Esophageal cancer represents the 9th leading cancer in the world and is associated with a 5-year survival rate under 25%. The two main forms are squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) and adenocarcinoma (EAC). ESCC is the most frequent histological subtype in esophageal cancer, although the incidence of EAC is increasing faster than any other malignancy in the western world. Whereas ESCC can be attributed to alcohol and tobacco consumption, the most important risk factor for the development of EAC is duodenal-gastric-esophageal reflux. In the process of tumorigenesis at the cellular level, multiple genetic alterations are involved, including mutation of the p53 gene, amplification of cyclin D1 gene, among others.
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]
Malignant neoplasms, except primary neoplasms of lymphoid, haematopoietic, central nervous system or related tissues
Malignant neoplasms, stated or presumed to be primary, of specified sites, except of lymphoid, haematopoietic, central nervous system or related tissues
Malignant neoplasms of digestive organs
2B70 Malignant neoplasms of oesophagus
H00017 Esophageal cancer