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aly00900                    Pathway                                

Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis - Arabidopsis lyrata (lyrate rockcress)
Terpenoids, also known as isoprenoids, are a large class of natural products consisting of isoprene (C5) units. There are two biosynthetic pathways, the mevalonate pathway [MD:M00095] and the non-mevalonate pathway or the MEP/DOXP pathway [MD:M00096], for the terpenoid building blocks: isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). The action of prenyltransferases then generates higher-order building blocks: geranyl diphosphate (GPP), farsenyl diphosphate (FPP), and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), which are the precursors of monoterpenoids (C10), sesquiterpenoids (C15), and diterpenoids (C20), respectively. Condensation of these building blocks gives rise to the precursors of sterols (C30) and carotenoids (C40). The MEP/DOXP pathway is absent in higher animals and fungi, but in green plants the MEP/DOXP and mevalonate pathways co-exist in separate cellular compartments. The MEP/DOXP pathway, operating in the plastids, is responsible for the formation of essential oil monoterpenes and linalyl acetate, some sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, and carotenoids and phytol. The mevalonate pathway, operating in the cytosol, gives rise to triterpenes, sterols, and most sesquiterpenes.
Metabolism; Metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
aly00900  Terpenoid backbone biosynthesis

Ortholog table
aly_M00095  C5 isoprenoid biosynthesis, mevalonate pathway [PATH:aly00900]
aly_M00096  C5 isoprenoid biosynthesis, non-mevalonate pathway [PATH:aly00900]
aly_M00366  C10-C20 isoprenoid biosynthesis, plants [PATH:aly00900]
Other DBs
BSID: 375729
GO: 0009240 0016091
Arabidopsis lyrata (lyrate rockcress) [GN:aly]
ARALYDRAFT_909099  DXPS3; 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase 3 [KO:K01662] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_493326  hypothetical protein [KO:K01662] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_479668  1-deoxyxylulose-5-phosphate synthase [KO:K01662] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_919553  1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase [KO:K00099] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_664121  hypothetical protein [KO:K00991] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_481568  atcdpmek [KO:K00919] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_315035  2C-methyl-D-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase [KO:K01770] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_919295  hypothetical protein [KO:K03526] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_491231  hypothetical protein [KO:K03527] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_494196  hypothetical protein [KO:K00626] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_494876  ACAT2; acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase 2, embryo defective 1276 [KO:K00626] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_911556  hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase [KO:K01641] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_480621  HMG2; 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase 2 [KO:K00021] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_316570  HMG1; 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase [KO:K00021] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_489582  hypothetical protein [KO:K00869] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_473379  GHMP kinase family protein [KO:K00938] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_906831  hypothetical protein [KO:K01597] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_482881  hypothetical protein [KO:K01597] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_488496  isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase [KO:K01823] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_477520  hypothetical protein [KO:K01823] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_916701  farnesyl diphosphate synthase short form [KO:K00787] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_493157  hypothetical protein [KO:K00787] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_902550  hypothetical protein [KO:K14066] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_480767  hypothetical protein [KO:K13789] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_478873  hypothetical protein [KO:K13789] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_898426  hypothetical protein [KO:K13789] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_900865  geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthase [KO:K13789] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_891852  hypothetical protein [KO:K13789] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_912293  hypothetical protein [KO:K13789] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_490952  hypothetical protein [KO:K13789] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_480765  geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase [KO:K13789] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_900253  hypothetical protein [KO:K13789] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_915906  hypothetical protein [KO:K13789] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_494049  hypothetical protein [KO:K05356] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_895751  solanesyl diphosphate synthase [KO:K05356] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_480651  undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthetase family protein [KO:K11778] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_481211  ACPT; cis-prenyltransferase [KO:K11778] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_496002  hypothetical protein [KO:K11778] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_496003  hypothetical protein [KO:K11778] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_496196  undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthetase family protein [KO:K11778] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_678866  hypothetical protein [KO:K11778] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_919084  hypothetical protein [KO:K11778] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_481210  hypothetical protein [KO:K11778] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_476582  hypothetical protein [KO:K10960] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_907440  protein farnesyltransferase subunit A [KO:K05955] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_482603  prenyl-dependent CAAX protease [KO:K08658] [EC:3.4.22.-]
ARALYDRAFT_912101  ATSTE24 [KO:K06013] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_487666  ATSTE14B; prenylcysteine alpha-carboxyl methyltransferase [KO:K00587] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_910344  ATSTE14; prenylcysteine alpha-carboxyl methyltransferase 14A [KO:K00587] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_488435  hypothetical protein [KO:K15889] [EC:3.1.1.-]
ARALYDRAFT_670967  hypothetical protein [KO:K15889] [EC:3.1.1.-]
ARALYDRAFT_496583  hypothetical protein [KO:K05906] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_656688  hypothetical protein [KO:K15891] [EC:]
ARALYDRAFT_332145  hypothetical protein [KO:K15892] [EC:]
C00022  Pyruvate
C00024  Acetyl-CoA
C00118  D-Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
C00129  Isopentenyl diphosphate
C00235  Dimethylallyl diphosphate
C00332  Acetoacetyl-CoA
C00341  Geranyl diphosphate
C00353  Geranylgeranyl diphosphate
C00356  (S)-3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA
C00418  (R)-Mevalonate
C00448  trans,trans-Farnesyl diphosphate
C00621  Dolichyl diphosphate
C01107  (R)-5-Phosphomevalonate
C01126  (2E,6E)-Farnesol
C01143  (R)-5-Diphosphomevalonate
C01230  all-trans-Hexaprenyl diphosphate
C02321  cis-1,4-Polyisoprene
C03461  2-trans,6-trans-Farnesal
C04145  all-trans-Nonaprenyl diphosphate
C04146  all-trans-Octaprenyl diphosphate
C04216  all-trans-Heptaprenyl diphosphate
C04506  Protein C-terminal S-farnesyl-L-cysteine
C04574  di-trans,poly-cis-Undecaprenyl diphosphate
C04748  Protein C-terminal S-farnesyl-L-cysteine methyl ester
C05427  Phytyl diphosphate
C05859  Dehydrodolichol diphosphate
C11434  2-C-Methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate
C11435  4-(Cytidine 5'-diphospho)-2-C-methyl-D-erythritol
C11436  2-Phospho-4-(cytidine 5'-diphospho)-2-C-methyl-D-erythritol
C11437  1-Deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate
C11453  2-C-Methyl-D-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate
C11811  1-Hydroxy-2-methyl-2-butenyl 4-diphosphate
C16521  Isoprene
C16826  2-cis,6-trans-Farnesyl diphosphate
C17432  all-trans-Decaprenyl diphosphate
C18321  (2Z,6Z,10Z,14Z,18Z,22Z,26Z,30Z,34E)-Decaprenyl diphosphate
C19691  Farnesylcysteine
C19760  (2Z,6Z)-Farnesyl diphosphate
C19852  tritrans,heptacis-Undecaprenyl diphosphate
C19853  trans,polycis-Polyprenyl diphosphate
C20120  S-Farnesyl protein
C20121  trans,trans-Farnesyl phosphate
C20345  Isopentenyl phosphate
C20847  (R)-Mevalonate 3-phosphate
C20848  (R)-Mevalonate 3,5-bisphosphate
Lange BM, Ghassemian M.
Genome organization in Arabidopsis thaliana: a survey for genes involved in isoprenoid and chlorophyll metabolism.
Plant Mol Biol 51:925-48 (2003)
Saiki R, Nagata A, Kainou T, Matsuda H, Kawamukai M
Characterization of solanesyl and decaprenyl diphosphate synthases in mice and humans.
FEBS J 272:5606-22 (2005)
Sato M, Sato K, Nishikawa S, Hirata A, Kato J, Nakano A
The yeast RER2 gene, identified by endoplasmic reticulum protein localization mutations, encodes cis-prenyltransferase, a key enzyme in dolichol synthesis.
Mol Cell Biol 19:471-83 (1999)
Vannice JC, Skaff DA, Keightley A, Addo JK, Wyckoff GJ, Miziorko HM
Identification in Haloferax volcanii of phosphomevalonate decarboxylase and isopentenyl phosphate kinase as catalysts of the terminal enzyme reactions in an  archaeal alternate mevalonate pathway.
J Bacteriol 196:1055-63 (2014)
KO pathway

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