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Entry
map04730                    Pathway                                

Name
Long-term depression
Description
Cerebellar long-term depression (LTD), thought to be a molecular and cellular basis for cerebellar learning, is a process involving a decrease in the synaptic strength between parallel fiber (PF) and Purkinje cells (PCs) induced by the conjunctive activation of PFs and climbing fiber (CF). Multiple signal transduction pathways have been shown to be involved in this process. Activation of PFs terminating on spines in dendritic branchlets leads to glutamate release and activation of both AMPA and mGluRs. Activation of CFs, which make multiple synaptic contacts on proximal dendrites, also via AMPA receptors, opens voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and causes a generalized influx of calcium. These cellular signals, generated from two different synaptic origins, trigger a cascade of events culminating in a phosphorylation-dependent, long-term reduction in AMPA receptor sensitivity at the PF-PC synapse. This may take place either through receptor internalization and/or through receptor desensitization.
Class
Organismal Systems; Nervous system
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Long-term depression
map04730

All organismsOrtholog table
Disease
H00063  
Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA)
H00699  
Central core disease
H00749  
Episodic ataxias
H00775  
Familial or sporadic hemiplegic migraine
H00833  
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA)
H01274  
Growth delay due to insulin-like growth factor I resistance
H01310  
Multi-minicore disease (MmD)
Other DBs
GO: 
Reference
  Authors
Ito M.
  Title
The molecular organization of cerebellar long-term depression.
  Journal
Nat Rev Neurosci 3:896-902 (2002)
DOI:10.1038/nrn962
Reference
  Authors
Ito M.
  Title
Cerebellar long-term depression: characterization, signal transduction, and functional roles.
  Journal
Physiol Rev 81:1143-95 (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Purves D, Augustine GJ (ed).
  Title
Neuroscience
  Journal
Sunderland, Mass.:Sinauer Associates (2004)
Reference
PMID:9735948
  Authors
Daniel H, Levenes C, Crepel F.
  Title
Cellular mechanisms of cerebellar LTD.
  Journal
Trends Neurosci 21:401-7 (1998)
DOI:10.1016/S0166-2236(98)01304-6
Reference
PMID:9602501
  Authors
Levenes C, Daniel H, Crepel F.
  Title
Long-term depression of synaptic transmission in the cerebellum: cellular and molecular mechanisms revisited.
  Journal
Prog Neurobiol 55:79-91 (1998)
DOI:10.1016/S0301-0082(97)00096-8
Reference
  Authors
Metzger F, Kapfhammer JP.
  Title
Protein kinase C: its role in activity-dependent Purkinje cell dendritic development and plasticity.
  Journal
Cerebellum 2:206-14 (2003)
DOI:10.1080/14734220310016150
KO pathway
 

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