EC                 Enzyme                                 

xanthine oxidase;
hypoxanthine oxidase;
hypoxanthine:oxygen oxidoreductase;
Schardinger enzyme;
xanthine oxidoreductase;
hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase;
xanthine:O2 oxidoreductase;
xanthine:xanthine oxidase
Acting on CH or CH2 groups;
With oxygen as acceptor
xanthine:oxygen oxidoreductase
xanthine + H2O + O2 = urate + H2O2 [RN:R02107]
xanthine [CPD:C00385];
H2O [CPD:C00001];
O2 [CPD:C00007]
urate [CPD:C00366];
H2O2 [CPD:C00027]
An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein (FAD) containing [2Fe-2S] centres. Also oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes, but is distinct from EC, aldehyde oxidase. Under some conditions the product is mainly superoxide rather than peroxide: RH + H2O + 2 O2 = ROH + 2 O2.- + 2 H+. The mammalian enzyme predominantly exists as an NAD-dependent dehydrogenase (EC, xanthine dehydrogenase). During purification the enzyme is largely converted to the O2-dependent xanthine oxidase form (EC The conversion can be triggered by several mechanisms, including the oxidation of cysteine thiols to form disulfide bonds [4,5,7,10] [which can be catalysed by EC, enzyme-thiol transhydrogenase (glutathione-disulfide) in the presence of glutathione disulfide] or limited proteolysis, which results in irreversible conversion. The conversion can also occur in vivo [4,6,10].
EC created 1961 as EC, transferred 1984 to EC, modified 1989, transferred 2004 to EC, modified 2011
ec00230  Purine metabolism
ec00232  Caffeine metabolism
ec00983  Drug metabolism - other enzymes
ec01100  Metabolic pathways
ec01110  Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
K00106  xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase
HSA: 7498(XDH)
PTR: 470347(XDH)
PPS: 100986628(XDH)
GGO: 101138402(XDH)
PON: 100454383(XDH)
NLE: 100594931(XDH)
MCC: 708046(XDH)
MCF: 102116275(XDH)
CSAB: 103220539(XDH)
CATY: 105578407(XDH)
PANU: 101025208(XDH)
RRO: 104659929(XDH)
RBB: 108516631(XDH)
TFN: 117062505(XDH)
PTEH: 111546045(XDH)
CJC: 100414932(XDH)
SBQ: 101044169(XDH)
MMUR: 105884462(XDH)
MMU: 22436(Xdh)
MCAL: 110312137(Xdh)
MPAH: 110335495(Xdh)
RNO: 497811(Xdh)
MCOC: 116080025(Xdh)
MUN: 110557067(Xdh)
CGE: 100766626(Xdh)
PLEU: 114696109(Xdh)
NGI: 103748365(Xdh)
HGL: 101708017(Xdh)
CCAN: 109701710(Xdh)
OCU: 100144327(XDH)
OPI: 101525501(XDH)
TUP: 102477455(XDH)
CFA: 483028(XDH)
VVP: 112933009(XDH)
VLG: 121491027(XDH)
AML: 100465942(XDH)
UMR: 103671606(XDH)
UAH: 113240940(XDH)
ORO: 101376175(XDH)
ELK: 111154104
MPUF: 101682887(XDH)
EJU: 114219619(XDH)
MLX: 118007742(XDH)
FCA: 105259797 493692(XDH)
PYU: 121044311(XDH)
PBG: 122497284(XDH)
PTG: 102969928
PPAD: 109261405 109262396(XDH)
AJU: 106967886(XDH)
HHV: 120227484(XDH)
BTA: 280960(XDH)
BOM: 102264420(XDH)
BIU: 109565958(XDH)
BBUB: 102406968(XDH)
CHX: 100861280(XDH)
OAS: 780499(XDH)
ODA: 120851644(XDH)
CCAD: 122441533(XDH)
SSC: 100515259(XDH)
CFR: 102523581(XDH)
CBAI: 105063890(XDH)
CDK: 105095605(XDH)
BACU: 103004564(XDH)
LVE: 103084498(XDH)
OOR: 101284574(XDH)
DLE: 111174909(XDH)
PCAD: 102980160(XDH)
MYB: 102262378(XDH)
MYD: 102773370(XDH)
MMYO: 118669132(XDH)
MNA: 107541765(XDH)
HAI: 109395899
DRO: 112297809(XDH)
SHON: 119001296(XDH)
AJM: 119050452(XDH)
MMF: 118630749(XDH)
PALE: 102884734(XDH)
PGIG: 120621538(XDH)
RAY: 107505738(XDH)
