KEGG   PATHWAY: acs04140Help
Entry
acs04140                    Pathway                                

Name
Autophagy - animal - Anolis carolinensis (green anole)
Description
Autophagy (or macroautophagy) is a cellular catabolic pathway involving in protein degradation, organelle turnover, and non-selective breakdown of cytoplasmic components, which is evolutionarily conserved among eukaryotes and exquisitely regulated. This progress initiates with production of the autophagosome, a double-membrane intracellular structure of reticular origin that engulfs cytoplasmic contents and ultimately fuses with lysosomes for cargo degradation. Autophagy is regulated in response to extra- or intracellular stress and signals such as starvation, growth factor deprivation and ER stress. Constitutive level of autophagy plays an important role in cellular homeostasis and maintains quality control of essential cellular components.
Class
Cellular Processes; Transport and catabolism
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Autophagy - animal
acs04140

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Other DBs
BSID: 
GO: 
Organism
Anolis carolinensis (green anole) [GN:acs]
Gene
ins; insulin [KO:K04526]
igf1r; insulin like growth factor 1 receptor [KO:K05087] [EC:2.7.10.1]
irs1; insulin receptor substrate 1 [KO:K16172]
insulin receptor substrate 1-like [KO:K16172]
irs4; insulin receptor substrate 4 [KO:K07187]
irs2; insulin receptor substrate 2 [KO:K07187]
pik3cb; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit beta [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
pik3ca; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
pik3cd; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit delta [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha isoform [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
pik3r1; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1 [KO:K02649]
pik3r2; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 2 [KO:K02649]
pik3r3; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 3 [KO:K02649]
pdpk1; 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase 1 [KO:K06276] [EC:2.7.11.1]
akt1; AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
akt3; AKT serine/threonine kinase 3 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
akt2; AKT serine/threonine kinase 2 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
pten; phosphatase and tensin homolog [KO:K01110] [EC:3.1.3.67 3.1.3.48 3.1.3.16]
hras; HRas proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K02833]
GTPase HRas [KO:K07827]
kras; KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K07827]
nras; neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog [KO:K07828]
mras; muscle RAS oncogene homolog [KO:K07831]
rras2; related RAS viral (r-ras) oncogene homolog 2 [KO:K07830]
rras; related RAS viral (r-ras) oncogene homolog [KO:K07830]
raf1; Raf-1 proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase [KO:K04366] [EC:2.7.11.1]
dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1-like [KO:K04368] [EC:2.7.12.2]
map2k2; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 [KO:K04369] [EC:2.7.12.2]
mapk3; mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
mapk1; mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
hif1a; hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha subunit [KO:K08268]
ddit4; DNA damage inducible transcript 4 [KO:K08270]
tsc2; tuberous sclerosis 2 [KO:K07207]
tsc1; tuberous sclerosis 1 [KO:K07206]
bnip3; BCL2 interacting protein 3 [KO:K15464]
rheb; Ras homolog enriched in brain [KO:K07208]
rptor; regulatory associated protein of MTOR complex 1 [KO:K07204]
deptor; DEP domain containing MTOR interacting protein [KO:K20402]
mtor; mechanistic target of rapamycin [KO:K07203] [EC:2.7.11.1]
akt1s1; AKT1 substrate 1 [KO:K16184]
mlst8; MTOR associated protein, LST8 homolog [KO:K08266]
rps6kb2; ribosomal protein S6 kinase B2 [KO:K04688] [EC:2.7.11.1]
rps6kb1; ribosomal protein S6 kinase B1 [KO:K04688] [EC:2.7.11.1]
igbp1; immunoglobulin binding protein 1 [KO:K17606]
