KEGG   ENZYME: 1.17.1.4Help
Entry
EC 1.17.1.4                 Enzyme                                 

Name
xanthine dehydrogenase;
NAD+-xanthine dehydrogenase;
xanthine-NAD+ oxidoreductase;
xanthine/NAD+ oxidoreductase;
xanthine oxidoreductase
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Acting on CH or CH2 groups;
With NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor
BRITE hierarchy
Sysname
xanthine:NAD+ oxidoreductase
Reaction(IUBMB)
xanthine + NAD+ + H2O = urate + NADH + H+ [RN:R02103]
Reaction(KEGG)
R02103;
(other) R01768
Show
Substrate
xanthine [CPD:C00385];
NAD+ [CPD:C00003];
H2O [CPD:C00001]
Product
urate [CPD:C00366];
NADH [CPD:C00004];
H+ [CPD:C00080]
Comment
Acts on a variety of purines and aldehydes, including hypoxanthine. The mammalian enzyme can also convert all-trans retinol to all-trans-retinoate, while the substrate is bound to a retinoid-binding protein [14]. The enzyme from eukaryotes contains [2Fe-2S], FAD and a molybdenum centre. The mammalian enzyme predominantly exists as the NAD-dependent dehydrogenase (EC 1.17.1.4). During purification the enzyme is largely converted to an O2-dependent form, xanthine oxidase (EC 1.17.3.2). The conversion can be triggered by several mechanisms, including the oxidation of cysteine thiols to form disulfide bonds [2,6,8,15] [which can be catalysed by EC 1.8.4.7, enzyme-thiol transhydrogenase (glutathione-disulfide) in the presence of glutathione disulfide] or limited proteolysis, which results in irreversible conversion. The conversion can also occur in vivo [2,7,15].
History
EC 1.17.1.4 created 1972 as EC 1.2.1.37, transferred 1984 to EC 1.1.1.204, modified 1989, transferred 2004 to EC 1.17.1.4, modified 2011
Pathway
ec00230  Purine metabolism
ec01100  Metabolic pathways
ec01120  Microbial metabolism in diverse environments
Orthology
K00087  xanthine dehydrogenase molybdenum-binding subunit
K00106  xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase
K11177  xanthine dehydrogenase YagR molybdenum-binding subunit
K11178  xanthine dehydrogenase YagS FAD-binding subunit
K13479  xanthine dehydrogenase FAD-binding subunit
K13481  xanthine dehydrogenase small subunit
K13482  xanthine dehydrogenase large subunit
Genes
HSA: 7498(XDH)
PTR: 470347(XDH)
PPS: 100986628(XDH)
GGO: 101138402(XDH)
PON: 100454383(XDH)
NLE: 100594931(XDH)
MCC: 708046(XDH)
MCF: 102116275(XDH)
CSAB: 103220539(XDH)
RRO: 104659929(XDH)
RBB: 108516631(XDH)
CJC: 100414932(XDH)
SBQ: 101044169(XDH)
MMU: 22436(Xdh)
RNO: 497811(Xdh)
CGE: 100766626(Xdh)
NGI: 103748365(Xdh)
HGL: 101708017(Xdh)
CCAN: 109701710(Xdh)
OCU: 100144327(XDH)
TUP: 102477455(XDH)
CFA: 483028(XDH)
AML: 100465942(XDH)
UMR: 103671606(XDH)
ORO: 101376175(XDH)
AJU: 106967886(XDH)
BTA: 280960(XDH)
BOM: 102264420(XDH)
BIU: 109565958(XDH)
PHD: 102326880(XDH)
CHX: 100861280(XDH)
OAS: 780499(XDH)
SSC: 100515259(XDH)
CFR: 102523581(XDH)
CDK: 105095605(XDH)
BACU: 103004564(XDH)
LVE: 103084498(XDH)
OOR: 101284574(XDH)
MYB: 102262378(XDH)
MYD: 102773370(XDH)
