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bcj00920                    Pathway                                

Sulfur metabolism - Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315
Sulfur is an essential element for life and the metabolism of organic sulfur compounds plays an important role in the global sulfur cycle. Sulfur occurs in various oxidation states ranging from +6 in sulfate to -2 in sulfide (H2S). Sulfate reduction can occur in both an energy consuming assimilatory pathway and an energy producing dissimilatory pathway. The assimilatory pathway, which is found in a wide range of organisms, produces reduced sulfur compounds for the biosynthesis of S-containing amino acids and does not lead to direct excretion of sulfide. In the dissimilatory pathway, which is restricted to obligatory anaerobic bacterial and archaeal lineages, sulfate (or sulfur) is the terminal electron acceptor of the respiratory chain producing large quantities of inorganic sulfide. Both pathways start from the activation of sulfate by reaction with ATP to form adenylyl sulfate (APS). In the assimilatory pathway [MD:M00176] APS is converted to 3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate (PAPS) and then reduced to sulfite, and sulfite is further reduced to sulfide by the assimilatory sulfite reductase. In the dissimilatory pathway [MD:M00596] APS is directly reduced to sulfite, and sulfite is further reduced to sulfide by the dissimilatory sulfite reductase. The capacity for oxidation of sulfur is quite widespread among bacteria and archaea, comprising phototrophs and chemolithoautotrophs. The SOX (sulfur-oxidation) system [MD:M00595] is a well-known sulfur oxidation pathway and is found in both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Green sulfur bacteria and purple sulfur bacteria carry out anoxygenic photosynthesis with reduced sulfur compounds such as sulfide and elemental sulfur, as well as thiosulfate (in some species with the SOX system), as the electron donor for photoautotrophic growth. In some chemolithoautotrophic sulfur oxidizers (such as Thiobacillus denitrificans), it has been suggested that dissimilatory sulfur reduction enzymes operate in the reverse direction, forming a sulfur oxidation pathway from sulfite to APS and then to sulfate.
Metabolism; Energy metabolism
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
bcj00920  Sulfur metabolism

