Cholangiocarcinoma is a highly malignant neoplasm that carries a poor prognosis and lacks effective therapy. It is the second most common primary hepatic tumor, and it is increasing in incidence and carries a high mortality. The tumor arises from the ductular epithelium of the biliary tree, either within the liver (intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: ICC) or more commonly from the extrahepatic bile ducts (extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma). Several studies have demonstrated mutations resulting in overexpression of K-ras and p53 genes. These genetic alterations are associated with a more aggressive phenotype in this cancer. Many reports have implicated overexpression of the tyrosine kinase proto-oncogenes c-erbB-2 (HER-2/neu) and c-Met, as well as cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]
Malignant neoplasms, except primary neoplasms of lymphoid, haematopoietic, central nervous system or related tissues
Malignant neoplasms, stated or presumed to be primary, of specified sites, except of lymphoid, haematopoietic, central nervous system or related tissues
Malignant neoplasms of digestive organs
2C12 Malignant neoplasms of liver or intrahepatic bile ducts
Tumor markers [br08442.html]