PALE: 102884734(XDH)
LAV: 100672640(XDH)
TMU: 101349074
MDO: 100031481(XDH)
SHR: 100933358(XDH)
OAA: 100078272(XDH) 100078370
GGA: 396025(XDH)
MGP: 100544067(XDH)
CJO: 107310773(XDH)
APLA: 101799192(XDH)
ACYG: 106031596(XDH)
TGU: 100222890(XDH)
GFR: 102040336(XDH)
FAB: 101819038(XDH)
PHI: 102106931(XDH)
PMAJ: 107201507(XDH)
CCAE: 111926289(XDH)
CCW: 104685575(XDH)
FPG: 101918653(XDH)
FCH: 102052812(XDH)
CLV: 102092037(XDH)
EGZ: 104134615(XDH)
AAM: 106482734(XDH)
ASN: 102374197(XDH)
AMJ: 102564016(XDH)
PSS: 102461631(XDH)
CMY: 102945230(XDH)
CPIC: 101953114(XDH)
ACS: 100566790(xdh)
PVT: 110087557(XDH)
PBI: 103056546(XDH)
GJA: 107112582(XDH) 107125178
XLA: 108716095(xdh.L) 108717383
XTR: 100497499(xdh)
NPR: 108796807(XDH)
DRE: 560486(xdh)
SANH: 107674096 107697780(xdh)
CCAR: 109084316 109107555(xdh)
IPU: 108269840(xdh)
AMEX: 103031284(xdh)
TRU: 101073141(xdh)
LCO: 104938633(xdh)
MZE: 101478907(xdh)
OLA: 101162508(xdh)
XMA: 102231285(xdh)
PRET: 103481416(xdh)
NFU: 107384577(xdh)
KMR: 108251278(xdh)
CSEM: 103389795(xdh)
LCF: 108877173(xdh)
SDU: 111235538(xdh)
HCQ: 109510392(xdh)
BPEC: 110166494(xdh)
SASA: 100380763(xdh)
OTW: 112262239
ELS: 105031569(xdh)
SFM: 108923027(xdh)
LCM: 106702173
CMK: 103182679 103187630(xdh)
SPU: 576712(XDH)
DSI: Dsimw501_GD18875(Dsim_ry) Dsimw501_GD20335(Dsim_GD20335) Dsimw501_GD20336(Dsim_GD20336) Dsimw501_GD20337(Dsim_GD20337) Dsimw501_GD20338(Dsim_GD20338)
AME: 724718
TCA: 655982 656059 656456(GLEAN_12132) 656621 656938 658680(GLEAN_09714) 658886
DPA: 109536954
API: 100169249
CEL: CELE_F55B11.1(xdh-1)
CBR: CBG21624
ATH: AT4G34890(XDH1) AT4G34900(XDH2)
CRB: 17877660
THJ: 104817905
CIT: 102622737
TCC: 18589817
GRA: 105799411
DZI: 111301841
VRA: 106759191
VAR: 108333356
CAM: 101495267
LJA: Lj3g3v1694660.1(Lj3g3v1694660.1)
ADU: 107461425
LANG: 109351322
FVE: 101298861
PPER: 18780893
PMUM: 103326686
PAVI: 110760280
PXB: 103965536
ZJU: 107412613
CSV: 101211977
MCHA: 111021441
CMAX: 111485375
CMOS: 111461442
CPEP: 111779652
RCU: 8274436
JCU: 105648267
POP: 7467360
JRE: 109003655
VVI: 100248547
SOT: 102596284
NSY: 104224061
NTO: 104111014
INI: 109160132
SIND: 105163571
OEU: 111404472
HAN: 110866903
CCAV: 112511831
DCR: 108226793
BVG: 104889971
SOE: 110801608
NNU: 104603426
OSA: 4333171
DOSA: Os03t0429800-01(Os03g0429800)
OBR: 102707013
BDI: 100827961
ATS: 109737702(LOC109737702) 109742032(LOC109742032)
SBI: 110434890
ZMA: 100384368
SITA: 101785503
EGU: 105056188
MUS: 103989027
PEQ: 110018507
CRE: CHLREDRAFT_117669(XDH1)
APRO: F751_6411
SLB: AWJ20_3928(AOH2)
NCR: NCU03350(xdh-1)
NTE: NEUTE1DRAFT130703(NEUTE1DRAFT_130703)
MGR: MGG_12738
SSCK: SPSK_00201
MAW: MAC_05768
MAJ: MAA_01730
CMT: CCM_08980
MBE: MBM_00517
ANG: ANI_1_1056034(An03g01530) ANI_1_902184(An04g05440)
ABE: ARB_02280
TVE: TRV_04973
DDI: DDB_G0291047(xdh)
DFA: DFA_00340(xdh)
SMIN: v1.2.005299.t1(symbB.v1.2.005299.t1) v1.2.012038.t1(symbB.v1.2.012038.t1) v1.2.019051.t1(symbB.v1.2.019051.t1)
ECO: b0284(paoC) b0285(paoB) b2866(xdhA) b2867(xdhB)
