KEGG   ENZYME: 1.14.99.63
Entry
EC 1.14.99.63               Enzyme                                 
Name
beta-carotene 4-ketolase;
BKT (ambiguous);
beta-C-4 oxygenase;
beta-carotene ketolase;
crtS (gene name);
crtW (gene name)
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen;
Miscellaneous
Sysname
beta-carotene,donor:oxygen oxidoreductase (echinenone-forming)
Reaction(IUBMB)
(1) beta-carotene + 2 reduced acceptor + 2 O2 = echinenone + 2 acceptor + 3 H2O [RN:R05345];
(2) echinenone + 2 reduced acceptor + 2 O2 = canthaxanthin + 2 acceptor + 3 H2O [RN:R07563]
Reaction(KEGG)
R05345 R07563;
(other) R07564 R07567
Substrate
beta-carotene [CPD:C02094];
reduced acceptor [CPD:C00030];
O2 [CPD:C00007];
echinenone [CPD:C08592]
Product
echinenone [CPD:C08592];
acceptor [CPD:C00028];
H2O [CPD:C00001];
canthaxanthin [CPD:C08583]
Comment
The enzyme, studied from algae, plants, fungi, and bacteria, adds an oxo group at position 4 of a carotenoid beta ring. It is involved in the biosynthesis of carotenoids such as astaxanthin and flexixanthin. The enzyme does not act on beta rings that are hydroxylated at position 3, such as in zeaxanthin (cf. EC 1.14.99.64, zeaxanthin 4-ketolase). The enzyme from the yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous is bifuntional and also catalyses the activity of EC 1.14.15.24, beta-carotene 3-hydroxylase.
History
EC 1.14.99.63 created 2018
Pathway
ec00906  Carotenoid biosynthesis
ec01110  Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
Orthology
K09836  beta-carotene/zeaxanthin 4-ketolase
K23037  beta-carotene 4-ketolase/3-hydroxylase
Genes
CRECHLRE_04g215000v5
VCNVOLCADRAFT_127303(cbk1)
MNGMNEG_0808
RTARta_07690
NEOCYG48_21980
BRABRADO6505(crtW)
JAVOXU80_11185
ACUTMRB58_16345
BSBBresu_2277
BRDJL11_05885
BRGA4249_04370
BRLBZG35_08080
BVCCEP68_00760
BREVE7T10_10705
BFQJX001_09310
BRESE4341_10205
BREAHZ989_10865
PARREOJ32_07405
PAAKFIU66_14240
PLIAE4191_05660
PMAUCP157_02151
PAEXJHW48_06580
STAXMC45_05465
SPIIG7077_12810
SARIH5J25_02995
POQKZX46_16525
PMEAKTC28_14705
ARUEQQX03_03980
ANHA6F65_02210
EGNBMF35_a0114
ELIELI_03320
ELQGa0102493_111887
ERKCD351_13650
ERFFIU90_13605
PNSA9D12_01075
PORLBG023_112625
PHZCHX26_14210
POTE2E27_07845
AFLVQQW98_01865
RMTIAI58_06190
PBRPB2503_11009
MXAMXAN_6049
MSDMYSTI_06679
MYMA176_000846
MFBMFUL124B02_35020
CCXCOCOR_06583(crtW)
MFULILAB_16045
MMASMYMAC_005830
SURSTAUR_6754
AGEAA314_08745
AVMJQX13_03460
MBDMEBOL_001798
CFUSCYFUS_008473
BSEDDN745_03185
PCAYFRD00_10870
BBAEFRD01_08870
SYESyncc9902_0972
SYGsync_1804
SYRSynRCC307_1993
SYXSynWH7803_0928
SYNESyn6312_1321
SYNPSyn7502_01940
SYNRKR49_01350
SYNWSynWH8103_01530
SYNCCB0101_02080
SYWSYNW1368
CGCCyagr_0842
CYICBM981_2741
CMPCha6605_0315 Cha6605_4514 Cha6605_5744
CYNCyan7425_5230
CEPCri9333_0170
LENLEP3755_43260
LETO77CONTIG1_02125
LBOLBWT_26070
PSERABRG53_3046
PGXOA858_21975
THEUHPC62_21880
TOGHNI00_06650
TSINOXH18_10945
GLPGlo7428_2965 Glo7428_3135
GDUP0S91_03570 P0S91_20390
GENGM3709_2452
GEEGM3708_1863
CYLAA637_00845(crtW)
SYPSYNPCC7002_A2809(crtW)
SYVAWQ23_14010
SYLAWQ21_14130
LEPLepto7376_2015
CYJCyan7822_5104
PPSUNO713_05200
MPROBJP34_32830
GVIgll1728(crtO)
GLJGKIL_3296
GMLISF26_01080
ANAalr3189
NPUNpun_F4798 Npun_F5919
NOSNos7107_4978
NONNOS3756_22680
NFLCOO91_05771
NOECLI64_28530
NSHGXM_04354
NEDHUN01_17815
AVAAva_2048 Ava_3888
ANNEH233_18150 EH233_26505
CSGCylst_4235
HBQQI031_27295
CALOCal7507_3244
CALNNIES2098_00100 NIES2098_59210
CALSNIES3974_44280
RIVRiv7116_6021
