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Entry
map05214                    Pathway                                

Name
Glioma
Description
Gliomas are the most common of the primary brain tumors and account for more than 40% of all central nervous system neoplasms. Gliomas include tumours that are composed predominantly of astrocytes (astrocytomas), oligodendrocytes (oligodendrogliomas), mixtures of various glial cells (for example,oligoastrocytomas) and ependymal cells (ependymomas). The most malignant form of infiltrating astrocytoma - glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) - is one of the most aggressive human cancers. GBM may develop de novo (primary glioblastoma) or by progression from low-grade or anaplastic astrocytoma (secondary glioblastoma).  Primary glioblastomas develop in older patients and typically show genetic alterations (EGFR amplification, p16/INK4a deletion, and PTEN mutations) at frequencies of 24-34%. Secondary glioblastomas develop in younger patients and frequently show overexpression of PDGF and CDK4 as well as p53 mutations (65%) and loss of Rb playing major roles in such transformations. Loss of PTEN has been implicated in both pathways, although it is much more common in the pathogenesis of primary GBM.
Class
Human Diseases; Cancers
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Glioma
map05214

All organismsOrtholog table
Disease
H00042  
Glioma
Reference
  Authors
Soni D, King JA, Kaye AH, Hovens CM.
  Title
Genetics of glioblastoma multiforme: mitogenic signaling and cell cycle pathways converge.
  Journal
J Clin Neurosci 12:1-5 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Zhu Y, Parada LF.
  Title
The molecular and genetic basis of neurological tumours.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 2:616-26 (2002)
Reference
  Authors
Holland EC.
  Title
Gliomagenesis: genetic alterations and mouse models.
  Journal
Nat Rev Genet 2:120-9 (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Bansal K, Liang ML, Rutka JT.
  Title
Molecular biology of human gliomas.
  Journal
Technol Cancer Res Treat 5:185-94 (2006)
Reference
(Japanese)
  Authors
Tabuchi K (ed).
  Title
[Gliomas: Research and therapy] (In Japanese)
  Journal
Springer-Verlag Tokyo (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Kapoor GS, O'Rourke DM.
  Title
Mitogenic signaling cascades in glial tumors.
  Journal
Neurosurgery 52:1425-34; discussion 1434-5 (2003)
Reference
  Authors
Hulleman E, Helin K.
  Title
Molecular mechanisms in gliomagenesis.
  Journal
Adv Cancer Res 94:1-27 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Schlessinger J.
  Title
Cell signaling by receptor tyrosine kinases.
  Journal
Cell 103:211-25 (2000)
Reference
PMID:9643506
  Authors
Ng HK, Lam PY.
  Title
The molecular genetics of central nervous system tumors.
  Journal
Pathology 30:196-202 (1998)
Reference
  Authors
Knobbe CB, Merlo A, Reifenberger G.
  Title
Pten signaling in gliomas.
  Journal
Neuro-oncol 4:196-211 (2002)
KO pathway
 

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