MJV: 108404078(XDH)
TOD: 119259422(XDH)
LAV: 100672640(XDH)
TMU: 101349074
MDO: 100031481(XDH)
SHR: 100933358(XDH)
PCW: 110198166(XDH)
GGA: 396025(XDH)
PCOC: 116235286(XDH)
MGP: 100544067(XDH)
CJO: 107310773(XDH)
NMEL: 110395607(XDH)
APLA: 101799192(XDH)
ACYG: 106031596(XDH)
TGU: 100222890(XDH)
LSR: 110473976(XDH)
SCAN: 103821303(XDH)
PMOA: 120505896(XDH)
OTC: 121346920(XDH)
PRUF: 121357042(XDH)
GFR: 102040336(XDH)
FAB: 101819038(XDH)
PHI: 102106931(XDH)
PMAJ: 107201507(XDH)
CCAE: 111926289(XDH)
CCW: 104685575(XDH)
ETL: 114073409(XDH)
FPG: 101918653(XDH)
FCH: 102052812(XDH)
CLV: 102092037(XDH)
EGZ: 104134615(XDH)
NNI: 104019267(XDH)
ACUN: 113478412(XDH)
PADL: 103925004(XDH)
AAM: 106482734(XDH)
AROW: 112963417(XDH)
NPD: 112954835(XDH)
DNE: 112980054(XDH)
ASN: 102374197(XDH)
AMJ: 102564016(XDH)
CPOO: 109319793(XDH)
GGN: 109304651(XDH)
PSS: 102461631(XDH)
CMY: 102945230(XDH)
CPIC: 101953114(XDH)
TST: 117874524(XDH)
CABI: 116835408(XDH)
ACS: 100566790(xdh)
PVT: 110087557(XDH)
PBI: 103056546(XDH)
PMUR: 107297206(XDH)
TSR: 106538731(XDH)
PGUT: 117671370(XDH)
PMUA: 114594599(XDH)
ZVI: 118083239(XDH)
GJA: 107112582(XDH)
XLA: 108716095(xdh.L) 108717383(xdh.S)
XTR: 100497499(xdh)
NPR: 108796807(XDH)
DRE: 560486(xdh)
SANH: 107674096 107697780(xdh)
CCAR: 109084316 109107555(xdh)
IPU: 108269840(xdh)
PHYP: 113533982(xdh)
AMEX: 103031284(xdh)
EEE: 113583665(xdh)
TRU: 101073141(xdh)
LCO: 104938633
CGOB: 115004954(xdh)
ELY: 117250086(xdh)
PLEP: 121962722
SLUC: 116064651(xdh)
GAT: 120817414
PPUG: 119212539(xdh)
MSAM: 119884977 119906674(xdh)
CUD: 121506507
MZE: 101478907(xdh)
ONL: 100706331(xdh)
OAU: 116325034(xdh)
OLA: 101162508(xdh)
OML: 112156738(xdh)
XMA: 102231285(xdh)
XCO: 114140507(xdh)
XHE: 116715626(xdh)
PRET: 103481416(xdh)
CVG: 107104320(xdh)
CTUL: 119791561(xdh)
NFU: 107384577(xdh)
KMR: 108251278(xdh)
ALIM: 106531265(xdh)
AOCE: 111587270(xdh)
CSEM: 103389795(xdh)
LCF: 108877173(xdh)
SDU: 111235538(xdh)
SLAL: 111646897(xdh)
XGL: 120797967(xdh)
HCQ: 109510392(xdh)
BPEC: 110166494(xdh)
SASA: 100380763(xdh)
OTW: 112262239(xdh)
OMY: 110498216(xdh)
SALP: 112071841
SNH: 120059710(xdh)
ELS: 105031569(xdh)
SFM: 108923027(xdh)
PKI: 111834729(xdh)
AANG: 118223068
LOC: 102695048(xdh)
PSPA: 121315990(xdh)
ARUT: 117402411(xdh)
CMK: 103182679 103187630(xdh)
RTP: 109913754(xdh) 109930681
DSI: Dsimw501_GD18875(Dsim_ry) Dsimw501_GD20335(Dsim_GD20335) Dsimw501_GD20336(Dsim_GD20336) Dsimw501_GD20337(Dsim_GD20337) Dsimw501_GD20338(Dsim_GD20338)
DPA: 109536954
API: 100169249
DNX: 107172284
AGS: 114119532
RMD: 113550991
CEL: CELE_F55B11.1(xdh-1)
ATH: AT4G34890(XDH1) AT4G34900(XDH2)
CRB: 17877660
THJ: 104817905
CPAP: 110811823
CIT: 102622737
PVY: 116140064
MINC: 123208797
TCC: 18589817
GRA: 105799411
GAB: 108456712
DZI: 111301841
VRA: 106759191
VAR: 108333356
VUN: 114185523
APRC: 113854968
CAM: 101495267
LJA: Lj3g3v1694660.1(Lj3g3v1694660.1)
ADU: 107461425
LANG: 109351322
FVE: 101298861
RCN: 112202499
PPER: 18780893
PMUM: 103326686
PAVI: 110760280
PDUL: 117624343
PXB: 103965536
ZJU: 107412613
MNT: 21398385
CSV: 101211977
CMO: 103492036
BHJ: 120070770
MCHA: 111021441
CMAX: 111485375
CMOS: 111461442
CPEP: 111779652
RCU: 8274436
JCU: 105648267
MESC: 110617223
POP: 7467360
PEU: 105126367
PALZ: 118035122
JRE: 109003655
QLO: 115975629
TWL: 119996112
VVI: 100248547
VRI: 117915551
SOT: 102596284
