KEGG   PATHWAY: acs04140Help
acs04140                    Pathway                                

Autophagy - animal - Anolis carolinensis (green anole)
Autophagy (or macroautophagy) is a cellular catabolic pathway involving in protein degradation, organelle turnover, and non-selective breakdown of cytoplasmic components, which is evolutionarily conserved among eukaryotes and exquisitely regulated. This progress initiates with production of the autophagosome, a double-membrane intracellular structure of reticular origin that engulfs cytoplasmic contents and ultimately fuses with lysosomes for cargo degradation. Autophagy is regulated in response to extra- or intracellular stress and signals such as starvation, growth factor deprivation and ER stress. Constitutive level of autophagy plays an important role in cellular homeostasis and maintains quality control of essential cellular components.
Cellular Processes; Transport and catabolism
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Autophagy - animal

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Other DBs
Anolis carolinensis (green anole) [GN:acs]
ins; insulin [KO:K04526]
igf1r; insulin like growth factor 1 receptor [KO:K05087] [EC:]
irs1; insulin receptor substrate 1 [KO:K16172]
insulin receptor substrate 1-like [KO:K16172]
irs4; insulin receptor substrate 4 [KO:K07187]
irs2; insulin receptor substrate 2 [KO:K07187]
pik3cb; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit beta [KO:K00922] [EC:]
pik3ca; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K00922] [EC:]
pik3cd; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit delta [KO:K00922] [EC:]
phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha isoform [KO:K00922] [EC:]
pik3r1; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1 [KO:K02649]
pik3r2; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 2 [KO:K02649]
pik3r3; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 3 [KO:K02649]
pdpk1; 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase 1 [KO:K06276] [EC:]
akt1; AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 [KO:K04456] [EC:]
akt3; AKT serine/threonine kinase 3 [KO:K04456] [EC:]
akt2; AKT serine/threonine kinase 2 [KO:K04456] [EC:]
pten; phosphatase and tensin homolog [KO:K01110] [EC:]
hras; HRas proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K02833]
GTPase HRas [KO:K07827]
kras; KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K07827]
nras; neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog [KO:K07828]
mras; muscle RAS oncogene homolog [KO:K07831]
rras2; related RAS viral (r-ras) oncogene homolog 2 [KO:K07830]
rras; related RAS viral (r-ras) oncogene homolog [KO:K07830]
raf1; Raf-1 proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase [KO:K04366] [EC:]
dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1-like [KO:K04368] [EC:]
map2k2; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 [KO:K04369] [EC:]
mapk3; mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 [KO:K04371] [EC:]
mapk1; mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 [KO:K04371] [EC:]
hif1a; hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha subunit [KO:K08268]
ddit4; DNA damage inducible transcript 4 [KO:K08270]
tsc2; tuberous sclerosis 2 [KO:K07207]
tsc1; tuberous sclerosis 1 [KO:K07206]
bnip3; BCL2 interacting protein 3 [KO:K15464]
rheb; Ras homolog enriched in brain [KO:K07208]
rptor; regulatory associated protein of MTOR complex 1 [KO:K07204]
deptor; DEP domain containing MTOR interacting protein [KO:K20402]
mtor; mechanistic target of rapamycin [KO:K07203] [EC:]
akt1s1; AKT1 substrate 1 [KO:K16184]
