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Entry
map04940                    Pathway                                

Name
Type I diabetes mellitus
Description
Type I diabetes mellitus is a disease that results from autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing beta-cells. Certain beta-cell proteins act as autoantigens after being processed by antigen-presenting cell (APC), such as macrophages and dendritic cells, and presented in a complex with MHC-II molecules on the surface of the APC. Then immunogenic signals from APC activate CD4+ T cells, predominantly of the Th1 subset. Antigen-activated Th1 cells produce IL-2 and IFNgamma. They activate macrophages and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells, and these effector cells may kill islet beta-cells by one or both of two types of mechanisms: (1) direct interactions of antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells with a beta-cell autoantigen-MHC-I complex on the beta-cell, and (2) non-specific inflammatory mediators, such as free radicals/oxidants and cytokines (IL-1, TNFalpha, TNFbeta, IFNgamma).
Type I diabetes is a polygenic disease. One of the principle determining genetic factors in diabetes incidence is the inheritance of mutant MHC-II alleles. Another plausible candidate gene is the insulin gene.
Class
Human Diseases; Endocrine and metabolic diseases
BRITE hierarchy
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Type I diabetes mellitus
map04940

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Disease
H00408  
Type I diabetes mellitus
Reference
PMID:9719467
  Authors
Rabinovitch A, Suarez-Pinzon WL.
  Title
Cytokines and their roles in pancreatic islet beta-cell destruction and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.
  Journal
Biochem Pharmacol 55:1139-49 (1998)
DOI:10.1016/S0006-2952(97)00492-9
Reference
  Authors
Cox NJ, Wapelhorst B, Morrison VA, Johnson L, Pinchuk L, Spielman RS, Todd JA, Concannon P
  Title
Seven regions of the genome show evidence of linkage to type 1 diabetes in a consensus analysis of 767 multiplex families.
  Journal
Am J Hum Genet 69:820-30 (2001)
DOI:10.1086/323501
Reference
PMID:8072542
  Authors
Davies JL, Kawaguchi Y, Bennett ST, Copeman JB, Cordell HJ, Pritchard LE, Reed PW, Gough SC, Jenkins SC, Palmer SM, et al.
  Title
A genome-wide search for human type 1 diabetes susceptibility genes.
  Journal
Nature 371:130-6 (1994)
DOI:10.1038/371130a0
Reference
PMID:8786033
  Authors
Fujisawa T, Ikegami H, Kawaguchi Y, Yamato E, Takekawa K, Nakagawa Y, Hamada Y, Ueda H, Shima K, Ogihara T.
  Title
Class I HLA is associated with age-at-onset of IDDM, while class II HLA confers susceptibility to IDDM.
  Journal
Diabetologia 38:1493-5 (1995)
DOI:10.1007/BF00400620
Reference
  Authors
Jaeckel E, Klein L, Martin-Orozco N, von Boehmer H.
  Title
Normal incidence of diabetes in NOD mice tolerant to glutamic acid decarboxylase.
  Journal
J Exp Med 197:1635-44 (2003)
DOI:10.1084/jem.20030215
Reference
  Authors
Nakayama M, Abiru N, Moriyama H, Babaya N, Liu E, Miao D, Yu L, Wegmann DR, Hutton JC, Elliott JF, Eisenbarth GS.
  Title
Prime role for an insulin epitope in the development of type 1 diabetes in NOD mice.
  Journal
Nature 435:220-3 (2005)
DOI:10.1038/nature03523
Reference
  Authors
Kent SC, Chen Y, Bregoli L, Clemmings SM, Kenyon NS, Ricordi C, Hering BJ, Hafler DA.
  Title
Expanded T cells from pancreatic lymph nodes of type 1 diabetic subjects recognize an insulin epitope.
  Journal
Nature 435:224-8 (2005)
DOI:10.1038/nature03625
Reference
  Authors
Lieberman SM, DiLorenzo TP.
  Title
A comprehensive guide to antibody and T-cell responses in type 1 diabetes.
  Journal
Tissue Antigens 62:359-77 (2003)
DOI:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2003.00152.x
Reference
  Authors
Lord SJ, Rajotte RV, Korbutt GS, Bleackley RC.
  Title
Granzyme B: a natural born killer.
  Journal
Immunol Rev 193:31-8 (2003)
DOI:10.1034/j.1600-065X.2003.00044.x
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