KEGG   PATHWAY: map04210Help
Entry
map04210                    Pathway                                

Name
Apoptosis
Description
Apoptosis is a genetically controlled mechanisms of cell death involved in the regulation of tissue homeostasis. The 2 major pathways of apoptosis are the extrinsic (Fas and other TNFR superfamily members and ligands) and the intrinsic (mitochondria-associated) pathways, both of which are found in the cytoplasm. The extrinsic pathway is triggered by death receptor engagement, which initiates a signaling cascade mediated by caspase-8 activation. Caspase-8 both feeds directly into caspase-3 activation and stimulates the release of cytochrome c by the mitochondria. Caspase-3 activation leads to the degradation of cellular proteins necessary to maintain cell survival and integrity. The intrinsic pathway occurs when various apoptotic stimuli trigger the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria (independently of caspase-8 activation). Cytochrome c interacts with Apaf-1 and caspase-9 to promote the activation of caspase-3. Recent studies point to the ER as a third subcellular compartment implicated in apoptotic execution. Alterations in Ca2+ homeostasis and accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER cause ER stress. Prolonged ER stress can result in the activation of BAD and/or caspase-12, and execute apoptosis.
Class
Cellular Processes; Cell growth and death
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Apoptosis
map04210

All organismsOrtholog table
Disease
H00108  
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H00265  
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H00539  
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H00540  
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H00721  
Pyogenic bacterial infections, recurrent, due to MYD88 deficiency
H00848  
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H00881  
Li-Fraumeni syndrome
H00882  
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H00912  
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H01007  
Choroid plexus papilloma
H01102  
Pituitary adenomas
Other DBs
GO: 
Reference
(Japanese)
  Authors
Murakawa M, Yonehara S.
  Title
[Apoptosis induced by death receptors.] (In Japanese)
  Journal
Experimental Medicine 19(13):1690-1694 (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Kucharczak J, Simmons MJ, Fan Y, Gelinas C.
  Title
To be, or not to be: NF-kappaB is the answer--role of Rel/NF-kappaB in the regulation of apoptosis.
  Journal
Oncogene 22:8961-82 (2003)
Reference
  Authors
Donovan M, Cotter TG.
  Title
Control of mitochondrial integrity by Bcl-2 family members and caspase-independent cell death.
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 1644:133-47 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Sprick MR, Walczak H.
  Title
The interplay between the Bcl-2 family and death receptor-mediated apoptosis.
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 1644:125-32 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Nagata S.
  Title
Fas ligand-induced apoptosis.
  Journal
Annu Rev Genet 33:29-55 (1999)
Reference
(Japanese)
  Authors
Suda T.
  Title
[The apoptosis is Kin to the inflammation.] (In Japanese)
  Journal
Experimental Medicine 19(13):1790-1797 (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Yuan J, Yankner BA.
  Title
Apoptosis in the nervous system.
  Journal
Nature 407:802-9 (2000)
Reference
  Authors
Yuan J, Lipinski M, Degterev A.
  Title
Diversity in the mechanisms of neuronal cell death.
  Journal
Neuron 40:401-13 (2003)
Reference
  Authors
Steelman LS, Pohnert SC, Shelton JG, Franklin RA, Bertrand FE, McCubrey JA.
  Title
JAK/STAT, Raf/MEK/ERK, PI3K/Akt and BCR-ABL in cell cycle progression and leukemogenesis.
  Journal
Leukemia 18:189-218 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Martinon F, Holler N, Richard C, Tschopp J.
  Title
Activation of a pro-apoptotic amplification loop through inhibition of NF-kappaB-dependent survival signals by caspase-mediated inactivation of RIP.
  Journal
FEBS Lett 468:134-6 (2000)
Reference
  Authors
Goyal L.
  Title
Cell death inhibition: keeping caspases in check.
  Journal
Cell 104:805-8 (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Wang HG, Pathan N, Ethell IM, Krajewski S, Yamaguchi Y, Shibasaki F, McKeon F, Bobo T, Franke TF, Reed JC.
  Title
Ca2+-induced apoptosis through calcineurin dephosphorylation of BAD.
  Journal
Science 284:339-43 (1999)
Reference
  Authors
Remillard CV, Yuan JX.
  Title
Activation of K+ channels: an essential pathway in programmed cell death.
  Journal
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 286:L49-67 (2004)
Reference
PMID:9670005
  Authors
Gross A, Jockel J, Wei MC, Korsmeyer SJ.
  Title
Enforced dimerization of BAX results in its translocation, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis.
  Journal
EMBO J 17:3878-85 (1998)
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