ECJ: JW0278(yagR) JW0279(yagS) JW2835(xdhB) JW5462(xdhA)
ECD: ECDH10B_0272(yagR) ECDH10B_0273(yagS) ECDH10B_3041(xdhA) ECDH10B_3042(xdhB)
EBW: BWG_2592(xdhA) BWG_2593(xdhB)
ECOK: ECMDS42_2366(xdhA) ECMDS42_2367(xdhB)
ECE: Z0350(yagR) Z0351(yagS) Z4205 Z4206(ygeT)
ETW: ECSP_0321(yagR) ECSP_0322(yagS) ECSP_3836(xdhA) ECSP_3837(xdhB)
EOJ: ECO26_0319(yagR) ECO26_0320(yagS) ECO26_3955(xdhA) ECO26_3956(xdhB)
EOI: ECO111_3604(xdhA) ECO111_3605(xdhB)
EOH: ECO103_0261(yagR) ECO103_0262(yagS) ECO103_3441(xdhA) ECO103_3442(xdhB)
ECG: E2348C_3118(xdhA) E2348C_3119(xdhB)
EOK: G2583_0376(yagR) G2583_0377(yagS) G2583_3520(xdhA) G2583_3521(xdhB)
ECC: c3444 c3445(ygeT)
ECX: EcHS_A3026(xdhA) EcHS_A3027(xdhB)
ECM: EcSMS35_2999(xdhA) EcSMS35_3000(xdhB)
ECR: ECIAI1_0285(yagR) ECIAI1_0286(yagS) ECIAI1_2986(xdhA) ECIAI1_2987(xdhB)
ECQ: ECED1_3326(xdhA) ECED1_3327(xdhB)
ECK: EC55989_0289(yagR) EC55989_0290(yagS) EC55989_3153(xdhA) EC55989_3154(xdhB)
ECT: ECIAI39_3281(xdhA) ECIAI39_3282(xdhB)
EOC: CE10_3305(xdhA) CE10_3306(xdhB)
EUM: ECUMN_0315(yagR) ECUMN_0316(yagS) ECUMN_3209(xdhA) ECUMN_3210(xdhB)
ECZ: ECS88_3145(xdhA) ECS88_3146(xdhB)
EBR: ECB_00243(yagR) ECB_00244(yagS) ECB_02699(xdhA) ECB_02700(xdhB)
EKF: KO11_08430(xdhB) KO11_08435(xdhA) KO11_22180(yagS) KO11_22185(yagR)
EAB: ECABU_c31470(xdhA) ECABU_c31480(xdhB)
EIH: ECOK1_3252(xdhA) ECOK1_3253(xdhB)
ELW: ECW_m0361(yagR) ECW_m0362(yagS) ECW_m3119(xdhA) ECW_m3120(xdhB)
ELL: WFL_01755(yagR) WFL_01760(yagS) WFL_15230(xdhA) WFL_15235(xdhB)
ELC: i14_3163 i14_3164(ygeT)
ELD: i02_3163 i02_3164(ygeT)
ELP: P12B_c2964(xdhA) P12B_c2965(xdhB)
EBL: ECD_00243(paoC) ECD_00244(paoB) ECD_02699(xdhA) ECD_02700(xdhB)
EBE: B21_00246(yagR) B21_00247(yagS) B21_02661(xdhA) B21_02662(xdhB)
ELF: LF82_2443(xdhA) LF82_2444(xdhB)
ECOI: ECOPMV1_03138(hcrA_1) ECOPMV1_03139(ndhF)
ECOS: EC958_3147 EC958_3148(ygeT)
EFE: EFER_2820(yagS) EFER_2821(yagR)
EAL: EAKF1_ch3140c(xdhB)
SFL: SF2868 SF2869(ygeT)
SFX: S3068 S3069(ygeT)
SFV: SFV_2931 SFV_2932(ygeT)
SFE: SFxv_3142(xdhB)
SFT: NCTC1_03155(hcrA) NCTC1_03156(ygeT)
SSN: SSON_3017 SSON_3018(ygeT)
SBO: SBO_3118(ygeT) SBO_3119
CSK: ES15_0115(yagS) ES15_0116(yagR)
CTU: CTU_40910(yagR) CTU_40920(yagS)
BUF: D8682_03845(xdhB) D8682_03850(xdhA)
SRL: SOD_c21280(xdhB) SOD_c21290(xdhA1)
SPLY: Q5A_011800(hcrC) Q5A_011805(xdhA)
SERM: CLM71_12200(xdhB) CLM71_12205(xdhA)
LBQ: CKQ53_16415(xdhB) CKQ53_16420(xdhA)
EPE: CI789_07610(xdhA)
PAM: PANA_1963(xdh) PANA_4205(yagS) PANA_4206(yagR)
PAJ: PAJ_1295(xdh) PAJ_p0081(yagR) PAJ_p0082(yagS)
PVA: Pvag_1370(xdhB) Pvag_1371(xdhA) Pvag_pPag30476(aomL) Pvag_pPag30477(aomM)
ETR: ETAE_0588(xdhB) ETAE_0589(xdhA)
ETE: ETEE_2351(ygeT) ETEE_2352(ygeS)
XCC: XCC1091 XCC1092 XCC2727(yagR) XCC2728(yagS) XCC3709(yagR)
XAC: XAC1187 XAC1188 XAC2893(yagR) XAC2894(yagS)
XCI: XCAW_01288(coxL) XCAW_01289(coxM) XCAW_03177(coxL) XCAW_03178(coxM)
XPH: XppCFBP6546_05620(XppCFBP6546P_05620) XppCFBP6546_05625(XppCFBP6546P_05625) XppCFBP6546_21405(XppCFBP6546P_21405) XppCFBP6546_21410(XppCFBP6546P_21410)
