KEGG   PATHWAY: mvu00680Help
Entry
mvu00680                    Pathway                                

Name
Methane metabolism - Methanocaldococcus vulcanius
Description
Methane is metabolized principally by methanotrophs and methanogens in the global carbon cycle. Methanotrophs consume methane as the only source of carbon, while methanogens produce methane as a metabolic byproduct. Methylotrophs, which are microorganisms that can obtain energy for growth by oxidizing one-carbon compounds, such as methanol and methane, are situated between methanotrophs and methanogens. Methanogens can obtain energy for growth by converting a limited number of substrates to methane under anaerobic conditions. Three types of methanogenic pathways are known: CO2 to methane [MD:M00567], methanol to methane [MD:M00356], and acetate to methane [MD:M00357]. Methanogens use 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (CoM; coenzyme M) as the terminal methyl carrier in methanogenesis and have four enzymes for CoM biosynthesis [MD:M00358]. Coenzyme B-Coenzyme M heterodisulfide reductase (Hdr), requiring for the final reaction steps of methanogenic pathway, is divided into two types: cytoplasmic HdrABC in most methanogens and membrane-bound HdrED in Methanosarcina species. In methanotrophs and methyltrophs methane is oxidized to form formaldehyde, which is at the diverging point for further oxidation to CO2 for energy source and assimilation for biosynthesis. There are three pathways that convert formaldehyde to C2 or C3 compounds: serine pathway [MD:M00346], ribulose monophosphate pathway [MD:M00345], and xylulose monophosphate pathway [MD:M00344]. The first two pathways are found in prokaryotes and the third is found in yeast. As a special case of methylotrophs, various amines can be used as carbon sources in trimethylamine metabolism [MD:M00563].
Class
Metabolism; Energy metabolism
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Methane metabolism
mvu00680

All organismsOrtholog table
Module
Coenzyme M biosynthesis [PATH:mvu00680]
F420 biosynthesis [PATH:mvu00680]
Acetyl-CoA pathway, CO2 => acetyl-CoA [PATH:mvu00680]
Methanogenesis, CO2 => methane [PATH:mvu00680]
2-Oxocarboxylic acid chain extension, 2-oxoglutarate => 2-oxoadipate => 2-oxopimelate => 2-oxosuberate [PATH:mvu00680]
Other DBs
BSID: 
GO: 
Organism
Methanocaldococcus vulcanius [GN:mvu]
Gene
formate dehydrogenase subunit alpha; K00123 formate dehydrogenase major subunit [EC:1.2.1.2] [KO:K00123] [EC:1.2.1.2]
molybdopterin oxidoreductase; K00123 formate dehydrogenase major subunit [EC:1.2.1.2] [KO:K00123] [EC:1.2.1.2]
coenzyme F420 hydrogenase; K00125 formate dehydrogenase, beta subunit [EC:1.2.1.2] [KO:K00125] [EC:1.2.1.2]
acetyl-CoA decarbonylase/synthase complex subunit alpha; K00192 acetyl-CoA decarbonylase/synthase complex subunit alpha [EC:1.2.7.4] [KO:K00192] [EC:1.2.7.4]
bifunctional acetyl-CoA decarbonylase/synthase complex subunit alpha/beta; K00192 acetyl-CoA decarbonylase/synthase complex subunit alpha [EC:1.2.7.4] K00193 acetyl-CoA decarbonylase/synthase complex subunit beta [EC:2.3.1.-] [KO:K00192 K00193] [EC:1.2.7.4 2.3.1.-]
acetyl-CoA decarbonylase/synthase complex subunit beta; K00193 acetyl-CoA decarbonylase/synthase complex subunit beta [EC:2.3.1.-] [KO:K00193] [EC:2.3.1.-]
