KEGG   ENZYME: 1.1.99.1
Entry
EC 1.1.99.1                 Enzyme                                 

Name
choline dehydrogenase;
choline oxidase;
choline-cytochrome c reductase;
choline:(acceptor) oxidoreductase;
choline:(acceptor) 1-oxidoreductase
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Acting on the CH-OH group of donors;
With unknown physiological acceptors
Sysname
choline:acceptor 1-oxidoreductase
Reaction(IUBMB)
choline + acceptor = betaine aldehyde + reduced acceptor [RN:R01025]
Reaction(KEGG)
R01025
Substrate
choline [CPD:C00114];
acceptor [CPD:C00028]
Product
betaine aldehyde [CPD:C00576];
reduced acceptor [CPD:C00030]
Comment
A quinoprotein. In many bacteria, plants and animals, the osmoprotectant betaine is synthesized using different enzymes to catalyse the conversion of (1) choline into betaine aldehyde and (2) betaine aldehyde into betaine. In plants, the first reaction is catalysed by EC 1.14.15.7, choline monooxygenase, whereas in animals and many bacteria, it is catalysed by either membrane-bound choline dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.99.1) or soluble choline oxidase (EC 1.1.3.17) [4]. The enzyme involved in the second step, EC 1.2.1.8, betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase, appears to be the same in plants, animals and bacteria.
History
EC 1.1.99.1 created 1961, modified 1989, modified 2005
Pathway
ec00260  Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
ec01100  Metabolic pathways
Orthology
K00108  choline dehydrogenase
Genes
HSA: 55349(CHDH)
PTR: 460450(CHDH)
PPS: 100974785(CHDH)
GGO: 101141843(CHDH)
PON: 100450440(CHDH)
NLE: 100592033(CHDH)
MCC: 693805(CHDH)
MCF: 102140074(CHDH)
CSAB: 103227767(CHDH)
RRO: 104672387(CHDH)
RBB: 108515200(CHDH)
CJC: 100398783(CHDH)
SBQ: 101042824(CHDH)
MMU: 218865(Chdh)
MCAL: 110309494(Chdh)
MPAH: 110325976(Chdh)
RNO: 290551(Chdh)
MUN: 110547561(Chdh)
CGE: 100772204(Chdh)
NGI: 103749026(Chdh)
HGL: 101716121(Chdh)
CCAN: 109674815(Chdh)
OCU: 100350567(CHDH)
TUP: 102482117(CHDH)
CFA: 484723(CHDH)
VVP: 112908630(CHDH)
AML: 100466948(CHDH)
UMR: 103674737
UAH: 113256982(CHDH)
ORO: 101383233(CHDH)
ELK: 111143739
FCA: 101089175(CHDH)
PTG: 102958076(CHDH)
PPAD: 109247931(CHDH)
AJU: 106987035(CHDH)
BTA: 505218(CHDH)
BOM: 102276474(CHDH)
BIU: 109576192(CHDH)
BBUB: 102406236(CHDH)
CHX: 102174168(CHDH)
OAS: 101106116(CHDH)
SSC: 100151982(CHDH)
CFR: 102505452(CHDH)
CDK: 105093165(CHDH)
BACU: 103001642(CHDH)
LVE: 103075217(CHDH)
OOR: 101277500(CHDH)
DLE: 111174279(CHDH)
PCAD: 102980443(CHDH)
ECB: 100059455(CHDH)
EPZ: 103560750(CHDH)
EAI: 106822064(CHDH)
MYB: 102258336(CHDH)
MYD: 102762687(CHDH)
MNA: 107534946(CHDH)
HAI: 109395945(CHDH)
DRO: 112301161(CHDH)
PALE: 102891951(CHDH)
RAY: 107516537(CHDH)
MJV: 108402357(CHDH)
LAV: 100659707(CHDH)
TMU: 101357842
MDO: 100014408(CHDH)
SHR: 100919229(CHDH)
PCW: 110197050(CHDH)
OAA: 100077337(CHDH)
GGA: 415993(CHDH)
MGP: 100544352(CHDH)
CJO: 107319875(CHDH)
NMEL: 110404745(CHDH)
