KEGG   PATHWAY: ko04977Help
Entry
ko04977                     Pathway                                

Name
Vitamin digestion and absorption
Description
Vitamins are a diverse and chemically unrelated group of organic substances that share a common feature of being essential for normal health and well-being. They catalyze numerous biochemical reactions. Because humans and other mammals cannot synthesize these compounds (except for some synthesis of niacin), they must obtain them from exogenous sources via intestinal absorption. Vitamins  are classified based on their solubility in water or fat. Most of the water-soluble vitamins are transported across the small intestinal membrane by carrier-mediated mechanisms, but vitamin B12, cobalamin, is transported by a receptor-mediated mechanism. Intestinal absorption of fat-soluble vitamins requires all of the processes needed for fat absorption. After digestion, these vitamins and the products of pancreatic hydrolysis of triglycerides (TG) are emulsified by bile salts to form mixed micelles which are taken up by intestinal enterocytes and incorporated into chylomicrons (CM). CM are then secreted into the lymphatic system, and finally moves into the plasma.
Class
Organismal Systems; Digestive system
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Vitamin digestion and absorption
ko04977

All organismsOrtholog table
Disease
H00845  
Familial amyloidosis
H00930  
Hypoalphalipoproteinemia
H01182  
Biotinidase deficiency
H01190  
Transcobalamin II deficiency
H01231  
Biotin-responsive basal ganglia disease (BBGD)
H01252  
Hereditary folate malabsorption (HFM)
H01270  
Familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (FHBL)
H01277  
Vitamin B12 deficiency anaemia
Other DBs
BSID: 
GO: 
Orthology
K14592  
folate hydrolase 1 [EC:3.4.17.21]
K01435  
biotinidase [EC:3.5.1.12]
K14615  
gastric intrinsic factor
K14616  
cubilin
K14617  
LMBR1 domain-containing protein 1
K14618  
methylmalonic aciduria homocystinuria type C protein
K05665  
ATP-binding cassette, subfamily C (CFTR/MRP), member 1
K14619  
transcobalamin-2
K14610  
solute carrier family 19 (thiamine transporter), member 2/3
K14620  
riboflavin transporter 2
K14386  
solute carrier family 5 (sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter), member 6
K14609  
solute carrier family 19 (folate transporter), member 1
K13885  
scavenger receptor class B, member 1
K14073  
pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase [EC:3.1.1.3]
K14621  
phospholipase B1, membrane-associated [EC:3.1.1.5 3.1.1.4]
K14622  
retinol binding protein 2
K11156  
diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2-like protein 4 [EC:2.3.1.76 2.3.1.75]
K00678  
phosphatidylcholine-retinol O-acyltransferase [EC:2.3.1.135]
K08760  
apolipoprotein A-IV
K14462  
apolipoprotein B
K08757  
apolipoprotein A-I
Compound
C00003  
NAD+
C00010  
CoA
C00016  
FAD
C00018  
Pyridoxal phosphate
C00061  
FMN
C00068  
Thiamin diphosphate
C00072  
Ascorbate
C00080  
H+
C00120  
Biotin
C00153  
Nicotinamide
C00162  
Fatty acid
C00187  
Cholesterol
C00250  
Pyridoxal
C00255  
Riboflavin
C00376  
Retinal
C00378  
Thiamine
C00422  
Triacylglycerol
C00473  
Retinol
C00504  
Folate
C00534  
Pyridoxamine
C00647  
Pyridoxamine phosphate
C00681  
1-Acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
C00828  
Menaquinone
C00864  
Pantothenate
C01330  
Sodium cation
C01558  
Bile salt
C01885  
1-Acylglycerol
C02059  
Phylloquinone
C02075  
Retinyl ester
C02094  
beta-Carotene
C02477  
alpha-Tocopherol
C02530  
Cholesterol ester
C05377  
Menadione
C05443  
Vitamin D3
C05552  
Biocytin
C05776  
Vitamin B12
C12981  
dl-alpha-Tocopherol nicotinate
C13202  
alpha-Tocopherol acetate
Reference
  Authors
Said HM, Mohammed ZM
  Title
Intestinal absorption of water-soluble vitamins: an update.
  Journal
Curr Opin Gastroenterol 22:140-6 (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Basu TK, Donaldson D
  Title
Intestinal absorption in health and disease: micronutrients.
  Journal
Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 17:957-79 (2003)
Reference
  Authors
Said HM
  Title
Recent advances in carrier-mediated intestinal absorption of water-soluble vitamins.
  Journal
Annu Rev Physiol 66:419-46 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Reidling JC, Nabokina SM, Balamurugan K, Said HM
  Title
Developmental maturation of intestinal and renal thiamin uptake: studies in wild-type and transgenic mice carrying human THTR-1 and 2 promoters.
  Journal
J Cell Physiol 206:371-7 (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Fujimura M, Yamamoto S, Murata T, Yasujima T, Inoue K, Ohta KY, Yuasa H
  Title
Functional characteristics of the human ortholog of riboflavin transporter 2 and  riboflavin-responsive expression of its rat ortholog in the small intestine indicate its involvement in riboflavin absorption.
  Journal
J Nutr 140:1722-7 (2010)
Reference
  Authors
Said HM
  Title
Cell and molecular aspects of human intestinal biotin absorption.
  Journal
J Nutr 139:158-62 (2009)
Reference
  Authors
Green R
  Title
Ins and outs of cellular cobalamin transport.
  Journal
Blood 115:1476-7 (2010)
Reference
  Authors
Zhao R, Matherly LH, Goldman ID
  Title
Membrane transporters and folate homeostasis: intestinal absorption and transport into systemic compartments and tissues.
  Journal
Expert Rev Mol Med 11:e4 (2009)
Reference
  Authors
Hediger MA
  Title
New view at C.
  Journal
Nat Med 8:445-6 (2002)
Reference
  Authors
Harrison EH, Hussain MM
  Title
Mechanisms involved in the intestinal digestion and absorption of dietary vitamin A.
  Journal
J Nutr 131:1405-8 (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Blomhoff R, Blomhoff HK.
  Title
Overview of retinoid metabolism and function.
  Journal
J Neurobiol 66:606-30 (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Lemaire-Ewing S, Desrumaux C, Neel D, Lagrost L
  Title
Vitamin E transport, membrane incorporation and cell metabolism: Is alpha-tocopherol in lipid rafts an oar in the lifeboat?
  Journal
Mol Nutr Food Res 54:631-40 (2010)
Reference
  Authors
Shearer MJ, Newman P
  Title
Metabolism and cell biology of vitamin K.
  Journal
Thromb Haemost 100:530-47 (2008)

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