acetyl-CoA decarbonylase/synthase complex subunit gamma; K00197 acetyl-CoA decarbonylase/synthase complex subunit gamma [EC:2.1.1.245] [KO:K00197] [EC:2.1.1.245]
acetyl-CoA decarbonylase/synthase complex subunit delta; K00194 acetyl-CoA decarbonylase/synthase complex subunit delta [EC:2.1.1.245] [KO:K00194] [EC:2.1.1.245]
acetyl-CoA decarbonylase/synthase complex subunit epsilon; K00195 acetyl-CoA decarbonylase/synthase complex subunit epsilon [KO:K00195]
carbon-monoxide dehydrogenase; K00198 carbon-monoxide dehydrogenase catalytic subunit [EC:1.2.99.2 1.2.7.4] [KO:K00198] [EC:1.2.7.4 1.2.99.2]
4Fe-4S ferredoxin; K00196 carbon-monoxide dehydrogenase iron sulfur subunit [KO:K00196]
4Fe-4S ferredoxin; K00196 carbon-monoxide dehydrogenase iron sulfur subunit [KO:K00196]
glyA; serine hydroxymethyltransferase [KO:K00600] [EC:2.1.2.1]
eno; phosphopyruvate hydratase [KO:K01689] [EC:4.2.1.11]
malate dehydrogenase; K00024 malate dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.37] [KO:K00024] [EC:1.1.1.37]
hypothetical protein; K01622 fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase/phosphatase [EC:4.1.2.13 3.1.3.11] [KO:K01622] [EC:3.1.3.11 4.1.2.13]
aldolase; K16305 fructose-bisphosphate aldolase / 6-deoxy-5-ketofructose 1-phosphate synthase [EC:4.1.2.13 2.2.1.11] [KO:K16305] [EC:2.2.1.11 4.1.2.13]
fructose-bisphosphate aldolase; K16306 fructose-bisphosphate aldolase / 2-amino-3,7-dideoxy-D-threo-hept-6-ulosonate synthase [EC:4.1.2.13 2.2.1.10] [KO:K16306] [EC:2.2.1.10 4.1.2.13]
6-phospho 3-hexuloisomerase; K08094 6-phospho-3-hexuloisomerase [EC:5.3.1.27] [KO:K08094] [EC:5.3.1.27]
dimethylmenaquinone methyltransferase; K08093 3-hexulose-6-phosphate synthase [EC:4.1.2.43] [KO:K08093] [EC:4.1.2.43]
bifunctional formaldehyde-activating enzyme/3-hexulose-6-phosphate synthase; K13812 bifunctional enzyme Fae/Hps [EC:4.3.-.- 4.1.2.43] [KO:K13812] [EC:4.1.2.43 4.3.-.-]
formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase subunit A; K00200 formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase subunit A [EC:1.2.99.5] [KO:K00200] [EC:1.2.99.5]
formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase subunit B; K00201 formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase subunit B [EC:1.2.99.5] [KO:K00201] [EC:1.2.99.5]
formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase subunit B; K00201 formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase subunit B [EC:1.2.99.5] [KO:K00201] [EC:1.2.99.5]
hypothetical protein; K00202 formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase subunit C [EC:1.2.99.5] [KO:K00202] [EC:1.2.99.5]
formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase subunit C; K00202 formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase subunit C [EC:1.2.99.5] [KO:K00202] [EC:1.2.99.5]
molybdopterin dinucleotide-binding region; K00203 formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase subunit D [EC:1.2.99.5] [KO:K00203] [EC:1.2.99.5]
4Fe-4S ferredoxin; K00204 4Fe-4S ferredoxin [KO:K00204]
4Fe-4S ferredoxin; K00205 4Fe-4S ferredoxin [KO:K00205]
4Fe-4S ferredoxin; K11260 4Fe-4S ferredoxin [KO:K11260]
formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase subunit E; K11261 formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase subunit E [EC:1.2.99.5] [KO:K11261] [EC:1.2.99.5]