APLA: 101802751(CHDH)
ACYG: 106048940(CHDH)
TGU: 100224032(CHDH)
LSR: 110472557(CHDH)
SCAN: 103816993(CHDH)
GFR: 102035340(CHDH)
FAB: 101821674(CHDH)
PHI: 102103125(CHDH)
PMAJ: 107210295(CHDH)
CCAE: 111935127(CHDH)
CCW: 104683259(CHDH)
ETL: 114058667(CHDH)
FPG: 101911446(CHDH)
FCH: 102053842(CHDH)
CLV: 102089905(CHDH)
EGZ: 104126730(CHDH)
NNI: 104010824(CHDH)
ACUN: 113484826(CHDH)
PADL: 103925488(CHDH)
AAM: 106488620(CHDH)
ASN: 102369972(CHDH)
AMJ: 102576586(CHDH)
PSS: 102447520(CHDH)
CMY: 102934056(CHDH)
CPIC: 101952673(CHDH)
ACS: 100563914(chdh)
PVT: 110084508(CHDH)
PBI: 103055218(CHDH)
PMUR: 107287673(CHDH)
TSR: 106544408(CHDH)
PMUA: 114591685(CHDH)
GJA: 107116834(CHDH)
XLA: 108704026(chdh.L)
XTR: 116410481(chdh)
NPR: 108786051(CHDH)
DRE: 100331020(chdh)
SANH: 107678343
SGH: 107594972(chdh)
IPU: 108265456(chdh)
PHYP: 113533247(chdh)
AMEX: 103039657(chdh)
EEE: 113580449(chdh)
TRU: 101067005(chdh)
LCO: 104926932(chdh)
NCC: 104966554(chdh)
MZE: 101475567(chdh)
ONL: 100711832(chdh)
OLA: 101161152(chdh)
XMA: 102234684(chdh)
XCO: 114148243(chdh)
PRET: 103468014(chdh)
CVG: 107086681(chdh)
NFU: 107390581(chdh)
KMR: 108236777(chdh)
ALIM: 106513072(chdh)
AOCE: 111584411(chdh)
CSEM: 103384979(chdh)
POV: 109630733(chdh)
LCF: 108891652(chdh)
SDU: 111220515(chdh)
SLAL: 111670676(chdh)
HCQ: 109517778(chdh)
BPEC: 110174714(chdh)
MALB: 109969133(chdh)
SASA: 106571975(chdh)
OTW: 112215829(chdh)
SALP: 111966268(chdh)
ELS: 105025281(chdh)
SFM: 108925566(chdh)
PKI: 111833379(chdh)
LCM: 102355562(CHDH)
CMK: 103185069(chdh)
RTP: 109934292
APLC: 110978694
SKO: 100366344
DME: Dmel_CG9514(CG9514)
DER: 6550634
DSE: 6619570
DSI: Dsimw501_GD15831(Dsim_GD15831)
DAN: 6502188
DSR: 110187121
DPE: 6602884
DMN: 108155776
DWI: 6641385
DVI: 6633758
CSOL: 105365365
NVL: 108565160
PXY: 105382035
DNX: 107161761
DPTE: 113793831
CEL: CELE_C34C6.4(C34C6.4)
CBR: CBG11120
BMY: Bm1_39805
PCAN: 112576604
MYI: 110458447
NVE: 5510553
ADF: 107341977
AMIL: 114958518
ALY: 9300219
CPAP: 110822955
CIT: 102611629
EGR: 104415558
GSJ: 114370704
VRA: 106768885
VAR: 108338433
CCAJ: 109792091
CAM: 101513152
LJA: Lj0g3v0114829.1(Lj0g3v0114829.1)
ADU: 107466877
AIP: 107616101
FVE: 101299627
RCN: 112182148
PPER: 109947604
PMUM: 103333269
PAVI: 110767704
MDM: 103441237
PXB: 103933322
CSV: 101219817
CMO: 103482699
CMAX: 111468930
CMOS: 111430298
CPEP: 111808292
RCU: 8258316
HBR: 110641607
MESC: 110600439
JRE: 108998512
NTA: 107772908
NTO: 104085620
NAU: 109225588
INI: 109186774
SIND: 105160712
OEU: 111397102
SOE: 110782448
OSA: 4336725
DOSA: Os04t0573100-01(Os04g0573100)
OBR: 102706276
BDI: 100839066
ATS: 109775337(LOC109775337)
SBI: 8060414
ZMA: 100280292
SITA: 101780348
PDA: 103716848
EGU: 105043376
DCT: 110100405
ATR: 18447796
TDL: TDEL_0B00110(TDEL0B00110)
NTE: NEUTE1DRAFT128299(NEUTE1DRAFT_128299) NEUTE1DRAFT46969(NEUTE1DRAFT_46969)
SSCK: SPSK_07200
ANG: ANI_1_1276104(An12g10770) ANI_1_128164(An18g01120) ANI_1_1340134(An15g03100) ANI_1_1396134(An15g03820) ANI_1_1530134(An15g04820) ANI_1_1794144(An16g05660) ANI_1_3064024(An02g11560) ANI_1_590044(An05g02380) ANI_1_704034(An03g05670) ANI_1_984164(An18g00530)
