KEGG   PATHWAY: map04910Help
Entry
map04910                    Pathway                                

Name
Insulin signaling pathway
Description
Insulin binding to its receptor results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS) by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (INSR). This allows association of IRSs with the regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). PI3K activates 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1), which activates Akt, a serine kinase. Akt in turn deactivates glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3), leading to activation of glycogen synthase (GYS) and thus glycogen synthesis. Activation of Akt also results in the translocation of GLUT4 vesicles from their intracellular pool to the plasma membrane, where they allow uptake of glucose into the cell. Akt also leads to mTOR-mediated activation of protein synthesis by eIF4 and p70S6K. The translocation of GLUT4 protein is also elicited through the CAP/Cbl/TC10 pathway, once Cbl is phosphorylated by INSR.
Other signal transduction proteins interact with IRS including GRB2. GRB2 is part of the cascade including SOS, RAS, RAF and MEK that leads to activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and mitogenic responses in the form of gene transcription. SHC is another substrate of INSR. When tyrosine phosphorylated, SHC associates with GRB2 and can thus activate the RAS/MAPK pathway independently of IRS-1.
Class
Organismal Systems; Endocrine system
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Insulin signaling pathway
map04910

All organismsOrtholog table
Disease
H00069  
Glycogen storage diseases (GSD)
H00410  
Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY)
H00420  
Familial partial lipodystrophy (FPL)
H00512  
Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM)
H00719  
Leprechaunism
H00896  
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM)
H00915  
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)
H00942  
Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome
H01102  
Pituitary adenomas
H01154  
Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome
H01228  
Insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus with acanthosis nigricans (IRAN)
H01251  
Focal cortical dysplasia of Taylor
H01267  
Familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (HHF)
Reference
  Authors
Ogawa W, Kasuga M.
  Title
[Mechanism of insulin action and diabetes mellitus]
  Journal
Seikagaku 75:1332-44 (2003)
Reference
  Authors
Bevan P.
  Title
Insulin signalling.
  Journal
J Cell Sci 114:1429-30 (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Kanzaki M, Pessin JE.
  Title
Insulin signaling: GLUT4 vesicles exit via the exocyst.
  Journal
Curr Biol 13:R574-6 (2003)
Reference
  Authors
Moodie SA, Alleman-Sposeto J, Gustafson TA.
  Title
Identification of the APS protein as a novel insulin receptor substrate.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 274:11186-93 (1999)
Reference
  Authors
Gual P, Le Marchand-Brustel Y, Tanti JF.
  Title
Positive and negative regulation of insulin signaling through IRS-1 phosphorylation.
  Journal
Biochimie 87:99-109 (2005)
Reference
PMID:9748166
  Authors
Le Good JA, Ziegler WH, Parekh DB, Alessi DR, Cohen P, Parker PJ.
  Title
Protein kinase C isotypes controlled by phosphoinositide 3-kinase through the protein kinase PDK1.
  Journal
Science 281:2042-5 (1998)
Reference
  Authors
Saltiel AR, Kahn CR.
  Title
Insulin signalling and the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism.
  Journal
Nature 414:799-806 (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Inoki K, Corradetti MN, Guan KL.
  Title
Dysregulation of the TSC-mTOR pathway in human disease.
  Journal
Nat Genet 37:19-24 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Ruggero D, Sonenberg N.
  Title
The Akt of translational control.
  Journal
Oncogene 24:7426-34 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Nave BT, Ouwens M, Withers DJ, Alessi DR, Shepherd PR.
  Title
Mammalian target of rapamycin is a direct target for protein kinase B: identification of a convergence point for opposing effects of insulin and amino-acid deficiency on protein translation.
  Journal
Biochem J 344 Pt 2:427-31 (1999)
Reference
PMID:9445476
  Authors
Pullen N, Dennis PB, Andjelkovic M, Dufner A, Kozma SC, Hemmings BA, Thomas G.
  Title
Phosphorylation and activation of p70s6k by PDK1.
  Journal
Science 279:707-10 (1998)
Reference
PMID:9609110
  Authors
Ogawa W, Matozaki T, Kasuga M.
  Title
Role of binding proteins to IRS-1 in insulin signalling.
  Journal
Mol Cell Biochem 182:13-22 (1998)
Reference
PMID:9609111
  Authors
Ceresa BP, Pessin JE.
  Title
Insulin regulation of the Ras activation/inactivation cycle.
  Journal
Mol Cell Biochem 182:23-9 (1998)
Reference
  Authors
Pollak MN, Schernhammer ES, Hankinson SE.
  Title
Insulin-like growth factors and neoplasia.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 4:505-18 (2004)
Reference
PMID:9346240
  Authors
Datta SR, Dudek H, Tao X, Masters S, Fu H, Gotoh Y, Greenberg ME.
  Title
Akt phosphorylation of BAD couples survival signals to the cell-intrinsic death machinery.
  Journal
Cell 91:231-41 (1997)
Reference
  Authors
Ferre P, Foufelle F
  Title
SREBP-1c transcription factor and lipid homeostasis: clinical perspective.
  Journal
Horm Res 68:72-82 (2007)
Reference
  Authors
Raghow R, Yellaturu C, Deng X, Park EA, Elam MB
  Title
SREBPs: the crossroads of physiological and pathological lipid homeostasis.
  Journal
Trends Endocrinol Metab 19:65-73 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Clement S, Krause U, Desmedt F, Tanti JF, Behrends J, Pesesse X, Sasaki T, Penninger J, Doherty M, Malaisse W, Dumont JE, Le Marchand-Brustel Y, Erneux C, Hue L, Schurmans S
  Title
The lipid phosphatase SHIP2 controls insulin sensitivity.
  Journal
Nature 409:92-7 (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Backers K, Blero D, Paternotte N, Zhang J, Erneux C
  Title
The termination of PI3K signalling by SHIP1 and SHIP2 inositol 5-phosphatases.
  Journal
Adv Enzyme Regul 43:15-28 (2003)
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