ppp2ca; protein phosphatase 2 catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K04382] [EC:3.1.3.16]
ppp2cb; protein phosphatase 2 catalytic subunit beta [KO:K04382] [EC:3.1.3.16]
ulk1; unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1 [KO:K21357] [EC:2.7.11.1]
ulk2; unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 2 [KO:K08269] [EC:2.7.11.1]
atg13; autophagy related 13 [KO:K08331]
atg101; autophagy related 101 [KO:K19730]
rb1cc1; RB1 inducible coiled-coil 1 [KO:K17589]
atg2b; autophagy related 2B [KO:K17906]
autophagy-related protein 2 homolog A [KO:K17906]
atg2a; autophagy related 2A [KO:K17906]
wipi2; WD repeat domain, phosphoinositide interacting 2 [KO:K17908]
wipi1; WD repeat domain, phosphoinositide interacting 1 [KO:K17908]
autophagy-related protein 9A [KO:K17907]
atg9a; autophagy related 9A [KO:K17907]
supt20h; SPT20 homolog, SAGA complex component [KO:K21245]
ras-related GTP-binding protein A [KO:K16185]
rragc; Ras related GTP binding C [KO:K16186]
rragd; Ras related GTP binding D [KO:K16186]
stk11; serine/threonine kinase 11 [KO:K07298] [EC:2.7.11.1]
prkaa2; protein kinase AMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha 2 [KO:K07198] [EC:2.7.11.11]
prkaa1; protein kinase AMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha 1 [KO:K07198] [EC:2.7.11.11]
prkacb; protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit beta [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
prkaca; cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
prkcd; protein kinase C delta [KO:K06068] [EC:2.7.11.13]
mapk9; mitogen-activated protein kinase 9 [KO:K04440] [EC:2.7.11.24]
mapk8; mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 [KO:K04440] [EC:2.7.11.24]
mapk10; mitogen-activated protein kinase 10 [KO:K04440] [EC:2.7.11.24]
bcl2; apoptosis regulator Bcl-2 [KO:K02161]
bcl2l1; BCL2 like 1 [KO:K04570]
becn1; beclin 1 [KO:K08334]
nrbf2; nuclear receptor binding factor 2 [KO:K21246]
pik3r4; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 4 [KO:K08333] [EC:2.7.11.1]
pik3c3; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 3 [KO:K00914] [EC:2.7.1.137]
atg14; autophagy related 14 [KO:K17889]
ambra1; autophagy and beclin 1 regulator 1 [KO:K17985]
traf6; TNF receptor associated factor 6 [KO:K03175] [EC:2.3.2.27]
tp53inp2; tumor protein p53 inducible nuclear protein 2 [KO:K21247]
vmp1; vacuole membrane protein 1 [KO:K21248]
stx17; syntaxin 17 [KO:K08491]
uvrag; UV radiation resistance associated [KO:K21249]
sh3glb1; SH3 domain containing GRB2 like endophilin B1 [KO:K11248]
rubcn; RUN and cysteine rich domain containing beclin 1 interacting protein [KO:K19330]
calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 [KO:K07359] [EC:2.7.11.17]
map3k7; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7 [KO:K04427] [EC:2.7.11.25]
ern1; endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1 [KO:K08852] [EC:3.1.26.- 2.7.11.1]
ern2; endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 2 [KO:K08852] [EC:3.1.26.- 2.7.11.1]
itpr1; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 [KO:K04958]
dapk1; death associated protein kinase 1 [KO:K08803] [EC:2.7.11.1]
death-associated protein kinase 2 [KO:K08803] [EC:2.7.11.1]
hmgb1; high mobility group box 1 [KO:K10802]
eif2ak3; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3 [KO:K08860] [EC:2.7.11.1]
eif2ak4; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 4 [KO:K16196] [EC:2.7.11.1]
eif2s1; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit alpha [KO:K03237]
myotubularin-related protein 4 [KO:K18082] [EC:3.1.3.95 3.1.3.64 3.1.3.48]
myotubularin-related protein 4 [KO:K18082] [EC:3.1.3.95 3.1.3.64 3.1.3.48]
mtmr14; myotubularin related protein 14 [KO:K18086] [EC:3.1.3.95 3.1.3.64]
zfyve1; zinc finger FYVE-type containing 1 [KO:K17603]
atg12; autophagy related 12 [KO:K08336]
atg5; autophagy related 5 [KO:K08339]
atg16l1; autophagy related 16 like 1 [KO:K17890]
atg16l2; autophagy related 16 like 2 [KO:K20868]
atg7; autophagy related 7 [KO:K08337]
atg10; autophagy related 10 [KO:K17888]
atg3; autophagy related 3 [KO:K08343]
cflar; CASP8 and FADD like apoptosis regulator [KO:K04724]