ABP: AGABI1DRAFT114921(AGABI1DRAFT_114921) AGABI1DRAFT118529(AGABI1DRAFT_118529) AGABI1DRAFT121723(AGABI1DRAFT_121723) AGABI1DRAFT123192(AGABI1DRAFT_123192) AGABI1DRAFT36107(AGABI1DRAFT_36107) AGABI1DRAFT45074(AGABI1DRAFT_45074) AGABI1DRAFT69614(AGABI1DRAFT_69614)
ABV: AGABI2DRAFT183646(AGABI2DRAFT_183646) AGABI2DRAFT183868(AGABI2DRAFT_183868) AGABI2DRAFT188295(AGABI2DRAFT_188295) AGABI2DRAFT191146(AGABI2DRAFT_191146) AGABI2DRAFT205329(AGABI2DRAFT_205329) AGABI2DRAFT217653(AGABI2DRAFT_217653) AGABI2DRAFT70764(AGABI2DRAFT_70764) AGABI2DRAFT78119(AGABI2DRAFT_78119)
MRT: MRET_0068
MSYM: MSY001_2108(Mala_s_12) MSY001_3474
DFA: DFA_05213(chdh)
SMIN: v1.2.013761.t1(symbB.v1.2.013761.t1) v1.2.024813.t1(symbB.v1.2.024813.t1)
SPAR: SPRG_00793
ECO: b0311(betA)
ECJ: JW0303(betA)
ECD: ECDH10B_0298(betA)
ECOK: ECMDS42_0234(betA)
ECE: Z0398(betA)
ECS: ECs0357
ECF: ECH74115_0373(betA)
ETW: ECSP_0366(betA)
EOI: ECO111_0345(betA)
EOJ: ECO26_0345(betA)
EOH: ECO103_0288(betA)
ECOO: ECRM13514_0541(betA)
ECOH: ECRM13516_0287(betA)
ESL: O3K_19945
ESO: O3O_05355
ESM: O3M_19925
ECK: EC55989_0313(betA)
ECG: E2348C_0273(betA)
EOK: G2583_0415(betA)
ELH: ETEC_0367
ECW: EcE24377A_0326(betA)
EUN: UMNK88_358(betA)
ECP: ECP_0386
ENA: ECNA114_0302(betA)
ECOS: EC958_0463(betA)
ECV: APECO1_1679(betA)
ECX: EcHS_A0370(betA)
ECM: EcSMS35_0342(betA)
ECY: ECSE_0332
ECR: ECIAI1_0308(betA)
EUM: ECUMN_0349(betA)
ECT: ECIAI39_0375(betA)
EOC: CE10_0276(betA)
EBR: ECB_00267(betA)
EBL: ECD_00267(betA)
EBE: B21_00270(betA)
EBD: ECBD_3347
ECI: UTI89_C0340(betA)
EIH: ECOK1_0305(betA)
ECZ: ECS88_0319(betA)
ECC: c0431(betA)
ELO: EC042_0344(betA)
ESE: ECSF_0289
EKF: KO11_22045(betA)
EAB: ECABU_c04070(betA)
EDJ: ECDH1ME8569_0299(betA)
ELW: ECW_m0385(betA)
ELL: WFL_01890(betA)
ELC: i14_0416(betA)
ELD: i02_0416(betA)
ELP: P12B_c0330(betA)
ELF: LF82_0219(betA)
ECOI: ECOPMV1_00314(betA)
SFV: SFV_0322(betA)
ECLX: LI66_05575
ECLY: LI62_06480
ECLZ: LI64_06085
EEC: EcWSU1_01153(betA)
ECHG: FY206_06980(betA)
ESH: C1N69_05755(betA)
EBG: FAI37_00820(betA)
ESA: ESA_02049
CSK: ES15_2205
CTU: CTU_19200(betA)
KPN: KPN_00584
KPU: KP1_1528(betA)
KPP: A79E_3657
KPT: VK055_1953(betA)
KPR: KPR_3975(betA)
KPJ: N559_3743
KPX: PMK1_02911(betA)
KPNU: LI86_19195
KPNK: BN49_1638(betA)
KVA: Kvar_3785
KPE: KPK_3995(betA)
EAE: EAE_13515
EAR: CCG31269
CKO: CKO_02584
CAF: AL524_19795(betA)
CFAR: CI104_07185(betA)
CIR: C2U53_16400(betA)
CLAP: NCTC11466_02246(betA)
KOT: EH164_19485(betA)
LNI: CWR52_06545(betA)
BUF: D8682_12395(betA)
EBF: D782_3547
EBU: CUC76_08495(betA)
YPE: YPO1165(betA)
YPA: YPA_1073
YPN: YPN_2836
YPM: YP_0994(betA)
YPZ: YPZ3_1055(betA)
YPD: YPD4_1014(betA)
YPX: YPD8_1113(betA)
YPW: CH59_679(betA)
YPJ: CH55_3926(betA)
YPV: BZ15_2392(betA)
YPL: CH46_3967(betA)
YPS: YPTB1195(betA)
YPO: BZ17_1332(betA)
YPI: YpsIP31758_2831(betA)
YPY: YPK_2917
YPB: YPTS_1275
YPQ: DJ40_1046(betA)
