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Entry
map04930                    Pathway                                

Name
Type II diabetes mellitus
Description
Insulin resistance is strongly associated with type II diabetes. "Diabetogenic" factors including FFA, TNFalpha and cellular stress induce insulin resistance through inhibition of IRS1 functions. Serine/threonine phosphorylation, interaction with SOCS, regulation of the expression, modification of the cellular localization, and degradation represent the molecular mechanisms stimulated by them. Various kinases (ERK, JNK, IKKbeta, PKCzeta, PKCtheta and mTOR) are involved in this process.
The development of type II diabetes requires impaired beta-cell function. Chronic hyperglycemia has been shown to induce multiple defects in beta-cells. Hyperglycemia has been proposed to lead to large amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in beta-cells, with subsequent damage to cellular components including PDX-1. Loss of PDX-1, a critical regulator of insulin promoter activity, has also been proposed as an important mechanism leading to beta-cell dysfunction.
Although there is little doubt as to the importance of genetic factors in type II diabetes, genetic analysis is difficult due to complex interaction among multiple susceptibility genes and between genetic and environmental factors. Genetic studies have therefore given very diverse results. Kir6.2 and IRS are two of the candidate genes. It is known that Kir6.2 and IRS play central roles in insulin secretion and insulin signal transmission, respectively.
Class
Human Diseases; Endocrine and metabolic diseases
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Type II diabetes mellitus
map04930

All organismsOrtholog table
Disease
H00409  
Type II diabetes mellitus
H00410  
Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY)
H00512  
Permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM)
H00513  
Transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (TNDM)
H00719  
Leprechaunism
H00861  
Pancreatic agenesis
H00942  
Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome
H00967  
Adiponectin deficiency
H01228  
Insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus with acanthosis nigricans (IRAN)
H01267  
Familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (HHF)
Reference
  Authors
Stumvoll M, Goldstein BJ, van Haeften TW.
  Title
Type 2 diabetes: principles of pathogenesis and therapy.
  Journal
Lancet 365:1333-46 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Gual P, Le Marchand-Brustel Y, Tanti JF.
  Title
Positive and negative regulation of insulin signaling through IRS-1 phosphorylation.
  Journal
Biochimie 87:99-109 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Henquin JC.
  Title
Triggering and amplifying pathways of regulation of insulin secretion by glucose.
  Journal
Diabetes 49:1751-60 (2000)
Reference
  Authors
Chandra J, Zhivotovsky B, Zaitsev S, Juntti-Berggren L, Berggren PO, Orrenius S.
  Title
Role of apoptosis in pancreatic beta-cell death in diabetes.
  Journal
Diabetes 50 Suppl 1:S44-7 (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Kaneto H, Matsuoka TA, Nakatani Y, Kawamori D, Miyatsuka T, Matsuhisa M, Yamasaki Y.
  Title
Oxidative stress, ER stress, and the JNK pathway in type 2 diabetes.
  Journal
J Mol Med 83:429-39 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Sakai K, Matsumoto K, Nishikawa T, Suefuji M, Nakamaru K, Hirashima Y, Kawashima J, Shirotani T, Ichinose K, Brownlee M, Araki E.
  Title
Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species reduce insulin secretion by pancreatic beta-cells.
  Journal
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 300:216-22 (2003)
Reference
  Authors
Kaneto H, Xu G, Song KH, Suzuma K, Bonner-Weir S, Sharma A, Weir GC.
  Title
Activation of the hexosamine pathway leads to deterioration of pancreatic beta-cell function through the induction of oxidative stress.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 276:31099-104 (2001)
Reference
PMID:9011569
  Authors
Matsuoka T, Kajimoto Y, Watada H, Kaneto H, Kishimoto M, Umayahara Y, Fujitani Y, Kamada T, Kawamori R, Yamasaki Y.
  Title
Glycation-dependent, reactive oxygen species-mediated suppression of the insulin gene promoter activity in HIT cells.
  Journal
J Clin Invest 99:144-50 (1997)
Reference
PMID:7491105
  Authors
Sharma A, Olson LK, Robertson RP, Stein R.
  Title
The reduction of insulin gene transcription in HIT-T15 beta cells chronically exposed to high glucose concentration is associated with the loss of RIPE3b1 and STF-1 transcription factor expression.
  Journal
Mol Endocrinol 9:1127-34 (1995)
Reference
  Authors
Robertson RP.
  Title
Chronic oxidative stress as a central mechanism for glucose toxicity in pancreatic islet beta cells in diabetes.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 279:42351-4 (2004)
Reference
PMID:9974390
  Authors
Eto K, Tsubamoto Y, Terauchi Y, Sugiyama T, Kishimoto T, Takahashi N, Yamauchi N, Kubota N, Murayama S, Aizawa T, Akanuma Y, Aizawa S, Kasai H, Yazaki Y, Kadowaki T.
  Title
Role of NADH shuttle system in glucose-induced activation of mitochondrial metabolism and insulin secretion.
  Journal
Science 283:981-5 (1999)
Reference
  Authors
Novelli M, Fabregat ME, Fernandez-Alvarez J, Gomis R, Masiello P.
  Title
Metabolic and functional studies on isolated islets in a new rat model of type 2 diabetes.
  Journal
Mol Cell Endocrinol 175:57-66 (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Yang SN, Berggren PO.
  Title
Beta-cell CaV channel regulation in physiology and pathophysiology.
  Journal
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 288:E16-28 (2005)
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