KEGG   ENZYME: 1.23.5.1Help
Entry
EC 1.23.5.1                 Enzyme                                 

Name
violaxanthin de-epoxidase;
VDE
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Reducing C-O-C group as acceptor;
With a quinone or similar compound as acceptor
BRITE hierarchy
Sysname
violaxanthin:ascorbate oxidoreductase
Reaction(IUBMB)
violaxanthin + 2 L-ascorbate = zeaxanthin + 2 L-dehydroascorbate + 2 H2O (overall reaction) [RN:R10055];
(1a) violaxanthin + L-ascorbate = antheraxanthin + L-dehydroascorbate + H2O [RN:R07178];
(1b) antheraxanthin + L-ascorbate = zeaxanthin + L-dehydroascorbate + H2O [RN:R07179]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
violaxanthin [CPD:C08614];
L-ascorbate [CPD:C00072];
antheraxanthin [CPD:C08579]
Product
zeaxanthin [CPD:C06098];
L-dehydroascorbate [CPD:C05422];
H2O [CPD:C00001];
antheraxanthin [CPD:C08579]
Comment
Along with EC 1.14.15.21, zeaxanthin epoxidase, this enzyme forms part of the xanthophyll (or violaxanthin) cycle for controlling the concentration of zeaxanthin in chloroplasts. It is activated by a low pH of the thylakoid lumen (produced by high light intensity). Zeaxanthin induces the dissipation of excitation energy in the chlorophyll of the light-harvesting protein complex of photosystem II. In higher plants the enzyme reacts with all-trans-diepoxides, such as violaxanthin, and all-trans-monoepoxides, but in the alga Mantoniella squamata, only the diepoxides are good substrates.
History
EC 1.23.5.1 created 2005 as EC 1.10.99.3, transfered 2015 to EC 1.23.5.1
Pathway
ec00906  Carotenoid biosynthesis
ec01100  Metabolic pathways
ec01110  Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
Orthology
K09839  violaxanthin de-epoxidase
Genes
MYI: 110443578
LAK: 106154330
AQU: 109580811
ATH: AT1G08550(NPQ1)
ALY: ARALYDRAFT_470916(NPQ1)
CRB: 17899434
CSAT: 104739447 104743187 104755037 104766742 104778627
EUS: EUTSA_v10007587mg
BRP: 103871599
BNA: 106346323 106415200
BOE: 106295314
THJ: 104805797
CPAP: 110814926
CIT: 102577994(VDE)
TCC: 18599962
GRA: 105804540
GAB: 108470789
DZI: 111277831
EGR: 104432572
VRA: 106754170
VAR: 108343747
CCAJ: 109798128
CAM: 101494261
LJA: Lj1g3v5021040.1(Lj1g3v5021040.1)
ADU: 107491984
AIP: 107645737
LANG: 109329534
FVE: 101303237
PPER: 18774598
PMUM: 103318745
PAVI: 110745041
PXB: 103968091
ZJU: 107434703
CSV: 101216870(VDE)
CMO: 103485865
MCHA: 111014204
CMAX: 111465513
CMOS: 111443955
CPEP: 111798056
RCU: 8260952
JCU: 105650425
HBR: 110642716
MESC: 110622852
POP: 7474648
JRE: 108995788
VVI: 100257865(VDE1)
SLY: 543696(VDE)
SPEN: 107017754
SOT: 102588520
CANN: 107850430
NTA: 107763628(TVDE1) 107780507
NSY: 104218706
NTO: 104101769
INI: 109192201
SIND: 105161169
OEU: 111390352
HAN: 110898842
LSV: 111889374
CCAV: 112512317
DCR: 108219423
BVG: 104890418
SOE: 110792983
NNU: 104590318
OSA: 4335625
DOSA: Os04t0379700-01(Os04g0379700)
OBR: 102708144
BDI: 100829969
ATS: 109771495(LOC109771495)
SBI: 8070802
ZMA: 100281366
SITA: 101754003
PDA: 103721734
EGU: 105038832
DCT: 110102739
PEQ: 110038543
AOF: 109823913
ATR: 18425923
PPP: 112279974
MNG: MNEG_3176
OLU: OSTLU_27727(VDE)
MIS: MICPUN_104842(VDE)
CVR: CHLNCDRAFT_35609(VDE)
APRO: F751_1926
SMIN: v1.2.031718.t1(symbB.v1.2.031718.t1)
PTI: PHATRDRAFT_44635(VDE)
FCY: FRACYDRAFT_267113(VDE_1)
TPS: THAPSDRAFT_7677(DDE)
NGD: NGA_0270002(VDE)
 » show all
Taxonomy
Reference
1  [PMID:102251]
  Authors
Yamamoto HY, Higashi RM.
  Title
Violaxanthin de-epoxidase. Lipid composition and substrate specificity.
  Journal
Arch Biochem Biophys 190:514-22 (1978)
DOI:10.1016/0003-9861(78)90305-3
Reference
2  [PMID:8742341]
  Authors
Rockholm DC, Yamamoto HY.
  Title
Violaxanthin de-epoxidase.
  Journal
Plant Physiol 110:697-703 (1996)
DOI:10.1104/pp.110.2.697
  Sequence
Reference
3  [PMID:9624110]
  Authors
Bugos RC, Hieber AD, Yamamoto HY.
  Title
Xanthophyll cycle enzymes are members of the lipocalin family, the first identified from plants.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 273:15321-4 (1998)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.273.25.15321
  Sequence
[ath:AT1G08550] [ag:AAC50031]
Reference
4  [PMID:10635115]
  Authors
Kuwabara T, Hasegawa M, Kawano M, Takaichi S.
  Title
Characterization of violaxanthin de-epoxidase purified in the presence of Tween 20: effects of dithiothreitol and pepstatin A.
  Journal
Plant Cell Physiol 40:1119-26 (1999)
Reference
5  [PMID:12230579]
  Authors
Latowski D, Kruk J, Burda K, Skrzynecka-Jaskier M, Kostecka-Gugala A, Strzalka K.
  Title
Kinetics of violaxanthin de-epoxidation by violaxanthin de-epoxidase, a xanthophyll cycle enzyme, is regulated by membrane fluidity in model lipid bilayers.
  Journal
Eur J Biochem 269:4656-65 (2002)
DOI:10.1046/j.1432-1033.2002.03166.x
Reference
6  [PMID:12748855]
  Authors
Goss R.
  Title
Substrate specificity of the violaxanthin de-epoxidase of the primitive green alga Mantoniella squamata (Prasinophyceae).
  Journal
Planta 217:801-12 (2003)
DOI:10.1007/s00425-003-1044-1
Reference
7  [PMID:15078086]
  Authors
Latowski D, Akerlund HE, Strzalka K.
  Title
Violaxanthin de-epoxidase, the xanthophyll cycle enzyme, requires lipid inverted hexagonal structures for its activity.
  Journal
Biochemistry 43:4417-20 (2004)
DOI:10.1021/bi049652g
  Sequence
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 1.23.5.1
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 1.23.5.1
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 1.23.5.1
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 1.23.5.1
CAS: 57534-73-3

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