YPU: BZ21_458(betA)
YPR: BZ20_797(betA)
YPC: BZ23_789(betA)
YPF: BZ19_593(betA)
YRU: BD65_572
SMAR: SM39_0957(betA) SM39_4829
SRL: SOD_c04330(alkJ) SOD_c13940(betA)
SPLY: Q5A_002335(alkJ) Q5A_007570(betA)
SERA: Ser39006_016970(betA)
SERQ: CWC46_16970(betA)
SOF: NCTC11214_05409(betA)
RAA: Q7S_06710
ECA: ECA1746(betA)
PATR: EV46_08345
PATO: GZ59_28560(betA)
PCT: PC1_2554
PPUJ: E2566_13260(betA)
SOD: Sant_3317
DDD: Dda3937_03411(betA)
DFN: CVE23_14010(betA)
DIC: Dpoa569_001469(betA)
BRB: EH207_06980(betA)
EAM: EAMY_1715(betA)
EAY: EAM_1687(betA)
ETA: ETA_17810(betA)
EPY: EpC_18720(betA)
EPR: EPYR_02018(betA)
EBI: EbC_19420(betA)
ERJ: EJP617_28510(betA)
EGE: EM595_p0484(betA)
EPE: CI789_08785(betA) CI789_19755(betA)
ERWI: GN242_09360(betA)
PAM: PANA_2168(betA)
PLF: PANA5342_2003(betA)
PAJ: PAJ_1484(betA)
PVA: Pvag_1616(betA)
PAGG: AL522_15285(betA)
PSTW: DSJ_15135
PEY: EE896_08340(betA)
PCD: C2E16_10065(betA)
TPTY: NCTC11468_03211(betA_2)
PAY: PAU_03373
PMR: PMI1459(betA)
PMIB: BB2000_1489(betA)
PVG: CRN77_11785(betA)
PCIB: F9282_10510(betA)
XBO: XBJ1_1751 XBJ1_3308(betA)
XBV: XBW1_3663(betA)
XNE: XNC1_1244(betA)
XNM: XNC2_1219(betA)
XDO: XDD1_1182(betA)
PSX: DR96_170 DR96_2630(betA)
PRG: RB151_015540(betA_1) RB151_021760(betA_2)
PHEI: NCTC12003_02529(betA)
PRJ: NCTC6933_01535(betA_1) NCTC6933_03038(betA_2)
XCC: XCC3404(betA)
XCB: XC_0760
XCA: xcc-b100_0793(betA)
XCP: XCR_3742(betA)
XCV: XCV0774(beta) XCV2149
XAX: XACM_0718(betA)
XAC: XAC0718(betA)
XCI: XCAW_03864(betA)
XFU: XFF4834R_chr07260(betA)
XOR: XOC_0770
XAL: XALC_2199(betA)
XPH: XppCFBP6546_16525(XppCFBP6546P_16525)
XCZ: EBN15_15805(betA)
SML: Smlt2237(betA)
SMT: Smal_1832
SMZ: SMD_2018(betA)
SACZ: AOT14_26640(betA)
STEN: CCR98_09815(betA)
STEM: CLM74_10260(betA)
PSUW: WQ53_04505
PSD: DSC_08940
LAB: LA76x_1461(alkJ)
LAQ: GLA29479_4376(alkJ)
LCP: LC55x_1199(alkJ)
LGU: LG3211_1108(alkJ)
LEZ: GLE_1081(alkJ)
VVU: VV2_1688(betA)
VPA: VPA1112
VAG: N646_4062
VDB: AL552_06045(betA)
VHR: AL538_25890(betA)
VSP: VS_II0058
VAN: VAA_01521
VAU: VANGNB10_cII0724(betA)
VFL: AL536_20520(betA)
VQI: CCZ37_14430(betA)
VTA: B0192(betA)
VAF: D1115_17755(betA)
VNL: D3H41_19460(betA)
VCC: FAZ90_18495(betA)
AWD: AWOD_II_1235(betA)
PPR: PBPRB1745(VPA1112)
SALY: E8E00_05530(betA) E8E00_09000(betA)
SCOT: HBA18_04690(betA) HBA18_08145(betA)
PAE: PA3710 PA5372(betA)
PPSE: BN5_0371(betA) BN5_1088
PCQ: PcP3B5_31740(betA_1) PcP3B5_48650(alkJ_1) PcP3B5_52970(alkJ_2) PcP3B5_61120(betA_2)
PPU: PP_0056(betA-I) PP_5064(betA-II)
PPX: T1E_0195(betA) T1E_0882(alkJ)
PPUN: PP4_00480 PP4_31340(betA) PP4_36560(betA) PP4_51270(betA)
PST: PSPTO_0443(betA)
PSB: Psyr_4732
PSYR: N018_01795
PSP: PSPPH_4766(betA)
PAMG: BKM19_027455(betA)
PAVL: BKM03_02530(betA)
PVD: CFBP1590__4837(betA)
PFL: PFL_2487 PFL_5768(betA)
PPRC: PFLCHA0_c25510(alkJ1) PFLCHA0_c33970(alkJ2) PFLCHA0_c57220(betA)
PPRO: PPC_2529 PPC_3038 PPC_3391(alkJ) PPC_5714(betA)
PFS: PFLU_2160 PFLU_5686(betA)
PEN: PSEEN0012 PSEEN0372(betA)
PSA: PST_1746(betA)