CANN: 107853580
NSY: 104224061
NTO: 104111014
NAU: 109241093
INI: 109160132
ITR: 116003533
SIND: 105163571
OEU: 111404472
EGT: 105950632
HAN: 110866903
CCAV: 112511831
DCR: 108226793
CSIN: 114256370
BVG: 104889971
SOE: 110801608
NNU: 104603426
NCOL: 116255762
OSA: 4333171
DOSA: Os03t0429800-01(Os03g0429800)
OBR: 102707013
BDI: 100827961
SBI: 110434890
ZMA: 100384368
SITA: 101785503
PVIR: 120690993
PHAI: 112874507
PDA: 103715913
EGU: 105056188
MUS: 103989027
DCT: 110115026
PEQ: 110018507
APRO: F751_6411
SLB: AWJ20_3928(AOH2)
NCR: NCU03350(xdh-1)
MGR: MGG_12738
SSCK: SPSK_00201
MAW: MAC_05768
MAJ: MAA_01730
CMT: CCM_08980
MBE: MBM_00517
ANG: ANI_1_1056034(An03g01530) ANI_1_902184(An04g05440)
ABE: ARB_02280
TVE: TRV_04973
DDI: DDB_G0291047(xdh)
DFA: DFA_00340(xdh)
ARA: Arad_9877
SACI: Sinac_0251
FJG: BB050_03475(xdhA_2)
 » show all
Avis, P.G., Bergel, F. and Bray, R.C.
Cellular constituents. The chemistry of xanthine oxidase. Part I. The preparation of a crystalline xanthine oxidase from cow's milk.
J Chem Soc (Lond) 1100-1105 (1955)
2  [PMID:6960894]
Battelli MG, Lorenzoni E.
Purification and properties of a new glutathione-dependent thiol:disulphide oxidoreductase from rat liver.
Biochem J 207:133-8 (1982)
Bray, R.C.
Xanthine oxidase.
In: Boyer, P.D., Lardy, H. and Myrback, K. (Eds.), The Enzymes, 2nd ed., vol. 7, Academic Press, New York, 1963, p. 533-556.
4  [PMID:4342395]
Corte ED, Stirpe F.
The regulation of rat liver xanthine oxidase. Involvement of thiol groups in the conversion of the enzyme activity from dehydrogenase (type D) into oxidase (type O) and purification of the enzyme.
Biochem J 126:739-45 (1972)
5  [PMID:3459393]
Ikegami T, Nishino T
The presence of desulfo xanthine dehydrogenase in purified and crude enzyme preparations from rat liver.
Arch Biochem Biophys 247:254-60 (1986)
6  [PMID:3294898]
Engerson TD, McKelvey TG, Rhyne DB, Boggio EB, Snyder SJ, Jones HP
Conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase to oxidase in ischemic rat tissues.
J Clin Invest 79:1564-70 (1987)
7  [PMID:2610112]
Saito T, Nishino T, Tsushima K
Interconversion between NAD-dependent and O2-dependent types of rat liver xanthine dehydrogenase and difference in kinetic and redox properties between them.
Adv Exp Med Biol 253B:179-83 (1989)
8  [PMID:2350174]
Carpani G, Racchi M, Ghezzi P, Terao M, Garattini E.
Purification and characterization of mouse liver xanthine oxidase.
Arch Biochem Biophys 279:237-41 (1990)
9  [PMID:11092937]
Eger BT, Okamoto K, Enroth C, Sato M, Nishino T, Pai EF, Nishino T.
Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of xanthine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase isolated from bovine milk.
Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 56 Pt 12:1656-8 (2000)
10 [PMID:18513323]
Nishino T, Okamoto K, Eger BT, Pai EF, Nishino T
Mammalian xanthine oxidoreductase - mechanism of transition from xanthine dehydrogenase to xanthine oxidase.
FEBS J 275:3278-89 (2008)
Other DBs
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IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature:
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database:
UM-BBD (Biocatalysis/Biodegradation Database):
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database:
CAS: 9002-17-9

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