Ortholog table
bcj_M00176  Assimilatory sulfate reduction, sulfate => H2S [PATH:bcj00920]
Other DBs
BSID: 74745
GO: 0006790
Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315 [GN:bcj]
BCAL0645  sbp; sulfate-binding protein precursor [KO:K02048]
BCAL1652  sbp; sulfate-binding protein precursor [KO:K02048]
BCAL1653  cysT; sulfate transport system permease protein [KO:K02046]
BCAL1654  cysW; sulfate transport system permease protein [KO:K02047]
BCAL1655  cysA; sulfate ABC transporter ATP-binding protein [KO:K02045] [EC:]
BCAL0711  tauA; periplasmic component of taurine ABC transporter [KO:K15551]
BCAL0713  tauC; permease component of taurine ABC transporter [KO:K15552]
BCAL0712  tauB; taurine ABC transporter ATP-binding protein [KO:K10831] [EC:]
BCAL1738  tauD; alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent taurine dioxygenase [KO:K03119] [EC:]
BCAS0426  putative taurine dioxygenase [KO:K03119] [EC:]
BCAS0342  putative exported protein [KO:K15553]
BCAM1385  putative sulfonates ABC transporter substrate-binding protein [KO:K15553]
BCAM1118  putative membrane protein [KO:K15553]
BCAS0769  putative periplasmic solute-binding protein [KO:K15553]
BCAL1552  putative extracellular substrate-binding protein [KO:K15553]
BCAS0413  putative exported protein [KO:K15553]
BCAM1126  putative exported protein [KO:K15553]
BCAM0555  putative transport system component [KO:K15553]
BCAL1620  ssuC; aliphatic sulfonates transport permease protein [KO:K15554]
BCAS0341  putative binding-protein-dependent transport system component [KO:K15554]
BCAM0554  putative ABC transporter system permease [KO:K15554]
BCAM1125  putative ABC transporter system permease [KO:K15554]
BCAM0553  putative ABC transporter system permease [KO:K15554]
BCAM1124  putative ABC transporter system permease [KO:K15554]
BCAL1621  ssuB; aliphatic sulfonates ABC transporter ATP-binding protein [KO:K15555] [EC:3.6.3.-]
BCAM1123  ABC transporter ATP-binding protein [KO:K15555] [EC:3.6.3.-]
BCAS0340  ABC transporter ATP-binding protein [KO:K15555] [EC:3.6.3.-]
BCAM0557  putative monooxygenase [KO:K04091] [EC:]
BCAL1619  ssuD; alkanesulfonate monooxygenase [KO:K04091] [EC:]
BCAM1565  putative monooxygenase [KO:K04091] [EC:]
BCAM1391  putative sulfonate monooxygenase [KO:K04091] [EC:]
BCAS0053  msuE; FMN reductase [KO:K00299] [EC:]
BCAM2415  putative NADPH-dependent FMN reductase [KO:K00299] [EC:]
BCAL2260  cysNC; bifunctional enzyme CysN/CysC [includes: sulfate adenylyltransferas subunit 1; adenylyl-sulfate kinase] [KO:K00955] [EC:]
BCAL2681  cysN; putative sulfate adenylyltransferase subunit 1 [KO:K00956] [EC:]
BCAL2259  cysD2; sulfate adenylyltransferase subunit 2 2 [KO:K00957] [EC:]
BCAL2682  cysD1; putative sulfate adenylyltransferase subunit 2 1 [KO:K00957] [EC:]
BCAL3216  cysC; adenylyl-sulfate kinase [KO:K00860] [EC:]
BCAL2683  cysH; putative phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate reductase [KO:K00390] [EC:]
BCAM1174  putative molybdopterin oxidoreductase [KO:K21307] [EC:]
BCAM1175  putative dimethyl sulfoxide reductase subunit [KO:K21308]
BCAM1176  dmsC; putative dimethyl sulfoxide reductase subunit [KO:K21309]
BCAS0416  putative oxidoreductase [KO:K17225]
BCAS0417  putative cytochrome c [KO:K22622] [EC:]
BCAM1683  putative bifunctional nitrate/sulfite reductase [KO:K00380] [EC:]
BCAM1676  putative nitrite/sulfite reductase [KO:K00381] [EC:]
BCAL2685  cysI; putative sulfite reductase [KO:K00381] [EC:]
BCAL1819  conserved hypothetical protein [KO:K17218] [EC:]
BCAM0907  putative sulfurtransferase [KO:K01011] [EC:]
BCAM0540  putative serine acetyltransferase [KO:K00640] [EC:]
BCAM0053  srpH; serine acetyltransferase [KO:K00640] [EC:]
BCAL2155  serine acetyltransferase [KO:K00640] [EC:]
BCAL2942  cysM; cysteine synthase [KO:K12339] [EC:]
BCAM0999  metZ; O-succinylhomoserine sulfhydrylase [KO:K10764] [EC:2.5.1.-]
BCAS0418  putative luciferase-like monooxygenase [KO:K17228] [EC:]
BCAS0054  putative luciferase-like monooxygenase [KO:K17228] [EC:]
BCAL1980  putative acyl-CoA synthetase [KO:K20034] [EC:]
BCAS0610  putative acyl-CoA dehydrogenase [KO:K20035] [EC:1.3.8.-]
C00033  Acetate
C00042  Succinate
C00053  3'-Phosphoadenylyl sulfate
C00054  Adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate
C00059  Sulfate
C00065  L-Serine
C00084  Acetaldehyde
C00087  Sulfur
C00094  Sulfite
C00097  L-Cysteine
C00155  L-Homocysteine
C00224  Adenylyl sulfate
C00245  Taurine
C00263  L-Homoserine
C00283  Hydrogen sulfide
C00320  Thiosulfate
C00409  Methanethiol
C00580  Dimethyl sulfide
C00979  O-Acetyl-L-serine
C01118  O-Succinyl-L-homoserine
C01861  Trithionate
C02084  Tetrathionate
C03920  2-(Methylthio)ethanesulfonate
C04022  S,S-Dimethyl-beta-propiothetin
C08276  3-(Methylthio)propanoate
C11142  Dimethyl sulfone
C11143  Dimethyl sulfoxide
C11145  Methanesulfonic acid
C15521  Alkanesulfonate
C17267  S-Sulfanylglutathione
C19692  Polysulfide
C20870  3-(Methylthio)propanoyl-CoA
C20955  3-(Methylthio)acryloyl-CoA
Grein F, Ramos AR, Venceslau SS, Pereira IA
Unifying concepts in anaerobic respiration: Insights from dissimilatory sulfur metabolism.
Biochim Biophys Acta 1827:145-60 (2013)
Fauque GD, Barton LL
Hemoproteins in dissimilatory sulfate- and sulfur-reducing prokaryotes.
Adv Microb Physiol 60:1-90 (2012)
Sakurai H, Ogawa T, Shiga M, Inoue K
Inorganic sulfur oxidizing system in green sulfur bacteria.
Photosynth Res 104:163-76 (2010)
Falkenby LG, Szymanska M, Holkenbrink C, Habicht KS, Andersen JS, Miller M, Frigaard NU
Quantitative proteomics of Chlorobaculum tepidum: insights into the sulfur metabolism of a phototrophic green sulfur bacterium.
FEMS Microbiol Lett 323:142-50 (2011)
Gregersen LH, Bryant DA, Frigaard NU
Mechanisms and evolution of oxidative sulfur metabolism in green sulfur bacteria.
Front Microbiol 2:116 (2011)
Beller HR, Chain PS, Letain TE, Chakicherla A, Larimer FW, Richardson PM, Coleman MA, Wood AP, Kelly DP.
The genome sequence of the obligately chemolithoautotrophic, facultatively anaerobic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans.
J Bacteriol 188:1473-88 (2006)
Pott AS, Dahl C
Sirohaem sulfite reductase and other proteins encoded by genes at the dsr locus of Chromatium vinosum are involved in the oxidation of intracellular sulfur.
Microbiology 144 ( Pt 7):1881-94 (1998)
Frigaard NU, Dahl C
Sulfur metabolism in phototrophic sulfur bacteria.
Adv Microb Physiol 54:103-200 (2009)
KO pathway

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