PSR: PSTAA_1762(betA)
PKC: PKB_1137 PKB_2339(beta1) PKB_5708(beta3)
PSES: PSCI_4406(betA) PSCI_5160
PSEC: CCOS191_0012(alkJ1) CCOS191_0423(betA)
PSED: DM292_10910(betA)
PAR: Psyc_0728(betA)
PALI: A3K91_2047
PSYC: DABAL43B_1031(betA)
PSYA: AOT82_1049
PSYP: E5677_03175(betA)
ACB: A1S_0924
ABM: ABSDF2440(betA)
ABY: ABAYE2868(betA)
ABN: AB57_1002
ABB: ABBFA_02661(betA)
ABX: ABK1_0913
ABZ: ABZJ_01028(betA)
ABD: ABTW07_1017(betA)
ABH: M3Q_1225
ABAD: ABD1_08790(betA)
ABAZ: P795_13075
ABAA: IX88_06640
ACC: BDGL_000204(betA) BDGL_001332(alkJ)
ACI: ACIAD1008(betA)
ASJ: AsACE_CH01396(betA)
AID: CTZ23_07275(betA)
ARJ: DOM24_10395(betA)
AGU: AS4_33640(betA)
AUG: URS_1879
ALW: FOB21_01605(betA)
MBOI: DQF64_07895(betA)
SDN: Sden_0715
SFR: Sfri_1946
SBL: Sbal_1325
SSE: Ssed_1119
SPL: Spea_1007
SHL: Shal_1057
SWD: Swoo_1196
SWP: swp_3811
SVO: SVI_1654(betA)
SPSW: Sps_03537
SHEW: CKQ84_01075(betA)
SLJ: EGC82_11800(betA)
SPOL: FH971_10235(betA)
CPS: CPS_1334(betA1) CPS_3434 CPS_4010(betA2)
PHA: PSHAb0418(betA)
PAT: Patl_2587
PSM: PSM_B0320 PSM_B0493(betA)
PSEO: OM33_19485
PTN: PTRA_a1002(betA) PTRA_b0608(betA)
PPIS: B1L02_20860(betA)
PEA: PESP_b0684(betA)
PSPO: PSPO_b0607(betA)
PART: PARC_b0651(betA)
PNG: PNIG_b0571(betA)
PTD: PTET_b0614(betA)
PSEN: PNC201_19705(betA)
PDJ: D0907_12260(betA)
PAGA: PAGA_b0786(betA)
MHC: MARHY2839(alkJ) MARHY2844(alkJ) MARHY3768(betA)
MBS: MRBBS_3062(betA)
MARJ: MARI_17930(alkJ_1) MARI_20390(betA)
PIN: Ping_2072
MVS: MVIS_3005(betA)
MMAA: FR932_03595(betA)
SAGA: M5M_11165
MICC: AUP74_01892(alkJ) AUP74_02644(betA)
MICT: FIU95_05115(alkJ) FIU95_07470(betA1) FIU95_10090(betA2) FIU95_10815(betA3)
ALG: AQULUS_04210(alkJ)
LWA: SAMEA4504053_1635(betA)
NOC: Noc_1796
SPIZ: GJ672_08705(betA)
GAI: IMCC3135_05730(alkJ_1) IMCC3135_09040(alkJ_2) IMCC3135_16855(alkJ_3) IMCC3135_18060(alkJ_4) IMCC3135_20015(alkJ_5) IMCC3135_26720(betA)
HCH: HCH_00851(betA)
HAHE: ENC22_03485(betA)
HEL: HELO_1859(betA) HELO_3241
HCO: LOKO_01946(alkJ) LOKO_03037(betA_2)
HBE: BEI_1083(betA1) BEI_2129(betA2) BEI_2571(betA3) BEI_2673(betA4)
KUY: FY550_10375(betA)
APAC: S7S_11320
TOL: TOL_1420
BMAR: HF888_09060(betA)
NZL: D0T92_01660(betA)
NBL: GJV52_07925(betA)
NZO: SAMEA4504057_0509(betA)
PSE: NH8B_1369(betA) NH8B_2204(betA)
RSO: RSc3345(betA)
RSN: RSPO_c00098(betA)
RSE: F504_3393
RSY: RSUY_01450(alkJ_1)
RPI: Rpic_3540
REH: H16_A3663(betA4) H16_A3737(h16_A3737) H16_B1851(h16_B1851) H16_B2131(betA1)
RME: Rmet_3521(betA2)
CTI: RALTA_A3118 RALTA_B1541(betA2) RALTA_B1832(betA1)
BMA: BMA2933 BMAA0914(betA)
BMAL: DM55_4469(betA) DM55_968
BMAE: DM78_3523(betA) DM78_63
BMAQ: DM76_3419(betA) DM76_943
BMAF: DM51_2545 DM51_4599(betA)
BMAZ: BM44_358 BM44_4500(betA)
BMAB: BM45_2972 BM45_3624(betA)
BPS: BPSL3419 BPSS1355(betA)
BPSE: BDL_1958 BDL_4658(betA)
BPSM: BBQ_3418 BBQ_4796(betA)
BPSU: BBN_3 BBN_4797(betA)
BPSD: BBX_349 BBX_3821(betA)
BPK: BBK_1445 BBK_3961(betA)
BPSH: DR55_1086 DR55_3924(betA)
BPSA: BBU_2116 BBU_4689(betA)
BPSO: X996_3712(betA) X996_691
