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pgv00920                    Pathway                                

Sulfur metabolism - Polymorphum gilvum
Sulfur is an essential element for life and the metabolism of organic sulfur compounds plays an important role in the global sulfur cycle. Sulfur occurs in various oxidation states ranging from +6 in sulfate to -2 in sulfide (H2S). Sulfate reduction can occur in both an energy consuming assimilatory pathway and an energy producing dissimilatory pathway. The assimilatory pathway, which is found in a wide range of organisms, produces reduced sulfur compounds for the biosynthesis of S-containing amino acids and does not lead to direct excretion of sulfide. In the dissimilatory pathway, which is restricted to obligatory anaerobic bacterial and archaeal lineages, sulfate (or sulfur) is the terminal electron acceptor of the respiratory chain producing large quantities of inorganic sulfide. Both pathways start from the activation of sulfate by reaction with ATP to form adenylyl sulfate (APS). In the assimilatory pathway [MD:M00176] APS is converted to 3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate (PAPS) and then reduced to sulfite, and sulfite is further reduced to sulfide by the assimilatory sulfite reductase. In the dissimilatory pathway [MD:M00596] APS is directly reduced to sulfite, and sulfite is further reduced to sulfide by the dissimilatory sulfite reductase. The capacity for oxidation of sulfur is quite widespread among bacteria and archaea, comprising phototrophs and chemolithoautotrophs. The SOX (sulfur-oxidation) system [MD:M00595] is a well-known sulfur oxidation pathway and is found in both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Green sulfur bacteria and purple sulfur bacteria carry out anoxygenic photosynthesis with reduced sulfur compounds such as sulfide and elemental sulfur, as well as thiosulfate (in some species with the SOX system), as the electron donor for photoautotrophic growth. In some chemolithoautotrophic sulfur oxidizers (such as Thiobacillus denitrificans), it has been suggested that dissimilatory sulfur reduction enzymes operate in the reverse direction, forming a sulfur oxidation pathway from sulfite to APS and then to sulfate.
Metabolism; Energy metabolism
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
pgv00920  Sulfur metabolism

Ortholog table
pgv_M00176  Assimilatory sulfate reduction, sulfate => H2S [PATH:pgv00920]
pgv_M00595  Thiosulfate oxidation by SOX complex, thiosulfate => sulfate [PATH:pgv00920]
Other DBs
BSID: 217128
GO: 0006790
Polymorphum gilvum [GN:pgv]
SL003B_1407  Sulfate adenylyltransferase, large subunit [KO:K02048]
SL003B_1408  Sulfate ABC transporter, permease protein CysT [KO:K02046]
SL003B_1409  Sulfate ABC transporter, permease protein CysW [KO:K02047]
SL003B_1410  Sulfate ABC transporter, ATPase subunit [KO:K02045] [EC:]
SL003B_1418  Probable aliphatic sulfonate ABC transporter, permease protein [KO:K15554]
SL003B_1415  NADH-dependent FMN reductase; MsuE [KO:K00299] [EC:]
SL003B_2708  Bifunctional sulfate adenylyltransferase subunit 1/adenylylsulfate kinase protein [KO:K00955] [EC:]
SL003B_3045  Bifunctional sulfate adenylyltransferase subunit 1/adenylylsulfate kinase protein [KO:K00955] [EC:]
SL003B_3046  Sulfate adenylyltransferase subunit 2 [KO:K00957] [EC:]
SL003B_2709  Sulfate adenylyltransferase subunit 2 [KO:K00957] [EC:]
SL003B_3047  3'(2'),5'-bisphosphate nucleotidase [KO:K01082] [EC:]
SL003B_3531  Phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate reductase CysH-type [KO:K00390] [EC:]
SL003B_2697  Sulfur oxidation protein (SoxA) [KO:K17222]
SL003B_2698  Conserved hypothetical transmembrane protein [KO:K17223]
SL003B_1010  soxZ; sulfur oxidation protein [KO:K17226]