formylmethanofuran--tetrahydromethanopterin formyltransferase; K00672 formylmethanofuran--tetrahydromethanopterin N-formyltransferase [EC:2.3.1.101] [KO:K00672] [EC:2.3.1.101]
N(5); K01499 methenyltetrahydromethanopterin cyclohydrolase [EC:3.5.4.27] [KO:K01499] [EC:3.5.4.27]
F420-dependent methylenetetrahydromethanopterin dehydrogenase; K00319 methylenetetrahydromethanopterin dehydrogenase [EC:1.5.98.1] [KO:K00319] [EC:1.5.98.1]
coenzyme F420 hydrogenase subunit alpha; K00440 coenzyme F420 hydrogenase subunit alpha [EC:1.12.98.1] [KO:K00440] [EC:1.12.98.1]
coenzyme F420-reducing hydrogenase subunit alpha; K00440 coenzyme F420 hydrogenase subunit alpha [EC:1.12.98.1] [KO:K00440] [EC:1.12.98.1]
coenzyme F420-reducing hydrogenase subunit beta; K00441 coenzyme F420 hydrogenase subunit beta [EC:1.12.98.1] [KO:K00441] [EC:1.12.98.1]
nitrite and sulfite reductase 4Fe-4S region; K00441 coenzyme F420 hydrogenase subunit beta [EC:1.12.98.1] [KO:K00441] [EC:1.12.98.1]
coenzyme F420 hydrogenase; K00441 coenzyme F420 hydrogenase subunit beta [EC:1.12.98.1] [KO:K00441] [EC:1.12.98.1]
coenzyme F420-reducing hydrogenase subunit beta; K00441 coenzyme F420 hydrogenase subunit beta [EC:1.12.98.1] [KO:K00441] [EC:1.12.98.1]
coenzyme F420-reducing hydrogenase subunit delta; K00442 coenzyme F420 hydrogenase subunit delta [KO:K00442]
coenzyme F420-reducing hydrogenase subunit delta; K00442 coenzyme F420 hydrogenase subunit delta [KO:K00442]
coenzyme F420 hydrogenase subunit gamma; K00443 coenzyme F420 hydrogenase subunit gamma [EC:1.12.98.1] [KO:K00443] [EC:1.12.98.1]
NADH ubiquinone oxidoreductase 20 kDa subunit; K00443 coenzyme F420 hydrogenase subunit gamma [EC:1.12.98.1] [KO:K00443] [EC:1.12.98.1]
H(2)-dependent methylenetetrahydromethanopterin dehydrogenase; K13942 5,10-methenyltetrahydromethanopterin hydrogenase [EC:1.12.98.2] [KO:K13942] [EC:1.12.98.2]
methylenetetrahydromethanopterin reductase; K00320 5,10-methylenetetrahydromethanopterin reductase [EC:1.5.98.2] [KO:K00320] [EC:1.5.98.2]
tetrahydromethanopterin S-methyltransferase subunit A; K00577 tetrahydromethanopterin S-methyltransferase subunit A [EC:2.1.1.86] [KO:K00577] [EC:2.1.1.86]
tetrahydromethanopterin S-methyltransferase subunit B; K00578 tetrahydromethanopterin S-methyltransferase subunit B [EC:2.1.1.86] [KO:K00578] [EC:2.1.1.86]
tetrahydromethanopterin S-methyltransferase subunit C; K00579 tetrahydromethanopterin S-methyltransferase subunit C [EC:2.1.1.86] [KO:K00579] [EC:2.1.1.86]
tetrahydromethanopterin S-methyltransferase subunit D; K00580 tetrahydromethanopterin S-methyltransferase subunit D [EC:2.1.1.86] [KO:K00580] [EC:2.1.1.86]
tetrahydromethanopterin S-methyltransferase subunit E; K00581 tetrahydromethanopterin S-methyltransferase subunit E [EC:2.1.1.86] [KO:K00581] [EC:2.1.1.86]
mtrF; tetrahydromethanopterin S-methyltransferase subunit F [KO:K00582] [EC:2.1.1.86]
tetrahydromethanopterin S-methyltransferase subunit G; K00583 tetrahydromethanopterin S-methyltransferase subunit G [EC:2.1.1.86] [KO:K00583] [EC:2.1.1.86]
tetrahydromethanopterin S-methyltransferase subunit H; K00584 tetrahydromethanopterin S-methyltransferase subunit H [EC:2.1.1.86] [KO:K00584] [EC:2.1.1.86]
methyl-coenzyme M reductase subunit alpha; K00399 methyl-coenzyme M reductase alpha subunit [EC:2.8.4.1] [KO:K00399] [EC:2.8.4.1]
methyl-coenzyme M reductase subunit alpha; K00399 methyl-coenzyme M reductase alpha subunit [EC:2.8.4.1] [KO:K00399] [EC:2.8.4.1]