BUT: X994_2680 X994_5768(betA)
BTD: BTI_140 BTI_3861(betA) BTI_72(alkJ)
BCEO: I35_0016 I35_4039(betA) I35_5016 I35_6236(betA)
BMJ: BMULJ_03183(betA)
BDL: AK34_3004 AK34_3456(betA)
BUB: BW23_1626 BW23_3496(betA)
BGU: KS03_5352(betA) KS03_970
PNU: Pnuc_0353
PLG: NCTC10937_00665(betA_1) NCTC10937_03163(betA_2)
LMIR: NCTC12852_00558(betA) NCTC12852_00880(alkJ)
CABA: SBC2_17210(alkJ_1) SBC2_20110(betA_1) SBC2_35800(alkJ_2) SBC2_49260(betA_3) SBC2_55170(betA_4) SBC2_60620(betA_5)
BPT: Bpet2908
BHZ: ACR54_00132(alkJ_1) ACR54_00263(betA)
BTRM: SAMEA390648701350(alkJ)
AXX: ERS451415_03195(alkJ_1) ERS451415_03634(alkJ_2) ERS451415_03650(alkJ_3) ERS451415_04282(alkJ_4)
BPSI: IX83_01685
AFQ: AFA_00040
RFR: Rfer_3918
POL: Bpro_0229
PNA: Pnap_0180
AAV: Aave_0305
AJS: Ajs_0249
AAA: Acav_0365
ACRA: BSY15_1726
RTA: Rta_02970(betA)
LIM: L103DPR2_00340(alkJ_1)
LIH: L63ED372_03197(alkJ_2)
HYB: Q5W_21660
HPSE: HPF_01380(alkJ1) HPF_13175(alkJ3)
MPT: Mpe_A3803
HAR: HEAR3420
MMS: mma_2811 mma_3641(betA)
JAG: GJA_5275
HSE: Hsero_4797(betA)
HRB: Hrubri_4751(betA)
CFU: CFU_1150(betA) CFU_4412
THI: THI_0965 THI_1621(betA)
RGE: RGE_25350(betA) RGE_46920(betA)
NEU: NE1237
MEH: M301_1306
AZA: AZKH_p0020(betA) AZKH_p0149(betA)
BPRC: D521_0348
DFL: DFE_3319(betA)
DPI: BN4_10271(betA)
PPRF: DPRO_1091(betA)
PSEL: GM415_09870(betA)
DBA: Dbac_2822
DRT: Dret_0130
DAL: Dalk_0705
DALK: DSCA_24820(betA)
SCL: sce3486(chdh) sce5632
CCRO: CMC5_078760(betA)
AMIH: CO731_02481(alkJ_1) CO731_03535(alkJ_2) CO731_04445(betA_2)
RPOD: E0E05_16015(betA)
SME: SMc00093(betA)
SFD: USDA257_c06730(betA) USDA257_c10950(alkJ1)
ATU: Atu0830(betA)
ATF: Ach5_07480(betA)
AVI: Avi_1144(betA)
ARO: B0909_09315(betA)
RIR: BN877_I0812(betA)
RHL: LPU83_1115(betA)
RHN: AMJ98_CH01171(betA)
RHX: AMK02_CH01175(betA)
REZ: AMJ99_CH01250(betA)
RPUS: CFBP5875_02695(betA)
NEO: CYG48_02500(betA)
BMEE: DK62_1911
BMF: BAB1_0577
BMS: BR0553(betA)
BSI: BS1330_I0549(betA)
BSF: BSS2_I0537(betA)
BMT: BSUIS_A0581(betA) BSUIS_A1694(betA)
BSZ: DK67_1477(betA) DK67_693
BSV: BSVBI22_A0549(betA)
BOV: BOV_0554(betA) BOV_1579
BCS: BCAN_A0565(betA)
BOL: BCOUA_I0553(betA)
BCAR: DK60_1645 DK60_630(betA)
BMR: BMI_I1654 BMI_I552(betA)
BPP: BPI_I1693 BPI_I586(betA)
BPV: DK65_1864 DK65_808(betA)
BCEE: V568_101582(betA)
OAN: Oant_2709
OAH: DR92_2191(betA)
BBT: BBta_2190(betA) BBta_6015(betA) BBta_6272
RPA: RPA2619
RPD: RPD_3566
RPE: RPE_2605
OCA: OCAR_6661
VGO: GJW-30_1_00041(betA_1) GJW-30_1_00433(alkJ_1) GJW-30_1_01336(alkJ_2) GJW-30_1_02539(betA_2) GJW-30_1_04245(alkJ_3)
MDI: METDI0781
MET: M446_4716
MOR: MOC_0475
META: Y590_17350
MAQU: Maq22A_1p33285(betA) Maq22A_1p38075(betA)
BBAR: RHAL1_02311(betA)
RVA: Rvan_1684
PHL: KKY_1258
FIL: BN1229_v1_2550(alkJ)
FIY: BN1229_v1_3367(alkJ)
BLAG: BLTE_16880
PLEO: OHA_1_02274(betA) OHA_1_03156(pno) OHA_1_03632(alkJ)
MMED: Mame_00118(pno) Mame_00349(alkJ_1) Mame_00833(betA_2) Mame_01601(alkJ_3) Mame_02381(alkJ_4)
THD: BHV28_01360(betA)
HDI: HDIA_0247(pno) HDIA_2142(alkJ) HDIA_4711(betA_2)