SML: Smlt2503(yagR) Smlt2504(yagS)
SMZ: SMD_2183(yagR) SMD_2184(yagS)
VNI: VIBNI_B1481(xdhA) VIBNI_B1482(xdhB)
VFL: AL536_03570(xdhB) AL536_03575(xdhA)
PPR: PBPRA2243(SMB21011) PBPRA2244(AGR_C_42)
PAE: PA1523(xdhB) PA1524(xdhA) PA1932 PA1933
PAEC: M802_1562(xdhB) M802_1563(xdhA)
PRE: PCA10_19310(xdhB) PCA10_19320(xdhA)
PPSE: BN5_2567(xdhA) BN5_2568(xdhB)
PCQ: PcP3B5_23970(xdhA_1) PcP3B5_23980(hcrC_1) PcP3B5_61880(kdhB) PcP3B5_61890(pucD)
PPU: PP_3309(paoB) PP_3310(paoC) PP_4278(xdhA) PP_4279(xdhB)
PPX: T1E_0308(yagS) T1E_0309(yagR) T1E_0743(hxA) T1E_0744(xdh) T1E_5456 T1E_5457
PFL: PFL_1888(xdhB) PFL_1889(xdhA)
PPRC: PFLCHA0_c19290(xdhA) PFLCHA0_c19300(hcrC)
PPRO: PPC_1941(xdhB) PPC_1942
PPUU: PputUW4_03599(xdhA) PputUW4_03600(xdhB)
PSOS: POS17_1905(xdhB) POS17_1906
AVN: Avin_22280(xdhB) Avin_22290(xdhA)
AVL: AvCA_22280(xdhB) AvCA_22290(xdhA)
AVD: AvCA6_22280(xdhB) AvCA6_22290(xdhA)
ACX: Achr_24060(xdhA) Achr_24070(xdhB)
ABM: ABSDF1158(xdhA) ABSDF1159(xdhB)
ABY: ABAYE1114(xdhA) ABAYE1115(xdhB)
ABB: ABBFA_001078(xdhA) ABBFA_001079(xdhB)
ABZ: ABZJ_02753(xdhB) ABZJ_02754(xdhA)
ABD: ABTW07_2810(xdhB) ABTW07_2811(xdhA)
ABAD: ABD1_23590(xdhB) ABD1_23600(xdhA)
ACC: BDGL_001851(xdhB) BDGL_001852(xdhA)
ACI: ACIAD2467(xdhB) ACIAD2468(xdhA)
MBAH: HYN46_11920(xdhA) HYN46_11925(xdhB)
COLA: DBO93_08360(xdhA) DBO93_08365(xdhB)
CBER: B5D82_18855(xdhB) B5D82_18860(xdhA)
PEA: PESP_b0345(xdhB) PESP_b0346(xdhA)
PART: PARC_b0253(xdhB) PARC_b0255(xdhA)
CJA: CJA_0546(xdhA) CJA_0547(xdhB)
TTU: TERTU_2066(xdhB) TERTU_2067(xdhA)
MAH: MEALZ_1436(xdhB) MEALZ_1437(xdhA)
TNI: TVNIR_1715(xdhA_[H]) TVNIR_1716(pucE_[H])
HCH: HCH_01098(xdhB) HCH_01099(xdhA)
HEL: HELO_2465(xdhB) HELO_2466(xdhA)
HCO: LOKO_01560(pucD) LOKO_01561(hcrC)
HHH: CLM76_14635(xdhB) CLM76_14640(xdhA)
HBE: BEI_1460(yagR) BEI_1461(yagS) BEI_1964(xdhA) BEI_1965(xdhB1) BEI_1966(xdhB2)
OAI: OLEAN_C32670(xdhB) OLEAN_C32680(xdhA)
BSAN: CHH28_01065(xdhB) CHH28_01070(xdhA)
ASR: WL1483_3263(xdhA) WL1483_3611(xdhB)
PSE: NH8B_0243(xdhB) NH8B_0244(xdhA)
RSO: RSc2095(xdhA) RSc2096(xdhB)
RSC: RCFBP_11293(xdhB) RCFBP_11294(xdhA)
RSL: RPSI07_1333(xdhB) RPSI07_1334(xdhA)
RSN: RSPO_c01337(xdhB) RSPO_c01338(xdhA)
RSM: CMR15_11281(xdhB) CMR15_11282(xdhA)
RIN: ACS15_1066(xdhB) ACS15_1067(xdhA)
RPU: CDC45_10690(xdhA) CDC45_10695(xdhB)
REH: H16_A1016(xdhB1) H16_A1017(xdhA1) H16_A3371(coxL5) H16_B1897(xdhA2) H16_B1898(xdhB2)
CNC: CNE_1c09590(xdhB) CNE_1c09600(xdhA) CNE_2c10370(yagR) CNE_2c10380(yagS)
RME: Rmet_0892(xdhB) Rmet_0893(xdhA)
CTI: RALTA_A1000(xdhB2) RALTA_A1001(xdhA2) RALTA_A2830(xdhA1) RALTA_B0867(yagS2) RALTA_B0868(yagR2) RALTA_B0900(yagR1) RALTA_B0901(yagS1)
CGD: CR3_0827(xdhB) CR3_0828(xdhA) CR3_3147(yagR) CR3_3148(yagS) CR3_3751 CR3_3752(yagS) CR3_4228(yagS) CR3_4229(coxL)
BMAL: DM55_2410(xdhA) DM55_2411(xdhB)
BMAE: DM78_2611(xdhB) DM78_2612(xdhA)
BMAQ: DM76_2395(xdhA) DM76_2396(xdhB)
BMAF: DM51_1702(xdhB) DM51_1703(xdhA)
BMAZ: BM44_1307(xdhA) BM44_1308(xdhB)
BMAB: BM45_869(xdhA) BM45_870(xdhB)
