  
Anemia due to disorders of glycolytic enzymes
H01071  
Acute alcohol sensitivity
H01096  
Pyruvate kinase (PK) deficiency
H01267  
Familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (HHF)
H01760  
Hepatic glycogen storage disease
H01762  
Muscle glycogen storage disease
H01939  
Glycogen storage disease type I
H01945  
Glycogen storage disease type VII
H01946  
Glycogen storage disease type XI
H01951  
Glycogen storage disease type X
H01952  
Glycogen storage disease type XII
H01953  
Glycogen storage disease type XIII
H01954  
Glycogen storage disease type XIV
Other DBs
BSID: 
GO: 
Orthology
K00844  
hexokinase [EC:2.7.1.1]
K12407  
glucokinase [EC:2.7.1.2]
K00845  
glucokinase [EC:2.7.1.2]
K01810  
glucose-6-phosphate isomerase [EC:5.3.1.9]
K06859  
glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, archaeal [EC:5.3.1.9]
K13810  
transaldolase / glucose-6-phosphate isomerase [EC:5.3.1.9 2.2.1.2]
K15916  
glucose/mannose-6-phosphate isomerase [EC:5.3.1.8 5.3.1.9]
K00850  
6-phosphofructokinase 1 [EC:2.7.1.11]
K16370  
6-phosphofructokinase 2 [EC:2.7.1.11]
K21071  
ATP-dependent phosphofructokinase / diphosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase [EC:2.7.1.90 2.7.1.11]
K00918  
ADP-dependent phosphofructokinase/glucokinase [EC:2.7.1.147 2.7.1.146]
K00895  
diphosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase [EC:2.7.1.90]
K03841  
fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase I [EC:3.1.3.11]
K02446  
fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase II [EC:3.1.3.11]
K11532  
fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase II / sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase [EC:3.1.3.37 3.1.3.11]
K01086  
fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase I / sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase [EC:3.1.3.37 3.1.3.11]
K04041  
fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase III [EC:3.1.3.11]
K01623  
fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, class I [EC:4.1.2.13]
K11645  
fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, class I [EC:4.1.2.13]
K01624  
fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, class II [EC:4.1.2.13]
K01622  
fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase/phosphatase [EC:3.1.3.11 4.1.2.13]
K16305  
fructose-bisphosphate aldolase / 6-deoxy-5-ketofructose 1-phosphate synthase [EC:2.2.1.11 4.1.2.13]
K16306  
fructose-bisphosphate aldolase / 2-amino-3,7-dideoxy-D-threo-hept-6-ulosonate synthase [EC:2.2.1.10 4.1.2.13]
K01803  
triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) [EC:5.3.1.1]
K00134  
glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase [EC:1.2.1.12]
K10705  
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, spermatogenic [EC:1.2.1.12]
K00150  
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD(P)) [EC:1.2.1.59]
K00927  
phosphoglycerate kinase [EC:2.7.2.3]
K01834  
2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-dependent phosphoglycerate mutase [EC:5.4.2.11]
K15633  
2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglycerate mutase [EC:5.4.2.12]
K15634  
probable phosphoglycerate mutase [EC:5.4.2.12]
K15635  
2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglycerate mutase [EC:5.4.2.12]
K01689  
enolase [EC:4.2.1.11]
K00873  
pyruvate kinase [EC:2.7.1.40]
K12406  
pyruvate kinase isozymes R/L [EC:2.7.1.40]
K00163  
pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component [EC:1.2.4.1]
K00161  
pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component alpha subunit [EC:1.2.4.1]
K00162  
pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component beta subunit [EC:1.2.4.1]
K00627  
pyruvate dehydrogenase E2 component (dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase) [EC:2.3.1.12]
K00382  
dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase [EC:1.8.1.4]
K00169  
pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase alpha subunit [EC:1.2.7.1]
K00170  
pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase beta subunit [EC:1.2.7.1]
K00172  
pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase gamma subunit [EC:1.2.7.1]
K00171  
pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase delta subunit [EC:1.2.7.1]
K03737  
pyruvate-ferredoxin/flavodoxin oxidoreductase [EC:1.2.7.- 1.2.7.1]
K00174  
2-oxoglutarate/2-oxoacid ferredoxin oxidoreductase subunit alpha [EC:1.2.7.11 1.2.7.3]
K00175  
2-oxoglutarate/2-oxoacid ferredoxin oxidoreductase subunit beta [EC:1.2.7.11 1.2.7.3]
K00016  
L-lactate dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.27]
K01568  
pyruvate decarboxylase [EC:4.1.1.1]
K13951  
alcohol dehydrogenase 1/7 [EC:1.1.1.1]
K13980  
alcohol dehydrogenase 4 [EC:1.1.1.1]
K00121  