PZU: PHZ_c1110(betA)
RUT: FIU92_00565(alkJ1) FIU92_10800(alkJ2) FIU92_11785(betA) FIU92_20215(alkJ4) FIU92_22765(alkJ5)
RSP: RSP_2184(betA)
RCP: RCAP_rcc00898(betA)
RLI: RLO149_c003730(alkJ2) RLO149_c005740(alkJ1) RLO149_c011700(betA)
PAMN: JCM7685_1241(betA) pAMV3p0583(betA3)
PMUT: DPM13_04405(betA)
PGA: PGA1_262p00210(alkJ) PGA1_c21660(betA)
PGL: PGA2_239p0210(alkJ) PGA2_c20580(betA)
PHP: PhaeoP97_02133(betA) PhaeoP97_03580(alkJ)
PPIC: PhaeoP14_01977(betA) PhaeoP14_02169(alkJ1_1) PhaeoP14_03482(alkJ)
OTM: OSB_22360(betA)
OCT: FTO60_04470(betA)
LAQU: R2C4_00815 R2C4_11340(betA)
LABT: FIU93_01730(betA1) FIU93_08875(alkJ1) FIU93_09220(alkJ2) FIU93_09770(alkJ3) FIU93_28550(alkJ4) FIU93_28875(alkJ5) FIU93_30215(betA2)
SDO: SD1155_02880(betA)
RID: RIdsm_00070(betA_1) RIdsm_00813(betA_2) RIdsm_01020(alkJ_1) RIdsm_01029(alkJ_2) RIdsm_01137(betA_3) RIdsm_01242(alkJ_3) RIdsm_01302(alkJ_4) RIdsm_03419(betA_5) RIdsm_04314(betA_6) RIdsm_04722(alkJ_5)
ROH: FIU89_00295(betA1) FIU89_06945(betA2) FIU89_13980(alkJ1) FIU89_20775(betA3) FIU89_21990(alkJ2)
LVS: LOKVESSMR4R_02136(betA)
HML: HmaOT1_05535(betA)
MARU: FIU81_04960(betA)
ROT: FIV09_06100(betA) FIV09_13670(alkJ)
MALU: KU6B_35580(betA)
TGL: HFZ77_06985(betA)
HNE: HNE_1572 HNE_2666(betA)
SPHK: SKP52_24525(alkJ)
SGI: SGRAN_1059(betA2)
SPHM: G432_02310
SJP: SJA_C1-23740(betA)
SINB: SIDU_03135
ELI: ELI_10705
AAY: WYH_00441(betA_1) WYH_02651(betA_2) WYH_02653(betA_3) WYH_02786(alkJ_2) WYH_02869(betA_4) WYH_02929(alkJ_3) WYH_03337(alkJ_4)
ACR: Acry_0991
GXL: H845_1026
KSC: CD178_03072(betA)
TMO: TMO_a0435
PUB: SAR11_0858(betA)
SBF: JCM31447_18800(betA)
BBEV: BBEV_3205(betA)
HHD: HBHAL_1450(gbsB)
HLI: HLI_08500(betA)
VIL: CFK37_09380(betA)
VNE: CFK40_01990(betA)
VIM: GWK91_15090(betA)
AQT: FN924_02640(betA)
GRC: GI584_04235(betA)
RUE: DT065_15080(betA)
SALE: EPH95_15005(betA)
POF: GS400_02120(betA)
BSE: Bsel_0165
SAU: SA2405(betA)
SAV: SAV2612(betA)
SAW: SAHV_2596(betA)
SAM: MW2531(betA)
SAS: SAS2497
SAR: SAR2690(cudB)
SAC: SACOL2627(betA)
SAX: USA300HOU_2605(betA)
SAA: SAUSA300_2545(betA)
SAE: NWMN_2509
SAD: SAAV_2678(betA)
SUU: M013TW_2589(betA)
SUJ: SAA6159_02508(betA)
SUK: SAA6008_02669(betA)
SUC: ECTR2_2465(betA)
SUQ: HMPREF0772_10579(betA)
SUZ: MS7_2616(betA)
SUX: SAEMRSA15_25160(cudB)
SUW: SATW20_27500(cudB)
SUG: SAPIG2659(betA)
SUF: SARLGA251_23840(cudB)
SAUA: SAAG_00431
SAUE: RSAU_002452(cdh)
SAUS: SA40_2366(cudB)
SAUU: SA957_2450(cudB)
SAUG: SA268_2547(cudB)
SAUZ: SAZ172_2729(cudB)
SAUT: SAI1T1_2019500(betA)
SAUJ: SAI2T2_1019510(betA)
SAUK: SAI3T3_1019500(betA)
SAUQ: SAI4T8_1019510(betA)
SAUF: X998_2593(betA)
SAB: SAB2486c(cudB)
SUY: SA2981_2550(betA)
SAUB: C248_2671(cudB)
SAUC: CA347_2688(betA)
SAUR: SABB_02021(betA)
SAUI: AZ30_13660
SAUD: CH52_05950
SAMS: NI36_13095
SER: SERP2176(betA)
SEP: SE2165
SEPP: SEB_02168
SEPS: DP17_1102(betA)
SHA: SH0429(betA)
SHH: ShL2_00335(betA)
SSP: SSP0196
SCA: SCA_2162(cudB)
SLN: SLUG_03670(cudB)
SDT: SPSE_0241(betA)
SPAS: STP1_1122
SXO: SXYL_00226(betA)
