KEGG   PATHWAY: elx00920Help
elx00920                    Pathway                                

Sulfur metabolism - Escherichia coli O157:H7 Xuzhou21 (EHEC)
Sulfur is an essential element for life and the metabolism of organic sulfur compounds plays an important role in the global sulfur cycle. Sulfur occurs in various oxidation states ranging from +6 in sulfate to -2 in sulfide (H2S). Sulfate reduction can occur in both an energy consuming assimilatory pathway and an energy producing dissimilatory pathway. The assimilatory pathway, which is found in a wide range of organisms, produces reduced sulfur compounds for the biosynthesis of S-containing amino acids and does not lead to direct excretion of sulfide. In the dissimilatory pathway, which is restricted to obligatory anaerobic bacterial and archaeal lineages, sulfate (or sulfur) is the terminal electron acceptor of the respiratory chain producing large quantities of inorganic sulfide. Both pathways start from the activation of sulfate by reaction with ATP to form adenylyl sulfate (APS). In the assimilatory pathway [MD:M00176] APS is converted to 3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate (PAPS) and then reduced to sulfite, and sulfite is further reduced to sulfide by the assimilatory sulfite reductase. In the dissimilatory pathway [MD:M00596] APS is directly reduced to sulfite, and sulfite is further reduced to sulfide by the dissimilatory sulfite reductase. The capacity for oxidation of sulfur is quite widespread among bacteria and archaea, comprising phototrophs and chemolithoautotrophs. The SOX (sulfur-oxidation) system [MD:M00595] is a well-known sulfur oxidation pathway and is found in both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Green sulfur bacteria and purple sulfur bacteria carry out anoxygenic photosynthesis with reduced sulfur compounds such as sulfide and elemental sulfur, as well as thiosulfate (in some species with the SOX system), as the electron donor for photoautotrophic growth. In some chemolithoautotrophic sulfur oxidizers (such as Thiobacillus denitrificans), it has been suggested that dissimilatory sulfur reduction enzymes operate in the reverse direction, forming a sulfur oxidation pathway from sulfite to APS and then to sulfate.
Metabolism; Energy metabolism
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
elx00920  Sulfur metabolism