BPS: BPSL2727(xdhB) BPSL2728(xdhA)
BPD: BURPS668_3159(xdhB) BURPS668_3160(xdhA)
BPR: GBP346_A3339(xdhB) GBP346_A3340(xdhA)
BPSE: BDL_2718(xdhA) BDL_2719(xdhB)
BPSM: BBQ_584(xdhA) BBQ_585(xdhB)
BPSU: BBN_712(xdhA) BBN_713(xdhB)
BPSD: BBX_1118(xdhB)
BPZ: BP1026B_I0587(xdhA) BP1026B_I0588(xdhB)
BPK: BBK_2205(xdhA) BBK_2206(xdhB)
BPSH: DR55_1791(xdhA) DR55_1792(xdhB)
BPSA: BBU_2836(xdhA) BBU_2837(xdhB)
BPSO: X996_1432(xdhA) X996_1433(xdhB)
BUT: X994_3430 X994_3431(xdhA) X994_3432(xdhB)
BTQ: BTQ_2523(xdhB) BTQ_2524(xdhA)
BTJ: BTJ_3170(xdhA) BTJ_3171(xdhB)
BTZ: BTL_1101(xdhA) BTL_1102(xdhB)
BTD: BTI_876(xdhA) BTI_877(xdhB)
BTV: BTHA_1193(xdhA) BTHA_1194(xdhB)
BTHE: BTN_286(xdhB) BTN_287(xdhA)
BTHM: BTRA_1309(xdhA) BTRA_1310(xdhB)
BTHL: BG87_1298(xdhA) BG87_1299(xdhB)
BOK: DM82_2393(xdhB) DM82_2394(xdhA)
BOC: BG90_2339(xdhA) BG90_2340(xdhB)
BVE: AK36_36(xdhB) AK36_37(xdhA) AK36_959 AK36_960
BCJ: BCAL0636(yagS) BCAL0637(xdhA) BCAL3172(xdhB) BCAL3173(xdhA)
BCEO: I35_0688(xdhA) I35_0689(xdhB) I35_3027(yagR) I35_3028(yagS)
BMJ: BMULJ_00286(coxM) BMULJ_00287(coxL) BMULJ_00686(xdhA) BMULJ_00687(xdhA)
BUB: BW23_904(xdhB) BW23_905(xdhA)
BGU: KS03_1628(xdhA) KS03_1629(xdhB)
BUL: BW21_971(xdhA) BW21_972(xdhB)
BGP: BGL_1c06930(xdhA) BGL_1c06940(xdhB) BGL_2c25200(yagS) BGL_2c25210(yagR)
BFN: OI25_2383(xdhB) OI25_2384(xdhA) OI25_4527 OI25_4528 OI25_904(xdhB) OI25_905(xdhA)
BPT: Bpet3934(yagR) Bpet3935(yagS)
AFQ: AFA_11475(xdhA) AFA_11480(xdhB)
AAQU: D3M96_12310(xdhA) D3M96_12315(xdhB)
ACRA: BSY15_512(xdhA) BSY15_513(xdhB)
ACIO: EAG14_13865(xdhA) EAG14_13870(xdhB)
VBO: CKY39_09125(xdhA) CKY39_09130(xdhB)
OTK: C6570_17120(xdhB) C6570_17130(xdhA)
LIM: L103DPR2_01156(hcrC) L103DPR2_01157(xdhA)
HYR: BSY239_756(xdhB) BSY239_757(xdhA)
SIMP: C6571_12255(xdhB) C6571_12260(xdhA)
MMS: mma_0506(xdhB) mma_0507(xdhA)
HSE: Hsero_3262(xdhA) Hsero_3263(xdhB)
HRB: Hrubri_3277(xdhA) Hrubri_3278(xdhB)
CPRA: CPter91_5150(xdhA) CPter91_5151(xdhB)
THI: THI_1768(xdhB) THI_1769(xdhA)
RGE: RGE_39960(xdhB) RGE_39970(xdhA)
AON: DEH84_07300(xdhB) DEH84_07305(xdhA)
PBH: AAW51_1338(xdhB) AAW51_1339(xdhA) AAW51_5104(yagR) AAW51_5105(yagS) AAW51_5199(yagS) AAW51_5200(yagR)
AZO: azo2211(xdhA) azo2212(xdhB)
ACOM: CEW83_08195(xdhA) CEW83_08200(xdhB)
GLO: Glov_2413
DGG: DGI_3145(coxM)
DAS: Daes_3249
DPS: DP1724 DP1725 DP2531(coxL)
DML: Dmul_36840(xdhA) Dmul_36850(xdhC) Dmul_37530(hcrB)
MXA: MXAN_3143
CCX: COCOR_05728(mop)
BBA: Bd2633(xdhA) Bd2634(xdhB)
BBAT: Bdt_2548(xdhA) Bdt_2549(xdhB)
BMX: BMS_2856(xdhB) BMS_2857(xdhA)
BSTO: C0V70_15485(xdhB) C0V70_15490(xdhA)
AMIH: CO731_02032(pucE) CO731_02033(xdhA)
ATU: Atu2309(xdhA) Atu2310(xdhB) Atu5499 Atu5500
ATF: Ach5_21840(xdhA) Ach5_21850(xdhB) Ach5_39920(yagS) Ach5_39930(yagR)
ARO: B0909_01505(xdhB) B0909_01515(xdhA)
RET: RHE_CH03124(xdhA) RHE_CH03125(xdhB)
REL: REMIM1_CH03174(xdhA) REMIM1_CH03175(xdhB)
REP: IE4803_CH03347(xdhA) IE4803_CH03348(xdhB)
REI: IE4771_CH03384(xdhA) IE4771_CH03385(xdhB)
RLE: RL3570(xdhA) RL3571(xdhB) pRL120300(yagR) pRL120301(yagS)
