KEGG   PATHWAY: rno05143
Entry
rno05143                    Pathway                                

Name
African trypanosomiasis - Rattus norvegicus (rat)
Description
Trypanosoma brucei, the parasite responsible for African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), are spread by the tsetse fly in sub-Saharan Africa. The parasites are able to pass through the blood-brain barrier and cause neurological damage by inducing cytokines like TNF alpha, IFN gamma, and IL1. These cytokines and other metabolites such as nitric oxide and somnogenic prostaglandin D2 disturb circadian rhythms in patients with African trypanosomiasis.
Class
Human Diseases; Infectious disease: parasitic
Pathway map
rno05143  African trypanosomiasis
rno05143

Organism
Rattus norvegicus (rat) [GN:rno]
Gene
338457  Tlr9; toll-like receptor 9 precursor [KO:K10161]
301059  Myd88; myeloid differentiation primary response protein MyD88 [KO:K04729]
64517  Thop1; thimet oligopeptidase [KO:K01392] [EC:3.4.24.15]
24903  Kng2; T-kininogen 1 precursor [KO:K03898]
25087  Kng2l1; kininogen-1 isoform 1 precursor [KO:K03898]
288001  Kng1; T-kininogen 2 precursor [KO:K03898]
24602  Nppa; natriuretic peptides A precursor [KO:K12334]
25081  Apoa1; apolipoprotein A-I preproprotein [KO:K08757]
25632  Hba-a1; hemoglobin subunit alpha-1/2 [KO:K13822]
360504  Hba-a2; hemoglobin alpha, adult chain 2 [KO:K13822]
287167  Hba-a3; hemoglobin alpha, adult chain 3 [KO:K13822]
24440  Hbb; hemoglobin subunit beta-1 [KO:K13823]
689064  Hbb-bs; hemoglobin subunit beta-2 [KO:K13823]
100134871  hemoglobin subunit beta-2 [KO:K13823]
361619  Hbb-b1; hemoglobin, beta adult major chain [KO:K13823]
25325  Il10; interleukin-10 precursor [KO:K05443]
84405  Il12a; interleukin-12 subunit alpha precursor [KO:K05406]
64546  Il12b; interleukin-12 subunit beta precursor [KO:K05425]
29197  Il18; interleukin-18 [KO:K05482]
25712  Ifng; interferon gamma precursor [KO:K04687]
24835  Tnf; tumor necrosis factor [KO:K03156]
24494  Il1b; interleukin-1 beta [KO:K04519]
24498  Il6; interleukin-6 precursor [KO:K05405]
25385  Faslg; tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 6 [KO:K04389]
246097  Fas; tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 6 precursor [KO:K04390]
25361  Vcam1; vascular cell adhesion protein 1 precursor [KO:K06527]
25544  Sele; E-selectin precursor [KO:K06494]
25464  Icam1; intercellular adhesion molecule 1 precursor [KO:K06490]
309816  Lama4; laminin subunit alpha-4 precursor [KO:K06241]
66029  Ido1; indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 [KO:K00463] [EC:1.13.11.52]
681319  Ido2; indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 2 isoform X1 [KO:K00463] [EC:1.13.11.52]
116677  F2rl1; proteinase-activated receptor 2 precursor [KO:K04234]
81666  Gnaq; guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(q) subunit alpha [KO:K04634]
24654  Plcb1; 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-1 [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
29322  Plcb3; 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-3 [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
85240  Plcb2; 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-2 [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
25031  Plcb4; 1-phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate phosphodiesterase beta-4 [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
24680  Prkca; protein kinase C alpha type [KO:K02677] [EC:2.7.11.13]
25023  Prkcb; protein kinase C beta type isoform 2 [KO:K19662] [EC:2.7.11.13]
24681  Prkcg; protein kinase C gamma type [KO:K19663] [EC:2.7.11.13]
Compound
C00076  Calcium cation
C00078  L-Tryptophan
C00165  Diacylglycerol
C00328  L-Kynurenine
C00533  Nitric oxide
C00584  Prostaglandin E2
C00696  Prostaglandin D2
C01245  D-myo-Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate
Reference
  Authors
Antoine-Moussiaux N, Buscher P, Desmecht D
  Title
Host-parasite interactions in trypanosomiasis: on the way to an antidisease strategy.
  Journal
Infect Immun 77:1276-84 (2009)
DOI:10.1128/IAI.01185-08
Reference
  Authors
Enanga B, Burchmore RJ, Stewart ML, Barrett MP
  Title
Sleeping sickness and the brain.
  Journal
Cell Mol Life Sci 59:845-58 (2002)
DOI:10.1007/s00018-002-8472-0
Reference
  Authors
Bisser S, Ouwe-Missi-Oukem-Boyer ON, Toure FS, Taoufiq Z, Bouteille B, Buguet A, Mazier D
  Title
Harbouring in the brain: A focus on immune evasion mechanisms and their deleterious effects in malaria and human African trypanosomiasis.
  Journal
Int J Parasitol 36:529-40 (2006)
DOI:10.1016/j.ijpara.2006.02.001
Reference
  Authors
Masocha W, Rottenberg ME, Kristensson K
  Title
Migration of African trypanosomes across the blood-brain barrier.
  Journal
Physiol Behav 92:110-4 (2007)
DOI:10.1016/j.physbeh.2007.05.045
Reference
  Authors
Lonsdale-Eccles JD, Grab DJ
  Title
Trypanosome hydrolases and the blood-brain barrier.
  Journal
Trends Parasitol 18:17-9 (2002)
DOI:10.1016/S1471-4922(01)02120-1
Reference
  Authors
Grab DJ, Kennedy PG
  Title
Traversal of human and animal trypanosomes across the blood-brain barrier.
  Journal
J Neurovirol 14:344-51 (2008)
DOI:10.1080/13550280802282934
Reference
  Authors
Kristensson K, Nygard M, Bertini G, Bentivoglio M
  Title
African trypanosome infections of the nervous system: parasite entry and effects on sleep and synaptic functions.
  Journal
Prog Neurobiol 91:152-71 (2010)
DOI:10.1016/j.pneurobio.2009.12.001
Reference
  Authors
Pays E, Vanhollebeke B
  Title
Human innate immunity against African trypanosomes.
  Journal
Curr Opin Immunol 21:493-8 (2009)
DOI:10.1016/j.coi.2009.05.024
Reference
PMID:9574925
  Authors
Donelson JE, Hill KL, El-Sayed NM
  Title
Multiple mechanisms of immune evasion by African trypanosomes.
  Journal
Mol Biochem Parasitol 91:51-66 (1998)
DOI:10.1016/S0166-6851(97)00209-0
Reference
  Authors
Grab DJ, Garcia-Garcia JC, Nikolskaia OV, Kim YV, Brown A, Pardo CA, Zhang Y, Becker KG, Wilson BA, de A Lima AP, Scharfstein J, Dumler JS
  Title
Protease activated receptor signaling is required for African trypanosome traversal of human brain microvascular endothelial cells.
  Journal
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3:e479 (2009)
DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000479
Reference
  Authors
Vanhollebeke B, Pays E
  Title
The trypanolytic factor of human serum: many ways to enter the parasite, a single way to kill.
  Journal
Mol Microbiol 76:806-14 (2010)
DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2958.2010.07156.x
Related
pathway
rno00380  Tryptophan metabolism
rno04210  Apoptosis
rno04610  Complement and coagulation cascades
rno04620  Toll-like receptor signaling pathway
rno04710  Circadian rhythm
KO pathway
ko05143   

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