KEGG   PATHWAY: map04620Help
Entry
map04620                    Pathway                                

Name
Toll-like receptor signaling pathway
Description
Specific families of pattern recognition receptors are responsible for detecting microbial pathogens and generating innate immune responses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are membrane-bound receptors identified as homologs of Toll in Drosophila. Mammalian TLRs are expressed on innate immune cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells, and respond to the membrane components of Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria. Pathogen recognition by TLRs provokes rapid activation of innate immunity by inducing production of proinflammatory cytokines and upregulation of costimulatory molecules. TLR signaling pathways are separated into two groups: a MyD88-dependent pathway that leads to the production of proinflammatory cytokines with quick activation of NF-{kappa}B and MAPK, and a MyD88-independent pathway associated with the induction of IFN-beta and IFN-inducible genes, and maturation of dendritic cells with slow activation of NF-{kappa}B and MAPK.
Class
Organismal Systems; Immune system
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Toll-like receptor signaling pathway
map04620

All organismsOrtholog table
Module
M00686  
Toll-like receptor signaling [PATH:map04620]
Disease
H00096  
Defects of toll-like receptor signaling
H00273  
Pycnodysostosis
H00344  
Leprosy
H00425  
Lysosomal cysteine protease deficiencies
H00721  
Pyogenic bacterial infections, recurrent, due to MYD88 deficiency
H00882  
Cocoon syndrome
H01109  
Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC)
H01502  
Sjogren's Syndrome
Reference
  Authors
Kawai T, Akira S.
  Title
TLR signaling.
  Journal
Semin Immunol 19:24-32 (2007)
DOI:10.1016/j.smim.2006.12.004
Reference
  Authors
O'Neill LA, Bowie AG.
  Title
The family of five: TIR-domain-containing adaptors in Toll-like receptor signalling.
  Journal
Nat Rev Immunol 7:353-64 (2007)
DOI:10.1038/nri2079
Reference
  Authors
Honda K, Taniguchi T.
  Title
IRFs: master regulators of signalling by Toll-like receptors and cytosolic pattern-recognition receptors.
  Journal
Nat Rev Immunol 6:644-58 (2006)
DOI:10.1038/nri1900
Reference
  Authors
Uematsu S, Akira S.
  Title
Toll-like receptors and Type I interferons.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 282:15319-23 (2007)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.R700009200
Reference
  Authors
Akira S, Uematsu S, Takeuchi O.
  Title
Pathogen recognition and innate immunity.
  Journal
Cell 124:783-801 (2006)
DOI:10.1016/j.cell.2006.02.015
Reference
  Authors
Yamamoto M, Takeda K, Akira S.
  Title
TIR domain-containing adaptors define the specificity of TLR signaling.
  Journal
Mol Immunol 40:861-8 (2004)
DOI:10.1016/j.molimm.2003.10.006
Reference
  Authors
Means TK, Hayashi F, Smith KD, Aderem A, Luster AD.
  Title
The Toll-like receptor 5 stimulus bacterial flagellin induces maturation and chemokine production in human dendritic cells.
  Journal
J Immunol 170:5165-75 (2003)
DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.170.10.5165
Reference
  Authors
Aderem A, Smith KD.
  Title
A systems approach to dissecting immunity and inflammation.
  Journal
Semin Immunol 16:55-67 (2004)
DOI:10.1016/j.smim.2003.10.002
Reference
  Authors
Banerjee A, Gerondakis S.
  Title
Coordinating TLR-activated signaling pathways in cells of the immune system.
  Journal
Immunol Cell Biol : (2007)
DOI:10.1038/sj.icb.7100098
Reference
  Authors
Loniewski KJ, Patial S, Parameswaran N.
  Title
Sensitivity of TLR4- and -7-induced NF kappa B1 p105-TPL2-ERK pathway to TNF-receptor-associated-factor-6 revealed by RNAi in mouse macrophages.
  Journal
Mol Immunol 44:3715-23 (2007)
DOI:10.1016/j.molimm.2007.04.002
Reference
  Authors
Arbibe L, Mira JP, Teusch N, Kline L, Guha M, Mackman N, Godowski PJ, Ulevitch RJ, Knaus UG.
  Title
Toll-like receptor 2-mediated NF-kappa B activation requires a Rac1-dependent pathway.
  Journal
Nat Immunol 1:533-40 (2000)
DOI:10.1038/82797
Reference
  Authors
Uematsu S, Akira S.
  Title
Toll-like receptors and innate immunity.
  Journal
J Mol Med 84:712-25 (2006)
DOI:10.1007/s00109-006-0084-y
KO pathway
 

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