RHN: AMJ98_CH03276(xdhA) AMJ98_CH03277(xdhB)
RPHA: AMC79_CH03287(xdhA) AMC79_CH03288(xdhB)
RHX: AMK02_CH03210(xdhA) AMK02_CH03211(xdhB)
RHK: Kim5_CH03391(xdhA) Kim5_CH03392(xdhB)
REZ: AMJ99_CH03326(xdhA) AMJ99_CH03327(xdhB)
BMEL: DK63_1915(xdhA) DK63_1916(xdhB)
BMI: BMEA_A0386(xdhA) BMEA_A0387(xdhB)
BMZ: BM28_A0380(xdhA) BM28_A0381(xdhB)
BMEE: DK62_1037(xdhB) DK62_1038(xdhA)
BMF: BAB1_0377
BABO: DK55_394(xdhA) DK55_395(xdhB)
BABR: DO74_1492(xdhB) DO74_1493(xdhA)
BABT: DK49_157(xdhA) DK49_158(xdhB)
BABB: DK48_1732(xdhB) DK48_1733(xdhA)
BABU: DK53_384(xdhA) DK53_385(xdhB)
BABS: DK51_1079(xdhB) DK51_1080(xdhA)
BABC: DO78_301(xdhA) DO78_302(xdhB)
BMT: BSUIS_A0381(xdhB)
BSZ: DK67_1288(xdhA) DK67_1289(xdhB)
BOV: BOV_0365(xdhA)
BCS: BCAN_A0357(xdhA) BCAN_A0358(xdhB)
BCAR: DK60_441(xdhA) DK60_442(xdhB)
BMR: BMI_I354(xdhA) BMI_I355(xdhB)
BPP: BPI_I383(xdhA) BPI_I384(xdhB)
BPV: DK65_997(xdhB) DK65_998(xdhA)
BVL: BF3285c1_0327(xdhB1) BF3285c1_0329(xdhB2) BF3285c1_0330(xdhA)
OAH: DR92_2487(xdhB) DR92_2488(xdhA)
OCH: CES85_0384(xdhA) CES85_0385(xdhB)
RPE: RPE_3213
BOS: BSY19_1802(xdhB) BSY19_1803(xdhA)
MIV: C4E04_13990(xdhB) C4E04_13995(xdhA)
DEI: C4375_13150(xdhA) C4375_13155(xdhB)
MMED: Mame_01123(cdhA) Mame_01124(hcrC)
BRN: D1F64_11640(xdhA) D1F64_11645(xdhB)
HDI: HDIA_0390(xdhA) HDIA_0391(hcrB) HDIA_2085 HDIA_2942(mop) HDIA_2943(hcrC)
CCR: CC_2618
SIL: SPO0653(xdhB) SPO0654(xdhA)
RUA: D1823_19010(xdhB) D1823_19015(xdhA) D1823_21235(xdhA) D1823_21240(xdhB)
RCP: RCAP_rcc00791(xdhB) RCAP_rcc00792(xdhA)
RDE: RD1_4068(xdhA) RD1_4069(xdhB)
RLI: RLO149_c004020(xdhB) RLO149_c004030(xdhA)
DSH: Dshi_2958(xghB) Dshi_2959(xdhA)
KVU: EIO_0257(xdhB) EIO_0258(xdhA)
KRO: BVG79_00279(xdhB) BVG79_00280(xdhA)
PGA: PGA1_c28100(xdhA) PGA1_c28110(xdhB)
PGL: PGA2_c26100(xdhA) PGA2_c26110(xdhB)
PHP: PhaeoP97_00692(xdhB) PhaeoP97_00693(xdhA)
PPIC: PhaeoP14_02572(xdhA) PhaeoP14_02573(xdhB)
PHQ: D1820_08760(xdhA) D1820_08765(xdhB)
OAT: OAN307_c37860(xdhA) OAN307_c37870(xdhB)
OAR: OA238_c05020(xdhB) OA238_c05030(xdhA)
OTM: OSB_05470(xdhA) OSB_05480(cdhC)
PTP: RCA23_c21150(xdhA) RCA23_c21160(xdhB)
CEH: CEW89_09765(xdhA) CEW89_09770(xdhB)
LABR: CHH27_05800(xdhA) CHH27_05805(xdhB) CHH27_20410(xdhB) CHH27_20415(xdhA)
SULZ: C1J03_18460(xdhA) C1J03_18465(xdhB)
SULI: C1J05_17000(xdhA) C1J05_17005(xdhB)
RBG: BG454_03270(xdhB) BG454_03275(xdhA)
THAS: C6Y53_15885(xdhB) C6Y53_15890(xdhA)
GEH: HYN69_00740(xdhB)
SJP: SJA_C1-33640(yagR) SJA_C1-33650(yagS)
SPHB: EP837_01603(yagS) EP837_01604(yagR)
AAY: WYH_01495(xdhA) WYH_01496(hcrB)
GOY: GLS_c07420(xdh1) GLS_c07430(xdh2) GLS_c16360(yagR) GLS_c16370(yagS)
GDI: GDI2002(xdhB) GDI2003(xdhA)
KSC: CD178_00382(pucD) CD178_00383(coxS)
APT: APA01_12890(xdhB) APA01_12900(xdhA)
APW: APA42C_12890(xdhB) APA42C_12900(xdhA)
APF: APA03_12890(xdhB) APA03_12900(xdhA)
APU: APA07_12890(xdhB) APA07_12900(xdhA)
APG: APA12_12890(xdhB) APA12_12900(xdhA)
APQ: APA22_12890(xdhB) APA22_12900(xdhA)
APX: APA26_12890(xdhB) APA26_12900(xdhA)
APZ: APA32_12890(xdhB) APA32_12900(xdhA)
