KEGG   PATHWAY: map04916Help
Entry
map04916                    Pathway                                

Name
Melanogenesis
Description
Cutaneous melanin pigment plays a critical role in camouflage, mimicry, social communication, and protection against harmful effects of solar radiation. Melanogenesis is under complex regulatory control by multiple agents. The most important positive regulator of melanogenesis is the MC1 receptor with its ligands melanocortic peptides. MC1R activates the cyclic AMP (cAMP) response-element binding protein (CREB). Increased expression of MITF and its activation by phosphorylation (P) stimulate the transcription of tyrosinase (TYR), tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1), and dopachrome tautomerase (DCT), which produce melanin. Melanin synthesis takes place within specialized intracellular organelles named melanosomes. Melanin-containing melanosomes then move from the perinuclear region to the dendrite tips and are transferred to keratinocytes by a still not well-characterized mechanism.
Class
Organismal Systems; Endocrine system
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Melanogenesis
map04916

All organismsOrtholog table
Disease
H00168  
Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA)
H00169  
Ocular albinism
H00170  
Piebaldism
H00646  
Odontoonychodermal dysplasia
H00759  
Waardenburg syndrome (WS)
H00759  
Waardenburg syndrome (WS)
H00823  
ABCD syndrome
H00884  
Familial progressive hyperpigmentation
H00947  
Pilomatricoma
H01187  
Tietz syndrome
Reference
  Authors
Slominski A, Tobin DJ, Shibahara S, Wortsman J.
  Title
Melanin pigmentation in mammalian skin and its hormonal regulation.
  Journal
Physiol Rev 84:1155-228 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Busca R, Ballotti R.
  Title
Cyclic AMP a key messenger in the regulation of skin pigmentation.
  Journal
Pigment Cell Res 13:60-9 (2000)
Reference
  Authors
Imokawa G.
  Title
Autocrine and paracrine regulation of melanocytes in human skin and in pigmentary disorders.
  Journal
Pigment Cell Res 17:96-110 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Wikberg JE, Muceniece R, Mandrika I, Prusis P, Lindblom J, Post C, Skottner A.
  Title
New aspects on the melanocortins and their receptors.
  Journal
Pharmacol Res 42:393-420 (2000)
Reference
  Authors
Chin L.
  Title
The genetics of malignant melanoma: lessons from mouse and man.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 3:559-70 (2003)
Reference
  Authors
Miller AJ, Mihm MC Jr.
  Title
Melanoma.
  Journal
N Engl J Med 355:51-65 (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Saito H, Yasumoto K, Takeda K, Takahashi K, Yamamoto H, Shibahara S.
  Title
Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor in the Wnt signaling pathway.
  Journal
Pigment Cell Res 16:261-5 (2003)
Reference
PMID:9263329
  Authors
Imokawa G, Kobayashi T, Miyagishi M, Higashi K, Yada Y.
  Title
The role of endothelin-1 in epidermal hyperpigmentation and signaling mechanisms of mitogenesis and melanogenesis.
  Journal
Pigment Cell Res 10:218-28 (1997)
Reference
  Authors
Park HY, Gilchrest BA.
  Title
Signaling pathways mediating melanogenesis.
  Journal
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) 45:919-30 (1999)
Reference
  Authors
Park HY, Perez JM, Laursen R, Hara M, Gilchrest BA.
  Title
Protein kinase C-beta activates tyrosinase by phosphorylating serine residues in its cytoplasmic domain.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 274:16470-8 (1999)
Reference
  Authors
Sturm RA, Teasdale RD, Box NF.
  Title
Human pigmentation genes: identification, structure and consequences of polymorphic variation.
  Journal
Gene 277:49-62 (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Hearing VJ.
  Title
The melanosome: the perfect model for cellular responses to the environment.
  Journal
Pigment Cell Res 13 Suppl 8:23-34 (2000)
Reference
  Authors
Molina DM, Grewal S, Bardwell L.
  Title
Characterization of an ERK-binding domain in microphthalmia-associated transcription factor and differential inhibition of ERK2-mediated substrate phosphorylation.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 280:42051-60 (2005)
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