S-(hydroxymethyl)glutathione dehydrogenase / alcohol dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.1 1.1.1.284]
K13952  
alcohol dehydrogenase 6 [EC:1.1.1.1]
K04072  
acetaldehyde dehydrogenase / alcohol dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.1 1.2.1.10]
K13953  
alcohol dehydrogenase, propanol-preferring [EC:1.1.1.1]
K13954  
alcohol dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.1]
K18857  
alcohol dehydrogenase class-P [EC:1.1.1.1]
K00001  
alcohol dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.1]
K00002  
alcohol dehydrogenase (NADP+) [EC:1.1.1.2]
K14028  
methanol dehydrogenase (cytochrome c) subunit 1 [EC:1.1.2.7]
K14029  
methanol dehydrogenase (cytochrome c) subunit 2 [EC:1.1.2.7]
K00114  
alcohol dehydrogenase (cytochrome c) [EC:1.1.2.8]
K04022  
alcohol dehydrogenase
K00128  
aldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD+) [EC:1.2.1.3]
K14085  
aldehyde dehydrogenase family 7 member A1 [EC:1.2.1.3 1.2.1.8 1.2.1.31]
K00149  
aldehyde dehydrogenase family 9 member A1 [EC:1.2.1.3 1.2.1.47]
K00129  
aldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD(P)+) [EC:1.2.1.5]
K00138  
aldehyde dehydrogenase [EC:1.2.1.-]
K01895  
acetyl-CoA synthetase [EC:6.2.1.1]
K01905  
acetate---CoA ligase (ADP-forming) subunit alpha [EC:6.2.1.13]
K22224  
acetate---CoA ligase (ADP-forming) subunit beta [EC:6.2.1.13]
K01785  
aldose 1-epimerase [EC:5.1.3.3]
K01085  
glucose-1-phosphatase [EC:3.1.3.10]
K20866  
glucose-1-phosphatase [EC:3.1.3.10]
K01835  
phosphoglucomutase [EC:5.4.2.2]
K15778  
phosphomannomutase / phosphoglucomutase [EC:5.4.2.2 5.4.2.8]
K15779  
phosphoglucomutase / phosphopentomutase [EC:5.4.2.7 5.4.2.2]
K01084  
glucose-6-phosphatase [EC:3.1.3.9]
K00886  
polyphosphate glucokinase [EC:2.7.1.63]
K08074  
ADP-dependent glucokinase [EC:2.7.1.147]
K01792  
glucose-6-phosphate 1-epimerase [EC:5.1.3.15]
K01837  
bisphosphoglycerate/phosphoglycerate mutase [EC:5.4.2.11 5.4.2.4]
K03103  
multiple inositol-polyphosphate phosphatase / 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate 3-phosphatase [EC:3.1.3.80 3.1.3.62]
K11389  
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (ferredoxin) [EC:1.2.7.6]
K00131  
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NADP+) [EC:1.2.1.9]
K18978  
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [NAD(P)+] [EC:1.2.1.90]
K01596  
phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) [EC:4.1.1.32]
K01610  
phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (ATP) [EC:4.1.1.49]
K01222  
6-phospho-beta-glucosidase [EC:3.2.1.86]
K01223  
6-phospho-beta-glucosidase [EC:3.2.1.86]
K02777  
PTS system, sugar-specific IIA component [EC:2.7.1.-]
K02778  
PTS system, glucose-specific IIB component [EC:2.7.1.199]
K02779  
PTS system, glucose-specific IIC component
K02790  
PTS system, maltose/glucose-specific IIB component [EC:2.7.1.208 2.7.1.199]
K02791  
PTS system, maltose/glucose-specific IIC component
K20116  
PTS system, glucose-specific IIA component [EC:2.7.1.199]
K20117  
PTS system, glucose-specific IIB component [EC:2.7.1.199]
K20118  
PTS system, glucose-specific IIC component
K02752  
PTS system, beta-glucoside (arbutin/salicin/cellobiose)-specific IIB component [EC:2.7.1.-]
K02753  
PTS system, beta-glucoside (arbutin/salicin/cellobiose)-specific IIC component
Compound
C00022  
Pyruvate
C00024  
Acetyl-CoA
C00031  
D-Glucose
C00033  
Acetate
C00036  
Oxaloacetate
C00068  
Thiamin diphosphate
C00074  
Phosphoenolpyruvate
C00084  
Acetaldehyde
C00103  
D-Glucose 1-phosphate
C00111  
Glycerone phosphate
C00118  
D-Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
C00186  
(S)-Lactate
C00197  
3-Phospho-D-glycerate
C00221  
beta-D-Glucose
C00236  
3-Phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate
C00267  
alpha-D-Glucose
C00469  
Ethanol
C00631  
2-Phospho-D-glycerate
C00668  
alpha-D-Glucose 6-phosphate
C01159  
2,3-Bisphospho-D-glycerate
C01172  
beta-D-Glucose 6-phosphate
C01451  
Salicin
C05125  
2-(alpha-Hydroxyethyl)thiamine diphosphate
C05345  
beta-D-Fructose 6-phosphate
C05378  
beta-D-Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate
C06186  
Arbutin
C06187  
Arbutin 6-phosphate
C06188  
Salicin 6-phosphate
C15972  
Enzyme N6-(lipoyl)lysine
C15973  
Enzyme N6-(dihydrolipoyl)lysine
C16255  
[Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] S-acetyldihydrolipoyllysine
Reference
(map 1)
  Authors
Nishizuka Y (ed).
  Title
[Metabolic Maps] (In Japanese)
  Journal
Tokyo Kagaku Dojin (1980)
Reference
(map 1)
  Authors
Nishizuka Y, Seyama Y, Ikai A, Ishimura Y, Kawaguchi A (eds).
  Title
[Cellular Functions and Metabolic Maps] (In Japanese)
  Journal
Tokyo Kagaku Dojin (1997)
Reference
  Authors
Michal G.
  Title
Biochemical Pathways
  Journal
Wiley (1999)

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