mlst8; MTOR associated protein, LST8 homolog [KO:K08266]
rps6kb2; ribosomal protein S6 kinase B2 [KO:K04688] [EC:]
rps6kb1; ribosomal protein S6 kinase B1 [KO:K04688] [EC:]
igbp1; immunoglobulin binding protein 1 [KO:K17606]
ppp2ca; protein phosphatase 2 catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K04382] [EC:]
ppp2cb; protein phosphatase 2 catalytic subunit beta [KO:K04382] [EC:]
ulk1; unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1 [KO:K21357] [EC:]
ulk2; unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 2 [KO:K08269] [EC:]
atg13; autophagy related 13 [KO:K08331]
atg101; autophagy related 101 [KO:K19730]
rb1cc1; RB1 inducible coiled-coil 1 [KO:K17589]
atg2b; autophagy related 2B [KO:K17906]
autophagy-related protein 2 homolog A [KO:K17906]
atg2a; autophagy related 2A [KO:K17906]
wipi2; WD repeat domain, phosphoinositide interacting 2 [KO:K17908]
wipi1; WD repeat domain, phosphoinositide interacting 1 [KO:K17908]
autophagy-related protein 9A [KO:K17907]
atg9a; autophagy related 9A [KO:K17907]
supt20h; SPT20 homolog, SAGA complex component [KO:K21245]
ras-related GTP-binding protein A [KO:K16185]
rragc; Ras related GTP binding C [KO:K16186]
rragd; Ras related GTP binding D [KO:K16186]
stk11; serine/threonine kinase 11 [KO:K07298] [EC:]
prkaa2; protein kinase AMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha 2 [KO:K07198] [EC:]
prkaa1; protein kinase AMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha 1 [KO:K07198] [EC:]
prkacb; protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit beta [KO:K04345] [EC:]
prkaca; cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K04345] [EC:]
prkcd; protein kinase C delta [KO:K06068] [EC:]
mapk9; mitogen-activated protein kinase 9 [KO:K04440] [EC:]
mapk8; mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 [KO:K04440] [EC:]
mapk10; mitogen-activated protein kinase 10 [KO:K04440] [EC:]
bcl2; apoptosis regulator Bcl-2 [KO:K02161]
bcl2l1; BCL2 like 1 [KO:K04570]
becn1; beclin 1 [KO:K08334]
nrbf2; nuclear receptor binding factor 2 [KO:K21246]
pik3r4; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 4 [KO:K08333] [EC:]
pik3c3; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 3 [KO:K00914] [EC:]
atg14; autophagy related 14 [KO:K17889]
ambra1; autophagy and beclin 1 regulator 1 [KO:K17985]
traf6; TNF receptor associated factor 6 [KO:K03175] [EC:]
tp53inp2; tumor protein p53 inducible nuclear protein 2 [KO:K21247]
vmp1; vacuole membrane protein 1 [KO:K21248]
stx17; syntaxin 17 [KO:K08491]
uvrag; UV radiation resistance associated [KO:K21249]
sh3glb1; SH3 domain containing GRB2 like endophilin B1 [KO:K11248]
rubcn; RUN and cysteine rich domain containing beclin 1 interacting protein [KO:K19330]
calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 [KO:K07359] [EC:]
map3k7; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7 [KO:K04427] [EC:]
ern1; endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1 [KO:K08852] [EC:3.1.26.-]
ern2; endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 2 [KO:K08852] [EC:3.1.26.-]
itpr1; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 [KO:K04958]
dapk1; death associated protein kinase 1 [KO:K08803] [EC:]
death-associated protein kinase 2 [KO:K08803] [EC:]
hmgb1; high mobility group box 1 [KO:K10802]
eif2ak3; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3 [KO:K08860] [EC:]
eif2ak4; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 4 [KO:K16196] [EC:]
eif2s1; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit alpha [KO:K03237]
myotubularin-related protein 4 [KO:K18082] [EC:]
myotubularin-related protein 4 [KO:K18082] [EC:]
