KEGG   PATHWAY: hsa00910Help
Entry
hsa00910                    Pathway                                

Name
Nitrogen metabolism - Homo sapiens (human)
Description
The biological process of the nitrogen cycle is a complex interplay among many microorganisms catalyzing different reactions, where nitrogen is found in various oxidation states ranging from +5 in nitrate to -3 in ammonia. The core nitrogen cycle involves four reduction pathways and two oxidation pathways. Nitrogen fixation [MD:M00175] is the process of reducing atmospheric molecular nitrogen to ammonia, a biologically useful reduced form incorporated into amino acids and other vital compounds. The ability of fixing atmospheric nitrogen by the nitrogenase enzyme complex is present in restricted prokaryotes (diazotrophs). The other reduction pathways are assimilatory nitrate reduction [MD:M00531] and dissimilatory nitrate reduction [MD:M00530] both for conversion to ammonia, and denitrification [MD:M00529]. Denitrification is a respiration in which nitrate or nitrite is reduced as a terminal electron acceptor under low oxygen or anoxic conditions, producing gaseous nitrogen compounds (N2, NO and N2O) to the atmosphere. The two oxidation pathways are nitrification [MD:M00528] and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). Nitrification is the oxidation of ammonia (NH3) with oxygen into nitrite followed by the oxidation of nitrite into nitrate. The first step is performed by ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms (e.g., Nitrosomonas and Nitrosococcus) and the second step by nitrite-oxidizing microorganisms (e.g., Nitrobacter). Anammox is a biochemical process of oxidizing ammonium (NH4+) into dinitrogen gas (N2) using nitrite as an electron acceptor. It occurs in the anammoxosome, a membrane bound compartment inside the cytoplasm, of anammox bacteria (e.g., Planctomycetes).
Class
Metabolism; Energy metabolism
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Nitrogen metabolism
hsa00910

All organismsOrtholog table
Disease
H00164  
Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase I deficiency
H00923  
Congenital systemic glutamine deficiency (CSGD)
Drug
D07130  
Carglumic acid (JAN/USAN/INN)
Other DBs
BSID: 
GO: 
Organism
Homo sapiens (human) [GN:hsa]
Gene
2747  
GLUD2; glutamate dehydrogenase 2 [KO:K00261] [EC:1.4.1.3]
2746  
GLUD1; glutamate dehydrogenase 1 [KO:K00261] [EC:1.4.1.3]
2752  
GLUL; glutamate-ammonia ligase [KO:K01915] [EC:6.3.1.2]
1373  
CPS1; carbamoyl-phosphate synthase 1 [KO:K01948] [EC:6.3.4.16]
377677  
CA13; carbonic anhydrase 13 [KO:K01672] [EC:4.2.1.1]
759  
CA1; carbonic anhydrase 1 [KO:K01672] [EC:4.2.1.1]
765  
CA6; carbonic anhydrase 6 [KO:K01672] [EC:4.2.1.1]
766  
CA7; carbonic anhydrase 7 [KO:K01672] [EC:4.2.1.1]
771  
CA12; carbonic anhydrase 12 [KO:K01672] [EC:4.2.1.1]
11238  
CA5B; carbonic anhydrase 5B [KO:K01672] [EC:4.2.1.1]
23632  
CA14; carbonic anhydrase 14 [KO:K01672] [EC:4.2.1.1]
768  
CA9; carbonic anhydrase 9 [KO:K01672] [EC:4.2.1.1]
761  
CA3; carbonic anhydrase 3 [KO:K01672] [EC:4.2.1.1]
763  
CA5A; carbonic anhydrase 5A [KO:K01672] [EC:4.2.1.1]
767  
CA8; carbonic anhydrase 8 [KO:K01672] [EC:4.2.1.1]
760  
CA2; carbonic anhydrase 2 [KO:K18245] [EC:4.2.1.1]
762  
CA4; carbonic anhydrase 4 [KO:K18246] [EC:4.2.1.1]
Compound
C00011  
CO2
C00014  
Ammonia
C00025  
L-Glutamate
C00058  
Formate
C00064  
L-Glutamine
C00088  
Nitrite
C00169  
Carbamoyl phosphate
C00192  
Hydroxylamine
C00244  
Nitrate
C00288  
HCO3-
C00488  
Formamide
C00533  
Nitric oxide
C00697  
Nitrogen
C00726  
Nitrile
C00887  
Nitrous oxide
C01417  
Cyanate
C01563  
Carbamate
C05361  
Hydrazine
C06058  
Nitroalkane
Reference
  Authors
Scott JD, Ludwig RA
  Title
Azorhizobium caulinodans electron-transferring flavoprotein N electrochemically couples pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity to N2 fixation.
  Journal
Microbiology 150:117-26 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Kneip C, Lockhart P, Voss C, Maier UG
  Title
Nitrogen fixation in eukaryotes--new models for symbiosis.
  Journal
BMC Evol Biol 7:55 (2007)
Reference
  Authors
Whittaker M, Bergmann D, Arciero D, Hooper AB
  Title
Electron transfer during the oxidation of ammonia by the chemolithotrophic bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea.
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 1459:346-55 (2000)
Reference
  Authors
Cabello P, Roldan MD, Moreno-Vivian C
  Title
Nitrate reduction and the nitrogen cycle in archaea.
  Journal
Microbiology 150:3527-46 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Stolz JF, Basu P
  Title
Evolution of nitrate reductase: molecular and structural variations on a common function.
  Journal
Chembiochem 3:198-206 (2002)
Reference
  Authors
Morozkina EV, Zvyagilskaya RA
  Title
Nitrate reductases: structure, functions, and effect of stress factors.
  Journal
Biochemistry (Mosc) 72:1151-60 (2007)
Reference
  Authors
Jetten MS, Niftrik L, Strous M, Kartal B, Keltjens JT, Op den Camp HJ
  Title
Biochemistry and molecular biology of anammox bacteria.
  Journal
Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 44:65-84 (2009)
Reference
  Authors
Luesken FA, Wu ML, Op den Camp HJ, Keltjens JT, Stunnenberg H, Francoijs KJ, Strous M, Jetten MS
  Title
Effect of oxygen on the anaerobic methanotroph 'Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera': kinetic and transcriptional analysis.
  Journal
Environ Microbiol 14:1024-34 (2012)
Reference
  Authors
Daims H, Lebedeva EV, Pjevac P, Han P, Herbold C, Albertsen M, Jehmlich N, Palatinszky M, Vierheilig J, Bulaev A, Kirkegaard RH, von Bergen M, Rattei T, Bendinger B, Nielsen PH, Wagner M
  Title
Complete nitrification by Nitrospira bacteria.
  Journal
Nature 528:504-9 (2015)
Reference
  Authors
van Kessel MA, Speth DR, Albertsen M, Nielsen PH, Op den Camp HJ, Kartal B, Jetten MS, Lucker S
  Title
Complete nitrification by a single microorganism.
  Journal
Nature 528:555-9 (2015)
KO pathway
 

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