KEGG   PATHWAY: map04350Help
Entry
map04350                    Pathway                                

Name
TGF-beta signaling pathway
Description
The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family members, which include TGF-betas, activins and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), are structurally related secreted cytokines found in species ranging from worms and insects to mammals. A wide spectrum of cellular functions such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation and migration are regulated by TGF-beta family members. TGF-beta family member binds to the Type II receptor and recruits Type I, whereby Type II receptor phosphorylates and activates Type I. The Type I receptor, in turn, phosphorylates receptor-activated Smads ( R-Smads: Smad1, Smad2, Smad3, Smad5, and Smad8). Once phosphorylated, R-Smads associate with the co-mediator Smad, Smad4, and the heteromeric complex then translocates into the nucleus. In the nucleus, Smad complexes activate specific genes through cooperative interactions with other DNA-binding and coactivator (or co-repressor) proteins.
Class
Environmental Information Processing; Signal transduction
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
map04350  TGF-beta signaling pathway
map04350

Ortholog table
Module
M00679  BMP signaling [PATH:map04350]
M00680  TGF-beta signaling [PATH:map04350]
M00681  Activin signaling [PATH:map04350]
Disease
H00409  Type II diabetes mellitus
H00430  Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP)
H00431  Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of spine (OPLL)
H00434  Camurati-Engelmann disease
H00466  Grebe dysplasia
H00467  Fibular hypoplasia and complex brachydactyly
H00468  Acromesomelic dysplasia with genital anomalies
H00482  Brachydactyly
H00483  Brachydactyly type C
H00484  Other brachydactylies
H00533  Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT)
H00554  Bicuspid aortic valve
H00609  46,XY disorders of sex development (Other)
H00620  Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome (ARS)
H00632  Heterotaxy
H00778  Tarsal-carpal coalition syndrome
H00800  Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS)
H00801  Familial thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection (TAAD)
H00852  Klippel-Feil syndrome(KFS)
H00868  Stapes ankylosis with broad thumb and toes
H00958  Congenital stromal corneal dystrophy (CSCD)
H01023  Juvenile polyposis syndrome
H01024  Hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome
H01027  Anophthalmia and microphthalmia (A/M)
H01075  Peters anomaly
H01149  Ring dermoid of cornea
H01385  Rienhoff syndrome
H01619  Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH)
H01621  Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)
Other DBs
GO: 0007179
Reference
  Authors
Shi Y, Massague J.
  Title
Mechanisms of TGF-beta signaling from cell membrane to the nucleus.
  Journal
Cell 113:685-700 (2003)
DOI:10.1016/S0092-8674(03)00432-X
Reference
  Authors
Derynck R, Zhang YE.
  Title
Smad-dependent and Smad-independent pathways in TGF-beta family signalling.
  Journal
Nature 425:577-84 (2003)
DOI:10.1038/nature02006
Reference
  Authors
Massague J.
  Title
How cells read TGF-beta signals.
  Journal
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 1:169-78 (2000)
DOI:10.1038/35043051
Reference
  Authors
Siegel PM, Massague J.
  Title
Cytostatic and apoptotic actions of TGF-beta in homeostasis and cancer.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 3:807-21 (2003)
DOI:10.1038/nrc1208
Reference
  Authors
Shimasaki S, Moore RK, Otsuka F, Erickson GF.
  Title
The bone morphogenetic protein system in mammalian reproduction.
  Journal
Endocr Rev 25:72-101 (2004)
DOI:10.1210/er.2003-0007
Reference
  Authors
De Robertis EM, Larrain J, Oelgeschlager M, Wessely O.
  Title
The establishment of Spemann's organizer and patterning of the vertebrate embryo.
  Journal
Nat Rev Genet 1:171-81 (2000)
DOI:10.1038/35042039
Reference
  Authors
Gumienny TL, Padgett RW.
  Title
The other side of TGF-beta superfamily signal regulation: thinking outside the cell.
  Journal
Trends Endocrinol Metab 13:295-9 (2002)
DOI:10.1016/S1043-2760(02)00615-X
Reference
  Authors
Hamada H, Meno C, Watanabe D, Saijoh Y.
  Title
Establishment of vertebrate left-right asymmetry.
  Journal
Nat Rev Genet 3:103-13 (2002)
DOI:10.1038/nrg732
Reference
  Authors
Chang H, Brown CW, Matzuk MM.
  Title
Genetic analysis of the mammalian transforming growth factor-beta superfamily.
  Journal
Endocr Rev 23:787-823 (2002)
DOI:10.1210/er.2002-0003
Reference
  Authors
Morita K, Chow KL, Ueno N.
  Title
Regulation of body length and male tail ray pattern formation of Caenorhabditis elegans by a member of TGF-beta family.
  Journal
Development 126:1337-47 (1999)
Reference
PMID:9847239
  Authors
Krishna S, Maduzia LL, Padgett RW.
  Title
Specificity of TGFbeta signaling is conferred by distinct type I receptors and their associated SMAD proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans.
  Journal
Development 126:251-60 (1999)
Reference
  Authors
Chen Y, Mironova E, Whitaker LL, Edwards L, Yost HJ, Ramsdell AF.
  Title
ALK4 functions as a receptor for multiple TGF beta-related ligands to regulate left-right axis determination and mesoderm induction in Xenopus.
  Journal
Dev Biol 268:280-94 (2004)
DOI:10.1016/j.ydbio.2003.12.035
Reference
  Authors
Onichtchouk D, Chen YG, Dosch R, Gawantka V, Delius H, Massague J, Niehrs C
  Title
Silencing of TGF-beta signalling by the pseudoreceptor BAMBI.
  Journal
Nature 401:480-5 (1999)
DOI:10.1038/46794
Reference
  Authors
Yan X, Lin Z, Chen F, Zhao X, Chen H, Ning Y, Chen YG
  Title
Human BAMBI cooperates with Smad7 to inhibit transforming growth factor-beta signaling.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 284:30097-104 (2009)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M109.049304
KO pathway
ko04350   

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