methyl coenzyme M reductase system; K00400 methyl coenzyme M reductase system, component A2 [KO:K00400]
ABC transporter releated protein; K00400 methyl coenzyme M reductase system, component A2 [KO:K00400]
methyl-coenzyme M reductase subunit beta; K00401 methyl-coenzyme M reductase beta subunit [EC:2.8.4.1] [KO:K00401] [EC:2.8.4.1]
methyl-coenzyme M reductase subunit beta; K00401 methyl-coenzyme M reductase beta subunit [EC:2.8.4.1] [KO:K00401] [EC:2.8.4.1]
methyl-coenzyme M reductase subunit gamma; K00402 methyl-coenzyme M reductase gamma subunit [EC:2.8.4.1] [KO:K00402] [EC:2.8.4.1]
methyl-coenzyme M reductase subunit gamma; K00402 methyl-coenzyme M reductase gamma subunit [EC:2.8.4.1] [KO:K00402] [EC:2.8.4.1]
methyl-coenzyme M reductase I operon protein C; K03421 methyl-coenzyme M reductase subunit C [KO:K03421]
methyl-coenzyme M reductase operon protein D; K03422 methyl-coenzyme M reductase subunit D [KO:K03422]
methyl-coenzyme M reductase operon protein D; K03422 methyl-coenzyme M reductase subunit D [KO:K03422]
4Fe-4S ferredoxin; K03388 heterodisulfide reductase subunit A [EC:1.8.98.1] [KO:K03388] [EC:1.8.98.1]
4Fe-4S ferredoxin; K03388 heterodisulfide reductase subunit A [EC:1.8.98.1] [KO:K03388] [EC:1.8.98.1]
CoB/CoM heterodisulfide reductase subunit B; K03389 heterodisulfide reductase subunit B [EC:1.8.98.1] [KO:K03389] [EC:1.8.98.1]
CoB/CoM heterodisulfide reductase subunit B; K03389 heterodisulfide reductase subunit B [EC:1.8.98.1] [KO:K03389] [EC:1.8.98.1]
CoB/CoM heterodisulfide reductase subunit C; K03390 heterodisulfide reductase subunit C [EC:1.8.98.1] [KO:K03390] [EC:1.8.98.1]
CoB/CoM heterodisulfide reductase subunit C; K03390 heterodisulfide reductase subunit C [EC:1.8.98.1] [KO:K03390] [EC:1.8.98.1]
pyruvate flavodoxin/ferredoxin oxidoreductase domain-containing protein; K00169 pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase, alpha subunit [EC:1.2.7.1] [KO:K00169] [EC:1.2.7.1]
pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase subunit beta; K00170 pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase, beta subunit [EC:1.2.7.1] [KO:K00170] [EC:1.2.7.1]
pyruvate ferredoxin/flavodoxin oxidoreductase subunit delta; K00171 pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase, delta subunit [EC:1.2.7.1] [KO:K00171] [EC:1.2.7.1]
pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase subunit gamma; K00172 pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase, gamma subunit [EC:1.2.7.1] [KO:K00172] [EC:1.2.7.1]
phosphoenolpyruvate synthase; K01007 pyruvate, water dikinase [EC:2.7.9.2] [KO:K01007] [EC:2.7.9.2]
phosphonopyruvate decarboxylase-like protein; K15635 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglycerate mutase [EC:5.4.2.12] [KO:K15635] [EC:5.4.2.12]
cofactor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase; K15635 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglycerate mutase [EC:5.4.2.12] [KO:K15635] [EC:5.4.2.12]
D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase; K00058 D-3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.95] [KO:K00058] [EC:1.1.1.95]
phosphoserine phosphatase SerB; K01079 phosphoserine phosphatase [EC:3.1.3.3] [KO:K01079] [EC:3.1.3.3]
Phosphosulfolactate synthase; K08097 phosphosulfolactate synthase [EC:4.4.1.19] [KO:K08097] [EC:4.4.1.19]