mtmr14; myotubularin related protein 14 [KO:K18086] [EC:]
zfyve1; zinc finger FYVE-type containing 1 [KO:K17603]
atg12; autophagy related 12 [KO:K08336]
atg5; autophagy related 5 [KO:K08339]
atg16l1; autophagy related 16 like 1 [KO:K17890]
atg16l2; autophagy related 16 like 2 [KO:K20868]
atg7; autophagy related 7 [KO:K08337]
atg10; autophagy related 10 [KO:K17888]
atg3; autophagy related 3 [KO:K08343]
cflar; CASP8 and FADD like apoptosis regulator [KO:K04724]
rab33b; RAB33B, member RAS oncogene family [KO:K07920]
prkcq; protein kinase C theta [KO:K18052] [EC:]
protein kinase C theta type [KO:K18052] [EC:]
gabarapl1; GABA type A receptor associated protein like 1 [KO:K08341]
gabarapl2; GABA type A receptor associated protein like 2 [KO:K08341]
atg4b; autophagy related 4B cysteine peptidase [KO:K08342] [EC:3.4.22.-]
atg4d; autophagy related 4D cysteine peptidase [KO:K08342] [EC:3.4.22.-]
atg4c; autophagy related 4C cysteine peptidase [KO:K08342] [EC:3.4.22.-]
atg4a; autophagy related 4A cysteine peptidase [KO:K08342] [EC:3.4.22.-]
lamp1; lysosomal associated membrane protein 1 [KO:K06528]
lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 2-like [KO:K06528]
lamp2; lysosomal associated membrane protein 2 [KO:K06528]
rab7a; RAB7A, member RAS oncogene family [KO:K07897]
ras-related protein Rab-7a [KO:K07897]
rab7b; RAB7B, member RAS oncogene family [KO:K07898]
vamp8; vesicle associated membrane protein 8 [KO:K08512]
snap29; synaptosome associated protein 29 [KO:K08509]
ctsd; cathepsin D [KO:K01379] [EC:]
cathepsin D [KO:K01379] [EC:]
ctsl; cathepsin L [KO:K01365] [EC:]
cathepsin L1 [KO:K01365] [EC:]
ctsb; cathepsin B [KO:K01363] [EC:]
1-Phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 3-phosphate
Meijer AJ, Codogno P.
Regulation and role of autophagy in mammalian cells.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol 36:2445-62 (2004)
Deretic V.
Autophagy in innate and adaptive immunity.
Trends Immunol 26:523-8 (2005)
Levine B, Yuan J.
Autophagy in cell death: an innocent convict?
J Clin Invest 115:2679-88 (2005)
Tanida I, Ueno T, Kominami E.
LC3 conjugation system in mammalian autophagy.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol 36:2503-18 (2004)
Lum JJ, DeBerardinis RJ, Thompson CB.
Autophagy in metazoans: cell survival in the land of plenty.
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 6:439-48 (2005)
Reggiori F, Klionsky DJ.
Autophagosomes: biogenesis from scratch?
Curr Opin Cell Biol 17:415-22 (2005)
Klionsky DJ, Emr SD.
Autophagy as a regulated pathway of cellular degradation.
Science 290:1717-21 (2000)
Bechet D, Tassa A, Taillandier D, Combaret L, Attaix D.
Lysosomal proteolysis in skeletal muscle.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol 37:2098-114 (2005)
He C, Klionsky DJ
Regulation mechanisms and signaling pathways of autophagy.
Annu Rev Genet 43:67-93 (2009)
Yang Z, Klionsky DJ
An overview of the molecular mechanism of autophagy.
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 335:1-32 (2009)
Yang Z, Klionsky DJ
Mammalian autophagy: core molecular machinery and signaling regulation.
Curr Opin Cell Biol 22:124-31 (2010)
Chen Y, Klionsky DJ
The regulation of autophagy - unanswered questions.
J Cell Sci 124:161-70 (2011)
Mizushima N, Yoshimori T, Ohsumi Y
The role of Atg proteins in autophagosome formation.
Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 27:107-32 (2011)
Russell RC, Yuan HX, Guan KL
Autophagy regulation by nutrient signaling.
Cell Res 24:42-57 (2014)
Noda NN, Fujioka Y
Atg1 family kinases in autophagy initiation.
Cell Mol Life Sci 72:3083-96 (2015)
KO pathway

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