rab33b; RAB33B, member RAS oncogene family [KO:K07920]
prkcq; protein kinase C theta [KO:K18052] [EC:2.7.11.13]
protein kinase C theta type [KO:K18052] [EC:2.7.11.13]
gabarapl1; GABA type A receptor associated protein like 1 [KO:K08341]
gabarapl2; GABA type A receptor associated protein like 2 [KO:K08341]
atg4b; autophagy related 4B cysteine peptidase [KO:K08342] [EC:3.4.22.-]
atg4d; autophagy related 4D cysteine peptidase [KO:K08342] [EC:3.4.22.-]
atg4c; autophagy related 4C cysteine peptidase [KO:K08342] [EC:3.4.22.-]
atg4a; autophagy related 4A cysteine peptidase [KO:K08342] [EC:3.4.22.-]
lamp1; lysosomal associated membrane protein 1 [KO:K06528]
lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 2-like [KO:K06528]
lamp2; lysosomal associated membrane protein 2 [KO:K06528]
rab7a; RAB7A, member RAS oncogene family [KO:K07897]
ras-related protein Rab-7a [KO:K07897]
rab7b; RAB7B, member RAS oncogene family [KO:K07898]
vamp8; vesicle associated membrane protein 8 [KO:K08512]
snap29; synaptosome associated protein 29 [KO:K08509]
ctsd; cathepsin D [KO:K01379] [EC:3.4.23.5]
cathepsin D [KO:K01379] [EC:3.4.23.5]
ctsl; cathepsin L [KO:K01365] [EC:3.4.22.15]
cathepsin L1 [KO:K01365] [EC:3.4.22.15]
ctsb; cathepsin B [KO:K01363] [EC:3.4.22.1]
Compound
C00350  
Phosphatidylethanolamine
C01194  
1-Phosphatidyl-D-myo-inositol
C04549  
1-Phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 3-phosphate
C05981  
Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate
Reference
  Authors
Meijer AJ, Codogno P.
  Title
Regulation and role of autophagy in mammalian cells.
  Journal
Int J Biochem Cell Biol 36:2445-62 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Deretic V.
  Title
Autophagy in innate and adaptive immunity.
  Journal
Trends Immunol 26:523-8 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Levine B, Yuan J.
  Title
Autophagy in cell death: an innocent convict?
  Journal
J Clin Invest 115:2679-88 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Tanida I, Ueno T, Kominami E.
  Title
LC3 conjugation system in mammalian autophagy.
  Journal
Int J Biochem Cell Biol 36:2503-18 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Lum JJ, DeBerardinis RJ, Thompson CB.
  Title
Autophagy in metazoans: cell survival in the land of plenty.
  Journal
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 6:439-48 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Reggiori F, Klionsky DJ.
  Title
Autophagosomes: biogenesis from scratch?
  Journal
Curr Opin Cell Biol 17:415-22 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Klionsky DJ, Emr SD.
  Title
Autophagy as a regulated pathway of cellular degradation.
  Journal
Science 290:1717-21 (2000)
Reference
  Authors
Bechet D, Tassa A, Taillandier D, Combaret L, Attaix D.
  Title
Lysosomal proteolysis in skeletal muscle.
  Journal
Int J Biochem Cell Biol 37:2098-114 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
He C, Klionsky DJ
  Title
Regulation mechanisms and signaling pathways of autophagy.
  Journal
Annu Rev Genet 43:67-93 (2009)
Reference
  Authors
Yang Z, Klionsky DJ
  Title
An overview of the molecular mechanism of autophagy.
  Journal
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 335:1-32 (2009)
Reference
  Authors
Yang Z, Klionsky DJ
  Title
Mammalian autophagy: core molecular machinery and signaling regulation.
  Journal
Curr Opin Cell Biol 22:124-31 (2010)
Reference
  Authors
Chen Y, Klionsky DJ
  Title
The regulation of autophagy - unanswered questions.
  Journal
J Cell Sci 124:161-70 (2011)
Reference
  Authors
Mizushima N, Yoshimori T, Ohsumi Y
  Title
The role of Atg proteins in autophagosome formation.
  Journal
Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 27:107-32 (2011)
Reference
  Authors
Russell RC, Yuan HX, Guan KL
  Title
Autophagy regulation by nutrient signaling.
  Journal
Cell Res 24:42-57 (2014)
Reference
  Authors
Noda NN, Fujioka Y
  Title
Atg1 family kinases in autophagy initiation.
  Journal
Cell Mol Life Sci 72:3083-96 (2015)
KO pathway
 

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