Ortholog table
elx_M00176  Assimilatory sulfate reduction, sulfate => H2S [PATH:elx00920]
Other DBs
BSID: 653801
GO: 0006790
Escherichia coli O157:H7 Xuzhou21 (EHEC) [GN:elx]
CDCO157_4582  sulfate transporter subunit [KO:K02048]
CDCO157_3061  thiosulfate transporter subunit [KO:K02048]
CDCO157_3060  sulfate/thiosulfate transporter subunit [KO:K02046]
CDCO157_3059  cysW; sulfate/thiosulfate transporter permease subunit [KO:K02047]
CDCO157_3058  sulfate/thiosulfate transporter subunit [KO:K02045] [EC:]
CDCO157_0407  tauA; taurine transporter substrate binding subunit [KO:K15551]
CDCO157_0409  taurine transporter subunit [KO:K15552]
CDCO157_0408  tauB; taurine transporter ATP-binding subunit [KO:K10831] [EC:]
CDCO157_0410  tauD; taurine dioxygenase [KO:K03119] [EC:]
CDCO157_0995  alkanesulfonate transporter substrate-binding subunit [KO:K15553]
CDCO157_0993  ssuC; alkanesulfonate transporter permease subunit [KO:K15554]
CDCO157_0992  ssuB; aliphatic sulfonates transport ATP-binding subunit [KO:K15555] [EC:3.6.3.-]
CDCO157_0994  alkanesulfonate monooxygenase [KO:K04091] [EC:]
CDCO157_0996  NAD(P)H-dependent FMN reductase [KO:K00299] [EC:]
CDCO157_3365  cysN; sulfate adenylyltransferase subunit 1 [KO:K00956] [EC:]
CDCO157_3366  sulfate adenylyltransferase subunit 2 [KO:K00957] [EC:]
CDCO157_3364  adenylylsulfate kinase [KO:K00860] [EC:]
CDCO157_4878  adenosine-3'(2'),5'-bisphosphate nucleotidase [KO:K01082] [EC:]
CDCO157_3377  phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate reductase [KO:K00390] [EC:]
CDCO157_3379  cysJ; sulfite reductase subunit alpha [KO:K00380] [EC:]
CDCO157_3378  sulfite reductase subunit beta [KO:K00381] [EC:]
CDCO157_2211  hypothetical protein [KO:K08354]
CDCO157_3154  sseA; 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase [KO:K01011] [EC:]
CDCO157_4009  glpE; thiosulfate sulfurtransferase [KO:K02439] [EC:]
CDCO157_4222  cysE; serine acetyltransferase [KO:K00640] [EC:]
CDCO157_3051  cysteine synthase A [KO:K01738] [EC:]
CDCO157_3057  cysM; cysteine synthase B [KO:K12339] [EC:]
CDCO157_4672  homoserine O-succinyltransferase [KO:K00651] [EC:]
CDCO157_4609  cystathionine gamma-synthase [KO:K01739] [EC:]
CDCO157_3151  putative anaerobic dimethyl sulfoxide reductase chain A precursor [KO:K07306] [EC:]
CDCO157_0955  anaerobic dimethyl sulfoxide reductase subunit A [KO:K07306] [EC:]
CDCO157_0956  anaerobic dimethyl sulfoxide reductase subunit B [KO:K07307]
CDCO157_3150  putative anaerobic dimethyl sulfoxide reductase chain B [KO:K07307]
CDCO157_3149  putative anaerobic dimethyl sulfoxide reductase chain C [KO:K07308]
CDCO157_0957  anaerobic dimethyl sulfoxide reductase subunit C [KO:K07308]
C00033  Acetate
C00042  Succinate
C00053  3'-Phosphoadenylyl sulfate
C00054  Adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate
C00059  Sulfate
C00065  L-Serine
C00084  Acetaldehyde
C00087  Sulfur
C00094  Sulfite
C00097  L-Cysteine
C00155  L-Homocysteine
C00224  Adenylyl sulfate
C00245  Taurine
C00263  L-Homoserine
C00283  Hydrogen sulfide
C00320  Thiosulfate
C00409  Methanethiol
C00580  Dimethyl sulfide
C00979  O-Acetyl-L-serine
C01118  O-Succinyl-L-homoserine
C01861  Trithionate
C02084  Tetrathionate
C03920  2-(Methylthio)ethanesulfonate
C04022  S,S-Dimethyl-beta-propiothetin
C08276  3-(Methylthio)propanoate
C11142  Dimethyl sulfone
C11143  Dimethyl sulfoxide
C11145  Methanesulfonic acid
C15521  Alkanesulfonate
C17267  S-Sulfanylglutathione
C19692  Polysulfide
C20870  3-(Methylthio)propanoyl-CoA
C20955  3-(Methylthio)acryloyl-CoA
Grein F, Ramos AR, Venceslau SS, Pereira IA
Unifying concepts in anaerobic respiration: Insights from dissimilatory sulfur metabolism.
Biochim Biophys Acta 1827:145-60 (2013)
Fauque GD, Barton LL
Hemoproteins in dissimilatory sulfate- and sulfur-reducing prokaryotes.
Adv Microb Physiol 60:1-90 (2012)
Sakurai H, Ogawa T, Shiga M, Inoue K
Inorganic sulfur oxidizing system in green sulfur bacteria.
Photosynth Res 104:163-76 (2010)
Falkenby LG, Szymanska M, Holkenbrink C, Habicht KS, Andersen JS, Miller M, Frigaard NU
Quantitative proteomics of Chlorobaculum tepidum: insights into the sulfur metabolism of a phototrophic green sulfur bacterium.
FEMS Microbiol Lett 323:142-50 (2011)
Gregersen LH, Bryant DA, Frigaard NU
Mechanisms and evolution of oxidative sulfur metabolism in green sulfur bacteria.
Front Microbiol 2:116 (2011)
Beller HR, Chain PS, Letain TE, Chakicherla A, Larimer FW, Richardson PM, Coleman MA, Wood AP, Kelly DP.
The genome sequence of the obligately chemolithoautotrophic, facultatively anaerobic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans.
J Bacteriol 188:1473-88 (2006)
Pott AS, Dahl C
Sirohaem sulfite reductase and other proteins encoded by genes at the dsr locus of Chromatium vinosum are involved in the oxidation of intracellular sulfur.
Microbiology 144 ( Pt 7):1881-94 (1998)
Frigaard NU, Dahl C
Sulfur metabolism in phototrophic sulfur bacteria.
Adv Microb Physiol 54:103-200 (2009)
KO pathway

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