2-phosphosulfolactate phosphatase; K05979 2-phosphosulfolactate phosphatase [EC:3.1.3.71] [KO:K05979] [EC:3.1.3.71]
(R)-2-hydroxyacid dehydrogenase; K05884 L-2-hydroxycarboxylate dehydrogenase (NAD+) [EC:1.1.1.337] [KO:K05884] [EC:1.1.1.337]
sulfopyruvate decarboxylase subunit ComD; K06034 sulfopyruvate decarboxylase subunit alpha [EC:4.1.1.79] [KO:K06034] [EC:4.1.1.79]
thiamine pyrophosphate domain-containing TPP-binding protein; K13039 sulfopyruvate decarboxylase subunit beta [EC:4.1.1.79] [KO:K13039] [EC:4.1.1.79]
cofG; FO synthase subunit 1 [KO:K11780] [EC:2.5.1.77]
FO synthase subunit 2; K11781 FO synthase subunit 2 [EC:2.5.1.77] [KO:K11781] [EC:2.5.1.77]
2-phospho-L-lactate guanylyltransferase CofC; K14941 2-phospho-L-lactate guanylyltransferase [EC:2.7.7.68] [KO:K14941] [EC:2.7.7.68]
LPPG:FO 2-phospho-L-lactate transferase; K11212 LPPG:FO 2-phospho-L-lactate transferase [EC:2.7.8.28] [KO:K11212] [EC:2.7.8.28]
F420-0--gamma-glutamyl ligase; K12234 coenzyme F420-0:L-glutamate ligase / coenzyme F420-1:gamma-L-glutamate ligase [EC:6.3.2.31 6.3.2.34] [KO:K12234] [EC:6.3.2.34 6.3.2.31]
RimK domain-containing protein ATP-grasp; K14940 gamma-F420-2:alpha-L-glutamate ligase [EC:6.3.2.32] [KO:K14940] [EC:6.3.2.32]
aksA; trans-homoaconitate synthase [KO:K10977] [EC:2.3.3.- 2.3.3.14]
homoaconitate hydratase family protein; K16792 methanogen homoaconitase large subunit [EC:4.2.1.114] [KO:K16792] [EC:4.2.1.114]
3-isopropylmalate dehydratase small subunit; K16793 methanogen homoaconitase small subunit [EC:4.2.1.114] [KO:K16793] [EC:4.2.1.114]
3-isopropylmalate dehydratase small subunit; K16793 methanogen homoaconitase small subunit [EC:4.2.1.114] [KO:K16793] [EC:4.2.1.114]
isopropylmalate/isohomocitrate dehydrogenase; K10978 methanogen homoisocitrate dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.87 1.1.1.-] [KO:K10978] [EC:1.1.1.- 1.1.1.87]
Compound
C00011  
CO2
C00022  
Pyruvate
C00024  
Acetyl-CoA
C00033  
Acetate
C00036  
Oxaloacetate
C00037  
Glycine
C00048  
Glyoxylate
C00058  
Formate
C00065  
L-Serine
C00067  
Formaldehyde
C00074  
Phosphoenolpyruvate
C00085  
D-Fructose 6-phosphate
C00101  
Tetrahydrofolate
C00111  
Glycerone phosphate
C00118  
D-Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
C00132  
Methanol
C00143  
5,10-Methylenetetrahydrofolate
C00149  
(S)-Malate
C00168  
Hydroxypyruvate
C00184  
Glycerone
C00197  
3-Phospho-D-glycerate
C00199  
D-Ribulose 5-phosphate
C00218  
Methylamine
C00227  
Acetyl phosphate
C00231  
D-Xylulose 5-phosphate
C00237  
CO
C00258  
D-Glycerate
C00322  
2-Oxoadipate
C00354  
D-Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate
C00543  
Dimethylamine
C00565  
Trimethylamine
C00593  
Sulfoacetaldehyde
C00631  
2-Phospho-D-glycerate
C00862  
Methanofuran
C00876  
Coenzyme F420
C01001  
Formylmethanofuran
C01005  
O-Phospho-L-serine
C01031  
S-Formylglutathione
C01046  
N-Methyl-L-glutamate
C01080  
Reduced coenzyme F420
C01104  
Trimethylamine N-oxide
C01179  
3-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)pyruvate
C01217  
5,6,7,8-Tetrahydromethanopterin
C01274  
5-Formyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydromethanopterin
C01438  
Methane
C03232  
3-Phosphonooxypyruvate
C03576  
2-Mercaptoethanesulfonate
C03920  
2-(Methylthio)ethanesulfonate
C04330  
5,10-Methenyltetrahydromethanopterin
C04348  
L-Malyl-CoA
