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Entry
map05030                    Pathway                                

Name
Cocaine addiction
Description
Drug addiction is a chronic, relapsing disorder in which compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior persists despite serious negative consequences.There is strong evidence that the dopaminergic system that projects from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the midbrain to the nucleus accumbens (NAc), and to other forebrain sites, is the major substrate of reward and reinforcement for both natural rewards and addictive drugs. Cocaine binds strongly to the dopamine-reuptake transporter, preventing the reuptake of dopamine into the nerve terminal. Because of this blocking effect, dopamine remains at high concentrations in the synapse and continues to affect adjacent neurons, producing the characteristic cocaine "high." Activated D1 receptor activates the PKA signaling pathway, and this pathway plays a critical role in mediating the behavioral responses to cocaine administration. Cocaine-induced neuroadaptations, including dopamine depletion, may underlie craving and hedonic dysregulation.
Class
Human Diseases; Substance dependence
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Cocaine addiction
map05030

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Reference
  Authors
Ron D, Jurd R
  Title
The "ups and downs" of signaling cascades in addiction.
  Journal
Sci STKE 2005:re14 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Cunha-Oliveira T, Rego AC, Oliveira CR
  Title
Cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the neurotoxicity of opioid and psychostimulant drugs.
  Journal
Brain Res Rev 58:192-208 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Chen JC, Chen PC, Chiang YC
  Title
Molecular mechanisms of psychostimulant addiction.
  Journal
Chang Gung Med J 32:148-54 (2009)
Reference
  Authors
Nestler EJ
  Title
Is there a common molecular pathway for addiction?
  Journal
Nat Neurosci 8:1445-9 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Bowers MS, McFarland K, Lake RW, Peterson YK, Lapish CC, Gregory ML, Lanier SM, Kalivas PW
  Title
Activator of G protein signaling 3: a gatekeeper of cocaine sensitization and drug seeking.
  Journal
Neuron 42:269-81 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Rahman Z, Schwarz J, Gold SJ, Zachariou V, Wein MN, Choi KH, Kovoor A, Chen CK, DiLeone RJ, Schwarz SC, Selley DE, Sim-Selley LJ, Barrot M, Luedtke RR, Self D, Neve RL, Lester HA, Simon MI, Nestler EJ
  Title
RGS9 modulates dopamine signaling in the basal ganglia.
  Journal
Neuron 38:941-52 (2003)
Reference
  Authors
Horger BA, Iyasere CA, Berhow MT, Messer CJ, Nestler EJ, Taylor JR
  Title
Enhancement of locomotor activity and conditioned reward to cocaine by brain-derived neurotrophic factor.
  Journal
J Neurosci 19:4110-22 (1999)
Reference
  Authors
Mash DC, Pablo J, Ouyang Q, Hearn WL, Izenwasser S
  Title
Dopamine transport function is elevated in cocaine users.
  Journal
J Neurochem 81:292-300 (2002)
Reference
  Authors
McClung CA, Nestler EJ
  Title
Regulation of gene expression and cocaine reward by CREB and DeltaFosB.
  Journal
Nat Neurosci 6:1208-15 (2003)
Reference
  Authors
McClung CA, Ulery PG, Perrotti LI, Zachariou V, Berton O, Nestler EJ
  Title
DeltaFosB: a molecular switch for long-term adaptation in the brain.
  Journal
Brain Res Mol Brain Res 132:146-54 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Ang E, Chen J, Zagouras P, Magna H, Holland J, Schaeffer E, Nestler EJ
  Title
Induction of nuclear factor-kappaB in nucleus accumbens by chronic cocaine administration.
  Journal
J Neurochem 79:221-4 (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Bibb JA, Chen J, Taylor JR, Svenningsson P, Nishi A, Snyder GL, Yan Z, Sagawa ZK, Ouimet CC, Nairn AC, Nestler EJ, Greengard P
  Title
Effects of chronic exposure to cocaine are regulated by the neuronal protein Cdk5.
  Journal
Nature 410:376-80 (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Chao J, Nestler EJ
  Title
Molecular neurobiology of drug addiction.
  Journal
Annu Rev Med 55:113-32 (2004)
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