APK: APA386B_124(xdhB) APA386B_125(xdhA) APA386B_251(xdhA)
ASZ: ASN_2424(xdhB) ASN_2425(xdhA) ASN_3560(xdhA) ASN_3561(xdhB)
APOM: CPF11_00985(xdhA) CPF11_00990(xdhB)
ATO: CIW82_13715(xdhB) CIW82_13720(xdhA)
ACET: DS739_06680(xdhB) DS739_06685(xdhA)
ABG: Asbog_02127(xdhB) Asbog_02128(xdhA)
RCE: RC1_3069(yagS) RC1_3070(yagR)
AZL: AZL_c04690(xdhB) AZL_c04700(xdhB)
TMO: TMO_a0304(yagR) TMO_a0305(yagS)
THAC: CSC3H3_17555(xdhB) CSC3H3_17560(xdhA)
TII: DY252_03150(xdhA) DY252_03155(xdhB)
MAGQ: MGMAQ_3288
NCB: C0V82_24780(xdhA) C0V82_24785(xdhB)
BSU: BSU32470(pucE) BSU32480(pucD) BSU32490(pucC) BSU32500(pucB) BSU32510(pucA)
BCL: ABC3740(pucA) ABC3742(pucC) ABC3743(pucD) ABC3744(pucE)
CBO: CBO1285(xdhA2) CBO1286(xdhB2)
CLD: CLSPO_c12940(xdhA) CLSPO_c12950(xdhB)
LUA: D4A81_03235(xdhB)
DSY: DSY0865
DRM: Dred_1504
HMO: HM1_2647 HM1_2648(xdhA)
AWO: Awo_c33550(xdhB) Awo_c33560(xdhA2)
OVA: OBV_17260(xdhA) OBV_17270(xdhB)
MCX: BN42_21679(CoxL_1) BN42_21680(CoxM_1)
MUL: MUL_4579(coxM_1) MUL_4580(coxL_1)
MMI: MMAR_0080(coxL_2) MMAR_0081(coxM_2) MMAR_0835(coxM_1) MMAR_0836(coxL_1)
MMAE: MMARE11_07840(coxM_1) MMARE11_07850(coxL_1)
MLI: MULP_00855(coxM_1) MULP_00856(coxL_1)
MPHL: MPHLCCUG_01563(xdhA)
CVA: CVAR_2577(xdhA) CVAR_2578(xdhB)
NSR: NS506_01563(xdhA) NS506_01564(xdhB) NS506_06278(yagS) NS506_06279(yagR)
RHA: RHA1_ro00134(xdhB) RHA1_ro00135(xdhA)
RFA: A3L23_03170(hcrB) A3L23_03171(xdhA_2)
RHS: A3Q41_00158(xdhA_1) A3Q41_00159(hcrB)
RRT: 4535765_03221(hcrA) 4535765_03222(hcrB)
GBR: Gbro_2560
GRU: GCWB2_08950(hcrA) GCWB2_08955(hcrB)
SCO: SCO0690(SCF15.11) SCO0691(SCF15.12) SCO1132(2SCG38.25c) SCO1133(2SCG38.26c) SCO4971(2SCK31.31) SCO4972(2SCK31.32)
STRP: F750_0277(yagS) F750_0278(yagR) F750_0575(yagR) F750_0576(yagS)
SLE: sle_04640(sle_04640) sle_04650(sle_04650) sle_59600(sle_59600) sle_59610(sle_59610)
SRN: A4G23_04758(hcrB) A4G23_04759(xdhA)
SALF: SMD44_08326(yagS) SMD44_08327(yagR)
SALJ: SMD11_5983(yagR) SMD11_5984(yagS) SMD11_6774(yagR) SMD11_6775(yagS)
SLX: SLAV_05140(ndhF1) SLAV_05145(xdhA1)
AAI: AARI_28790(xdhB) AARI_28800(xdhA)
KRH: KRH_21420(xdhB) KRH_21430(xdhA)
BCV: Bcav_1676
NAL: B005_2189(xdhB) B005_2190
BSD: BLASA_2903(xdhA) BLASA_2904(xdhB)
MMAR: MODMU_2231(xdhB) MODMU_2232(xdhA)
AOI: AORI_4021(yagR) AORI_4022(yagS)
ASE: ACPL_2776(xdhB) ACPL_2777
MIN: Minf_2317(xdhB) Minf_2340(xdhA)
PLH: VT85_15285(xdhA) VT85_15290(hcrB)
PBOR: BSF38_00799(hcrB_1) BSF38_00800(xdhA_1) BSF38_01994(hcrB_2) BSF38_01995(xdhA_2)
KST: KSMBR1_1091(xdhB) KSMBR1_1092(xdhA)
PHM: PSMK_30650(xdhA) PSMK_30660(xdhB)
ABAC: LuPra_00180(hcrC_1) LuPra_00181(xdhA_1) LuPra_05247(hcrB_1) LuPra_06212(xdhA_3) LuPra_06213(hcrB_2)
TAI: Taci_0192
BLQ: L21SP5_02717(iorA) L21SP5_02718(xdhA)
FJG: BB050_03266(hcrB) BB050_03267(xdhA_1) BB050_03475(xdhA_2)
TMAR: MARIT_1115(xdhA) MARIT_1116
CACI: CLOAM1779(xdhA) CLOAM1780(xdhB)
MARN: LN42_06270
CABY: Cabys_2128 Cabys_4030(yagS) Cabys_4031(yagR)
 » show all
Taxonomy
Reference
1  [PMID:6960894]
  Authors
Battelli MG, Lorenzoni E.
