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Entry
map04650                    Pathway                                

Name
Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity
Description
Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that are involved in early defenses against both allogeneic (nonself) cells and autologous cells undergoing various forms of stress, such as infection with viruses, bacteria, or parasites or malignant transformation. Although NK cells do not express classical antigen receptors of the immunoglobulin gene family, such as the antibodies produced by B cells or the T cell receptor expressed by T cells, they are equipped with various receptors whose engagement allows them to discriminate between target and nontarget cells. Activating receptors bind ligands on the target cell surface and trigger NK cell activation and target cell lysis. However Inhibitory receptors recognize MHC class I molecules (HLA) and inhibit killing by NK cells by overruling the actions of the activating receptors. This inhibitory signal is lost when the target cells do not express MHC class I and perhaps also in cells infected with virus, which might inhibit MHC class I exprssion or alter its conformation. The mechanism of NK cell killing is the same as that used by the cytotoxic T cells generated in an adaptive immune response; cytotoxic granules are released onto the surface of the bound target cell, and the effector proteins they contain penetrate the cell membrane and induce programmed cell death.
Class
Organismal Systems; Immune system
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity
map04650

All organismsOrtholog table
Disease
H00090  
NK cell defects
H00344  
Leprosy
H01018  
Metachondromatosis
Other DBs
GO: 
Reference
  Authors
Chiesa S, Tomasello E, Vivier E, Vely F.
  Title
Coordination of activating and inhibitory signals in natural killer cells.
  Journal
Mol Immunol 42:477-84 (2005)
DOI:10.1016/j.molimm.2004.07.030
Reference
  Authors
Maghazachi AA.
  Title
Insights into seven and single transmembrane-spanning domain receptors and their signaling pathways in human natural killer cells.
  Journal
Pharmacol Rev 57:339-57 (2005)
DOI:10.1124/pr.57.3.5
Reference
  Authors
Vivier E, Nunes JA, Vely F.
  Title
Natural killer cell signaling pathways.
  Journal
Science 306:1517-9 (2004)
DOI:10.1126/science.1103478
Reference
  Authors
Colucci F, Di Santo JP, Leibson PJ.
  Title
Natural killer cell activation in mice and men: different triggers for similar weapons?
  Journal
Nat Immunol 3:807-13 (2002)
DOI:10.1038/ni0902-807
Reference
  Authors
Perussia B.
  Title
Signaling for cytotoxicity.
  Journal
Nat Immunol 1:372-4 (2000)
DOI:10.1038/80808
Reference
  Authors
Smyth MJ, Cretney E, Kelly JM, Westwood JA, Street SE, Yagita H, Takeda K, van Dommelen SL, Degli-Esposti MA, Hayakawa Y.
  Title
Activation of NK cell cytotoxicity.
  Journal
Mol Immunol 42:501-10 (2005)
DOI:10.1016/j.molimm.2004.07.034
Reference
  Authors
Djeu JY, Jiang K, Wei S.
  Title
A view to a kill: signals triggering cytotoxicity.
  Journal
Clin Cancer Res 8:636-40 (2002)
Reference
  Authors
Smyth MJ, Takeda K, Hayakawa Y, Peschon JJ, van den Brink MR, Yagita H.
  Title
Nature's TRAIL--on a path to cancer immunotherapy.
  Journal
Immunity 18:1-6 (2003)
DOI:10.1016/S1074-7613(02)00502-2
Reference
  Authors
Colonna M.
  Title
Fine-tuning NK cell responses: it's a family affair.
  Journal
Nat Immunol 6:961-2 (2005)
DOI:10.1038/ni1005-961
Reference
PMID:8942070
  Authors
Bonnema JD, Leibson PJ.
  Title
Signal transduction during NK cell activation.
  Journal
Chem Immunol 64:28-43 (1996)
Reference
  Authors
Tassi I, Presti R, Kim S, Yokoyama WM, Gilfillan S, Colonna M.
  Title
Phospholipase C-gamma 2 is a critical signaling mediator for murine NK cell activating receptors.
  Journal
J Immunol 175:749-54 (2005)
DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.175.2.749
Reference
PMID:9143705
  Authors
Rao A, Luo C, Hogan PG.
  Title
Transcription factors of the NFAT family: regulation and function.
  Journal
Annu Rev Immunol 15:707-47 (1997)
DOI:10.1146/annurev.immunol.15.1.707
Reference
  Authors
Wu J, Lanier LL.
  Title
Natural killer cells and cancer.
  Journal
Adv Cancer Res 90:127-56 (2003)
DOI:10.1016/S0065-230X(03)90004-2
Reference
  Authors
Cerwenka A, Lanier LL.
  Title
Natural killer cells, viruses and cancer.
  Journal
Nat Rev Immunol 1:41-9 (2001)
DOI:10.1038/35095564
Reference
  Authors
Blott EJ, Griffiths GM.
  Title
Secretory lysosomes.
  Journal
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 3:122-31 (2002)
DOI:10.1038/nrm732
Reference
  Authors
Lieberman J.
  Title
The ABCs of granule-mediated cytotoxicity: new weapons in the arsenal.
  Journal
Nat Rev Immunol 3:361-70 (2003)
DOI:10.1038/nri1083
Reference
  Authors
Lord SJ, Rajotte RV, Korbutt GS, Bleackley RC.
  Title
Granzyme B: a natural born killer.
  Journal
Immunol Rev 193:31-8 (2003)
DOI:10.1034/j.1600-065X.2003.00044.x
Reference
  Authors
Liu D, Xu L, Yang F, Li D, Gong F, Xu T.
  Title
Rapid biogenesis and sensitization of secretory lysosomes in NK cells mediated by target-cell recognition.
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:123-7 (2005)
DOI:10.1073/pnas.0405737102
Reference
PMID:9862693
  Authors
Trotta R, Puorro KA, Paroli M, Azzoni L, Abebe B, Eisenlohr LC, Perussia B.
  Title
Dependence of both spontaneous and antibody-dependent, granule exocytosis-mediated NK cell cytotoxicity on extracellular signal-regulated kinases.
  Journal
J Immunol 161:6648-56 (1998)
Reference
  Authors
Jevremovic D, Billadeau DD, Schoon RA, Dick CJ, Leibson PJ.
  Title
Regulation of NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity by the adaptor protein 3BP2.
  Journal
J Immunol 166:7219-28 (2001)
DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.166.12.7219
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