KEGG   ENZYME: 1.14.99.63
Entry
EC 1.14.99.63               Enzyme                                 

Name
beta-carotene 4-ketolase;
BKT (ambiguous);
beta-C-4 oxygenase;
beta-carotene ketolase;
crtS (gene name);
crtW (gene name)
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen;
Miscellaneous
Sysname
beta-carotene,donor:oxygen oxidoreductase (echinenone-forming)
Reaction(IUBMB)
(1) beta-carotene + 2 reduced acceptor + 2 O2 = echinenone + 2 acceptor + 3 H2O [RN:R05345];
(2) echinenone + 2 reduced acceptor + 2 O2 = canthaxanthin + 2 acceptor + 3 H2O [RN:R07563]
Reaction(KEGG)
R05345 R07563;
(other) R07564 R07567
Substrate
beta-carotene [CPD:C02094];
reduced acceptor [CPD:C00030];
O2 [CPD:C00007];
echinenone [CPD:C08592]
Product
echinenone [CPD:C08592];
acceptor [CPD:C00028];
H2O [CPD:C00001];
canthaxanthin [CPD:C08583]
Comment
The enzyme, studied from algae, plants, fungi, and bacteria, adds an oxo group at position 4 of a carotenoid beta ring. It is involved in the biosynthesis of carotenoids such as astaxanthin and flexixanthin. The enzyme does not act on beta rings that are hydroxylated at position 3, such as in zeaxanthin (cf. EC 1.14.99.64, zeaxanthin 4-ketolase). The enzyme from the yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous is bifuntional and also catalyses the activity of EC 1.14.15.24, beta-carotene 3-hydroxylase.
History
EC 1.14.99.63 created 2018
Pathway
ec00906  Carotenoid biosynthesis
ec01110  Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
Orthology
K09836  beta-carotene/zeaxanthin 4-ketolase
K23037  beta-carotene 4-ketolase/3-hydroxylase
Genes
CRE: CHLREDRAFT_185186(CBK1)
VCN: VOLCADRAFT_127303(cbk1)
MNG: MNEG_0808
RTA: Rta_07690
MXA: MXAN_6049
MSD: MYSTI_06679
MYM: A176_000846
MFB: MFUL124B02_35020
CCX: COCOR_06583(crtW)
MFU: LILAB_16045
BRA: BRADO6505(crtW)
STAX: MC45_05465
ELI: ELI_03320
SYW: SYNW1368
SYG: sync_1804
SYP: SYNPCC7002_A2809(crtW)
SYNR: KR49_01350
CYL: AA637_00845(crtW)
GVI: gvip239(crtO)
GLJ: GKIL_3296
ANA: alr3189
NSH: GXM_04354
NSP: BMF81_04508(crtW)
CTHE: Chro_2833
FAE: FAES_3517(crtO)
HSW: Hsw_1159
IAL: IALB_0392
 » show all
Reference
1  [PMID:7750556]
  Authors
Lotan T, Hirschberg J
  Title
Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of the gene encoding beta-C-4-oxygenase, that converts beta-carotene to the ketocarotenoid canthaxanthin in Haematococcus pluvialis.
  Journal
FEBS Lett 364:125-8 (1995)
DOI:10.1016/0014-5793(95)00368-j
Reference
2  [PMID:8764486]
  Authors
Breitenbach J, Misawa N, Kajiwara S, Sandmann G
  Title
Expression in Escherichia coli and properties of the carotene ketolase from Haematococcus pluvialis.
  Journal
FEMS Microbiol Lett 140:241-6 (1996)
DOI:10.1111/j.1574-6968.1996.tb08343.x
Reference
3  [PMID:15269553]
  Authors
Steiger S, Sandmann G
  Title
Cloning of two carotenoid ketolase genes from Nostoc punctiforme for the heterologous production of canthaxanthin and astaxanthin.
  Journal
Biotechnol Lett 26:813-7 (2004)
DOI:10.1023/b:bile.0000025880.91269.cf
Reference
4  [PMID:16416328]
  Authors
Ojima K, Breitenbach J, Visser H, Setoguchi Y, Tabata K, Hoshino T, van den Berg J, Sandmann G
  Title
Cloning of the astaxanthin synthase gene from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma) and its assignment as a beta-carotene 3-hydroxylase/4-ketolase.
  Journal
Mol Genet Genomics 275:148-58 (2006)
DOI:10.1007/s00438-005-0072-x
  Sequence
Reference
5  [PMID:16625353]
  Authors
Tao L, Yao H, Kasai H, Misawa N, Cheng Q
  Title
A carotenoid synthesis gene cluster from Algoriphagus sp. KK10202C with a novel fusion-type lycopene beta-cyclase gene.
  Journal
Mol Genet Genomics 276:79-86 (2006)
DOI:10.1007/s00438-006-0121-0
  Sequence
Reference
6  [PMID:25612872]
  Authors
Kathiresan S, Chandrashekar A, Ravishankar GA, Sarada R
  Title
Regulation of astaxanthin and its intermediates through cloning and genetic transformation of beta-carotene ketolase in Haematococcus pluvialis.
  Journal
J Biotechnol 196-197:33-41 (2015)
DOI:10.1016/j.jbiotec.2015.01.006
  Sequence
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 1.14.99.63
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 1.14.99.63
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 1.14.99.63
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 1.14.99.63

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