NSPBMF81_04508(crtW)
NSPHBDGGKGIB_03778
TOQHCG51_00755 HCG51_17065
NCNBZZ01_29270
CTHEChro_2833
ANFAQPE_1619
PEJFYC62_10455
PEKFFJ24_025845
PROEH9L23_26345
PEXIZT61_17375
PMUOLOK61_20665
PRKH9N25_24170
MUPA0256_02290
MUHHYN43_029965
MGKFSB76_16670
MRUBDEO27_031185
MGOSDIU38_032765
MDJLLH06_01495
MROBHH214_14990
MJJPQO05_23405
MSABSNE25_31725
SBXCA265_25400
CMRCycma_1287
CAMUCA2015_1201
BBDBelba_0846
EVIEchvi_1481
ESTDN752_10555
ECHIFKX85_07085
EMAIKZP23_05095
ALMAO498_03135
ALGOGYM62_17075
MDAIPZ59_03515
PSEZHME7025_02005
AANHG9X63_07945
ALENG9X62_08050
RHOZGXP67_07560
RSIRunsl_3500
RUNDR864_08270
RUPDTQ70_16765
FAEFAES_3517(crtO)
FIBA6C57_24720
FLIFleli_2161
HSWHsw_1159
HYMN008_02185
HYDPK28_06820
HYEAM218_09395
HYGAUC43_16265
HYPA0257_09415
HYZAXW84_06265
HNVDDQ68_22105
HYHD3Y59_07865
HYJFHG12_02820
HQIH9L05_01275
HRSHER32_16970
HBNGUY19_07525
HTSHMJ29_13310
HMTMTP16_18120
HTBMTX78_06855
HYKO9Z63_03240
HSKH4317_13700
HCWO3303_01465
HSBMWH26_04125
HAEIMUN82_12750
HCUMUN79_13255
HVLMUN86_06380
HCFMUN80_12195
PKOPKOR_22120
PACTCA264_10885
RUFTH63_10565
RTIDC20_01375
RUDTH61_00060
NIBGU926_05430
ADDHUW48_15820
ASWUHUW51_16685
FBTD770_17135
PRHOPZB74_16595
TPELP0M28_27955
RSRT7867_04160
IALIALB_0392
 » show all
Reference
1  [PMID:7750556]
  Authors
Lotan T, Hirschberg J
  Title
Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of the gene encoding beta-C-4-oxygenase, that converts beta-carotene to the ketocarotenoid canthaxanthin in Haematococcus pluvialis.
  Journal
FEBS Lett 364:125-8 (1995)
DOI:10.1016/0014-5793(95)00368-j
Reference
2  [PMID:8764486]
  Authors
Breitenbach J, Misawa N, Kajiwara S, Sandmann G
  Title
Expression in Escherichia coli and properties of the carotene ketolase from Haematococcus pluvialis.
  Journal
FEMS Microbiol Lett 140:241-6 (1996)
DOI:10.1111/j.1574-6968.1996.tb08343.x
Reference
3  [PMID:15269553]
  Authors
Steiger S, Sandmann G
  Title
Cloning of two carotenoid ketolase genes from Nostoc punctiforme for the heterologous production of canthaxanthin and astaxanthin.
  Journal
Biotechnol Lett 26:813-7 (2004)
DOI:10.1023/b:bile.0000025880.91269.cf
Reference
4  [PMID:16416328]
  Authors
Ojima K, Breitenbach J, Visser H, Setoguchi Y, Tabata K, Hoshino T, van den Berg J, Sandmann G
  Title
Cloning of the astaxanthin synthase gene from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma) and its assignment as a beta-carotene 3-hydroxylase/4-ketolase.
  Journal
Mol Genet Genomics 275:148-58 (2006)
DOI:10.1007/s00438-005-0072-x
  Sequence
Reference
5  [PMID:16625353]
  Authors
Tao L, Yao H, Kasai H, Misawa N, Cheng Q
  Title
A carotenoid synthesis gene cluster from Algoriphagus sp. KK10202C with a novel fusion-type lycopene beta-cyclase gene.
  Journal
Mol Genet Genomics 276:79-86 (2006)
DOI:10.1007/s00438-006-0121-0
  Sequence
Reference
6  [PMID:25612872]
  Authors
Kathiresan S, Chandrashekar A, Ravishankar GA, Sarada R
  Title
Regulation of astaxanthin and its intermediates through cloning and genetic transformation of beta-carotene ketolase in Haematococcus pluvialis.
  Journal
J Biotechnol 196-197:33-41 (2015)
DOI:10.1016/j.jbiotec.2015.01.006
  Sequence
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 1.14.99.63
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 1.14.99.63
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 1.14.99.63
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 1.14.99.63

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