C04377  
5,10-Methylenetetrahydromethanopterin
C04488  
5-Methyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydromethanopterin
C04628  
Coenzyme B
C04732  
5-Amino-6-(1-D-ribitylamino)uracil
C04832  
Coenzyme M 7-mercaptoheptanoylthreonine-phosphate heterodisulfide
C05528  
3-Sulfopyruvate
C06019  
D-arabino-Hex-3-ulose 6-phosphate
C11536  
(2R)-O-Phospho-3-sulfolactate
C11537  
(2R)-3-Sulfolactate
C14180  
S-(Hydroxymethyl)glutathione
C16583  
(R)-(Homo)2-citrate
C16588  
2-Oxopimelate
C16589  
2-Oxosuberate
C16590  
7-Oxoheptanoic acid
C16593  
7-Mercaptoheptanoic acid
C16594  
7-Mercaptoheptanoylthreonine
C16597  
(-)-threo-Iso(homo)2-citrate
C16598  
(R)-(Homo)3-citrate
C16600  
(-)-threo-Iso(homo)3-citrate
C19151  
Coenzyme F420-3
C19152  
Coenzyme F420-1
C19153  
Coenzyme F420-0
C19154  
7,8-Didemethyl-8-hydroxy-5-deazariboflavin
C19155  
(2S)-Lactyl-2-diphospho-5'-guanosine
C19156  
(2S)-2-Phospholactate
C20581  
cis-(Homo)2-aconitate
C20582  
cis-(Homo)3-aconitate
Reference
  Authors
Graham DE, Xu H, White RH
  Title
Identification of coenzyme M biosynthetic phosphosulfolactate synthase: a new family of sulfonate-biosynthesizing enzymes.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 277:13421-9 (2002)
Reference
  Authors
Deppenmeier U
  Title
The membrane-bound electron transport system of Methanosarcina species.
  Journal
J Bioenerg Biomembr 36:55-64 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Hallam SJ, Putnam N, Preston CM, Detter JC, Rokhsar D, Richardson PM, DeLong EF
  Title
Reverse methanogenesis: testing the hypothesis with environmental genomics.
  Journal
Science 305:1457-62 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Welander PV, Metcalf WW
  Title
Loss of the mtr operon in Methanosarcina blocks growth on methanol, but not methanogenesis, and reveals an unknown methanogenic pathway.
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:10664-9 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Yurimoto H, Kato N, Sakai Y
  Title
Assimilation, dissimilation, and detoxification of formaldehyde, a central metabolic intermediate of methylotrophic metabolism.
  Journal
Chem Rec 5:367-75 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Fricke WF, Seedorf H, Henne A, Kruer M, Liesegang H, Hedderich R, Gottschalk G, Thauer RK.
  Title
The genome sequence of Methanosphaera stadtmanae reveals why this human intestinal archaeon is restricted to methanol and H2 for methane formation and ATP synthesis.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 188:642-58 (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Kato N, Yurimoto H, Thauer RK
  Title
The physiological role of the ribulose monophosphate pathway in bacteria and archaea.
  Journal
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 70:10-21 (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Thauer RK, Kaster AK, Seedorf H, Buckel W, Hedderich R
  Title
Methanogenic archaea: ecologically relevant differences in energy conservation.
  Journal
Nat Rev Microbiol 6:579-91 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Liffourrena AS, Salvano MA, Lucchesi GI
  Title
Pseudomonas putida A ATCC 12633 oxidizes trimethylamine aerobically via two different pathways.
  Journal
Arch Microbiol 192:471-6 (2010)
KO pathway
 

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