  Title
Purification and properties of a new glutathione-dependent thiol:disulphide oxidoreductase from rat liver.
  Journal
Biochem J 207:133-8 (1982)
Reference
2  [PMID:4342395]
  Authors
Corte ED, Stirpe F.
  Title
The regulation of rat liver xanthine oxidase. Involvement of thiol groups in the conversion of the enzyme activity from dehydrogenase (type D) into oxidase (type O) and purification of the enzyme.
  Journal
Biochem J 126:739-45 (1972)
Reference
3  [PMID:14264879]
  Authors
PARZEN SD, FOX AS.
  Title
PURIFICATION OF XANTHINE DEHYDROGENASE FROM DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER.
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 92:465-71 (1964)
Reference
4  [PMID:4294045]
  Authors
Rajagopalan KV, Handler P.
  Title
Purification and properties of chicken liver xanthine dehydrogenase.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 242:4097-107 (1967)
Reference
5  [PMID:6061702]
  Authors
Smith ST, Rajagopalan KV, Handler P.
  Title
Purification and properties of xanthine dehydroganase from Micrococcus lactilyticus.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 242:4108-17 (1967)
Reference
6  [PMID:3459393]
  Authors
Ikegami T, Nishino T
  Title
The presence of desulfo xanthine dehydrogenase in purified and crude enzyme preparations from rat liver.
  Journal
Arch Biochem Biophys 247:254-60 (1986)
DOI:10.1016/0003-9861(86)90582-5
Reference
7  [PMID:3294898]
  Authors
Engerson TD, McKelvey TG, Rhyne DB, Boggio EB, Snyder SJ, Jones HP
  Title
Conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase to oxidase in ischemic rat tissues.
  Journal
J Clin Invest 79:1564-70 (1987)
DOI:10.1172/JCI112990
Reference
8  [PMID:2610112]
  Authors
Saito T, Nishino T, Tsushima K
  Title
Interconversion between NAD-dependent and O2-dependent types of rat liver xanthine dehydrogenase and difference in kinetic and redox properties between them.
  Journal
Adv Exp Med Biol 253B:179-83 (1989)
Reference
9  [PMID:11341925]
  Authors
Parschat K, Canne C, Huttermann J, Kappl R, Fetzner S.
  Title
Xanthine dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida 86: specificity, oxidation-reduction potentials of its redox-active centers, and first EPR characterization.
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 1544:151-65 (2001)
DOI:10.1016/S0167-4838(00)00214-4
Reference
10 [PMID:8224915]
  Authors
Ichida K, Amaya Y, Noda K, Minoshima S, Hosoya T, Sakai O, Shimizu N, Nishino T.
  Title
Cloning of the cDNA encoding human xanthine dehydrogenase (oxidase): structural analysis of the protein and chromosomal location of the gene.
  Journal
Gene 133:279-84 (1993)
DOI:10.1016/0378-1119(93)90652-J
  Sequence
[hsa:7498]
Reference
11 [PMID:11005854]
  Authors
Enroth C, Eger BT, Okamoto K, Nishino T, Nishino T, Pai EF.
  Title
Crystal structures of bovine milk xanthine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase: structure-based mechanism of conversion.
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:10723-8 (2000)
DOI:10.1073/pnas.97.20.10723
  Sequence
[bta:280960]
Reference
12 [PMID:11796116]
  Authors
Truglio JJ, Theis K, Leimkuhler S, Rappa R, Rajagopalan KV, Kisker C.
  Title
Crystal structures of the active and alloxanthine-inhibited forms of xanthine dehydrogenase from Rhodobacter capsulatus.
  Journal
Structure (Camb) 10:115-25 (2002)
DOI:10.1016/S0969-2126(01)00697-9
Reference
13 [PMID:11848841]
  Authors
Hille R.
  Title
The Mononuclear Molybdenum Enzymes.
  Journal
Chem Rev 96:2757-2816 (1996)
DOI:10.1021/cr950061t
Reference
14 [PMID:18569334]
  Authors
Taibi G, Di Gaudio F, Nicotra CM
  Title
Xanthine dehydrogenase processes retinol to retinoic acid in human mammary epithelial cells.
  Journal
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 23:317-27 (2008)
DOI:10.1080/14756360701584539
Reference
15 [PMID:18513323]
  Authors
Nishino T, Okamoto K, Eger BT, Pai EF, Nishino T
  Title
Mammalian xanthine oxidoreductase - mechanism of transition from xanthine dehydrogenase to xanthine oxidase.
  Journal
FEBS J 275:3278-89 (2008)
DOI:10.1111/j.1742-4658.2008.06489.x
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 1.17.1.4
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 1.17.1.4
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 1.17.1.4
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 1.17.1.4
CAS: 9054-84-6

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