SL003B_2695  Sulfur oxidation protein SoxY [KO:K17226]
SL003B_2696  soxZ; Probable sulfur oxidation protein [KO:K17227]
SL003B_2699  Ser/Thr protein phosphatase family protein [KO:K17224]
SL003B_2700  Probable sulfite oxidase molybdopterin subunit [KO:K17225]
SL003B_3479  Peptide chain release factor 2 [KO:K08738]
SL003B_4292  Putative CytoChrome c-like protein [KO:K08738]
SL003B_2702  Cytochrome c subfamily, putative [KO:K08738]
SL003B_2701  Probable sulfite oxidase cytochrome subunit [KO:K08738]
SL003B_2575  Oxidoreductase, FAD-binding, putative [KO:K00380] [EC:]
SL003B_4023  Oxidoreductase, FAD-binding, putative [KO:K00380] [EC:]
SL003B_3532  Nitrite/sulfite reductase ferredoxin-like half domain:Nitrite and sulfite reductase iron-sulfur/siroheme-binding site:Nitrite [KO:K00381] [EC:]
SL003B_2632  Twin-arginine translocation pathway signal [KO:K17218] [EC:]
SL003B_2137  Putative Thiosulfate sulfurtransferase (Rhodanese-like protein) [KO:K01011] [EC:]
SL003B_2010  Thiosulfate sulfurtransferase, Rhodanese-like protein [KO:K01011] [EC:]
SL003B_2824  Rhodanese-like domain protein [KO:K01011] [EC:]
SL003B_1629  cysE; Serine O-acetyltransferase, putative [KO:K00640] [EC:]
SL003B_0045  cysK1; Cysteine synthase A [KO:K01738] [EC:]
SL003B_2014  cysteine synthase A [KO:K01738] [EC:]
SL003B_3255  metZ; O-succinylhomoserine (Thiol)-lyase protein [KO:K10764] [EC:2.5.1.-]
SL003B_2869  fad; Enoyl-CoA hydratase [KO:K20036] [EC:]
C00033  Acetate
C00042  Succinate
C00053  3'-Phosphoadenylyl sulfate
C00054  Adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate
C00059  Sulfate
C00065  L-Serine
C00084  Acetaldehyde
C00087  Sulfur
C00094  Sulfite
C00097  L-Cysteine
C00155  L-Homocysteine
C00224  Adenylyl sulfate
C00245  Taurine
C00263  L-Homoserine
C00283  Hydrogen sulfide
C00320  Thiosulfate
C00409  Methanethiol
C00580  Dimethyl sulfide
C00979  O-Acetyl-L-serine
C01118  O-Succinyl-L-homoserine
C01861  Trithionate
C02084  Tetrathionate
C03920  2-(Methylthio)ethanesulfonate
C04022  S,S-Dimethyl-beta-propiothetin
C08276  3-(Methylthio)propanoate
C11142  Dimethyl sulfone
C11143  Dimethyl sulfoxide
C11145  Methanesulfonic acid
C15521  Alkanesulfonate
C17267  S-Sulfanylglutathione
C19692  Polysulfide
C20870  3-(Methylthio)propanoyl-CoA
C20955  3-(Methylthio)acryloyl-CoA
Grein F, Ramos AR, Venceslau SS, Pereira IA
Unifying concepts in anaerobic respiration: Insights from dissimilatory sulfur metabolism.
Biochim Biophys Acta 1827:145-60 (2013)
Fauque GD, Barton LL
Hemoproteins in dissimilatory sulfate- and sulfur-reducing prokaryotes.
Adv Microb Physiol 60:1-90 (2012)
Sakurai H, Ogawa T, Shiga M, Inoue K
Inorganic sulfur oxidizing system in green sulfur bacteria.
Photosynth Res 104:163-76 (2010)
Falkenby LG, Szymanska M, Holkenbrink C, Habicht KS, Andersen JS, Miller M, Frigaard NU
Quantitative proteomics of Chlorobaculum tepidum: insights into the sulfur metabolism of a phototrophic green sulfur bacterium.
FEMS Microbiol Lett 323:142-50 (2011)
Gregersen LH, Bryant DA, Frigaard NU
Mechanisms and evolution of oxidative sulfur metabolism in green sulfur bacteria.
Front Microbiol 2:116 (2011)
Beller HR, Chain PS, Letain TE, Chakicherla A, Larimer FW, Richardson PM, Coleman MA, Wood AP, Kelly DP.
The genome sequence of the obligately chemolithoautotrophic, facultatively anaerobic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans.
J Bacteriol 188:1473-88 (2006)
Pott AS, Dahl C
Sirohaem sulfite reductase and other proteins encoded by genes at the dsr locus of Chromatium vinosum are involved in the oxidation of intracellular sulfur.
Microbiology 144 ( Pt 7):1881-94 (1998)
Frigaard NU, Dahl C
Sulfur metabolism in phototrophic sulfur bacteria.
Adv Microb Physiol 54:103-200 (2009)
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