SHU: SHYC_01670(betA)
SCAP: AYP1020_1791(betA)
SSCH: LH95_01510
SSCZ: RN70_01850
SAGQ: EP23_08470(betA)
SSIF: AL483_11515(betA)
SPET: CEP67_07120(betA)
SSCU: CEP64_00365(betA)
SKL: C7J89_03005(betA)
SFQ: C7J90_04250(betA)
SHOM: EGX58_05880(betA)
SMUS: C7J88_06725(betA)
SCAR: DWB96_01625(betA)
SFF: FOB90_06285(betA)
SDP: NCTC12225_00291(betA_1) NCTC12225_00292(betA_2)
SCHR: DWB92_01420(betA)
PLAY: DNR44_000430(betA)
CBEI: LF65_02850
CPAT: CLPA_c30470(betA1)
CPAE: CPAST_c30470(betA1)
MTV: RVBD_1279
MTUR: CFBS_1360
MTD: UDA_1279
MTUC: J113_08945
MTUE: J114_06890
MTUH: I917_09070
MTUL: TBHG_01263
MTUT: HKBT1_1358
MBX: BCGT_1110
MAF: MAF_13000
MMIC: RN08_1432
MYO: OEM_43880
MLP: MLM_3630
MHAD: B586_05590
MSHG: MSG_02778
MPHL: MPHLCCUG_01297(betA) MPHLCCUG_02545(alkJ_1) MPHLCCUG_04196(alkJ_2) MPHLCCUG_05000(alkJ_3)
MTHN: 4412656_00805(alkJ_1) 4412656_00907(betA) 4412656_04578(alkJ_2)
MHAS: MHAS_00226(betA) MHAS_01942(alkJ_1) MHAS_03170(alkJ_2)
MSAL: DSM43276_00202(alkJ) DSM43276_03624(betA)
MTER: 4434518_03331(pno)
MMIN: MMIN_10450
ASD: AS9A_2469
CDI: DIP2202(betA)
CDP: CD241_2091(betA)
CDH: CDB402_2066(betA)
CDT: CDHC01_2092(betA)
CDE: CDHC02_2086(betA)
CDR: CDHC03_2088(betA)
CDA: CDHC04_2118(betA)
CDZ: CD31A_2223(betA)
CDB: CDBH8_2178(betA)
CDS: CDC7B_2184(betA)
CDD: CDCE8392_2106(betA)
CDW: CDPW8_2167(betA)
CDV: CDVA01_2014(betA)
CDIP: ERS451417_02237(betA)
CJK: jk1189(betA)
CUR: cu0804
CUA: CU7111_0791(betA)
CAR: cauri_0089(betA)
CPL: Cp3995_1832(betA)
CPG: CP316_09240(betA)
CPP: CpP54B96_1813(betA)
CPK: CP1002_04115(betA)
CPQ: CPC231_09030(betA)
CPX: CPI19_09040(betA)
CPZ: CpPAT10_1785(betA)
COR: Cp267_1853(betA)
COP: CP31_09455(betA)
COD: Cp106_1742(betA)
COS: Cp4202_1774(betA)
COI: CPCIP5297_09250(betA)
COE: CP258_09250(betA)
COU: CP162_09240(betA)
CPSE: CPTA_00165
CPSU: CPTB_01364
CPSF: CPTC_01034
CRD: CRES_1281(betA)
CUL: CULC22_02014(betA)
CUC: CULC809_01855(betA)
CUE: CULC0102_2005(betA)
CUN: Cul210932_1984(betA)
CUS: CulFRC11_1874(betA)
CUQ: Cul210931_1929(betA)
CUZ: Cul05146_1972(betA)
CUJ: CUL131002_1896(betA)
COA: DR71_947(betA)
CCJ: UL81_00465(betA)
CSP: WM42_1278(betA)
CAMG: CAMM_12440
CPEG: CPELA_00820(betA)
CEE: CENDO_00685(betA)
NFR: ERS450000_01310(alkJ_1) ERS450000_01482(alkJ_2) ERS450000_04826(betA)
RER: RER_18080
REY: O5Y_08670
REQ: REQ_36180
RRZ: CS378_07960(mftG)
RQI: C1M55_09145(mftG)
RRT: 4535765_01287(betA) 4535765_03557(alkJ)
RBY: CEJ39_19630(mftG)
RCR: NCTC10994_03697(betA)
GBR: Gbro_3772
GOR: KTR9_3731
GRU: GCWB2_19150(pno)
GOD: GKZ92_18080(mftG)
TPR: Tpau_3808
TOY: FO059_05690(mftG)
SCO: SCO4829(SC2A6.14)
SCB: SCAB_7031(cudB)
SHY: SHJG_0413
SDV: BN159_7398(betA)
STRE: GZL_08067
SRW: TUE45_pSRc_0441(alkJ)
SMAL: SMALA_1390
SLAU: SLA_6538
SLX: SLAV_30250(betA) SLAV_31900(alkJ)
SFK: KY5_7983c
SGE: DWG14_02660 DWG14_07328(betA_2)
SRJ: SRO_6632
STRI: C7M71_024570(mftG)
MSED: E3O41_00670(mftG)
MOY: CVS54_01149(alkJ)
ART: Arth_3726
ARTP: E5206_00085(betA)
AAU: AAur_3606(betA)
PSEY: GU243_15185(betA)
KRH: KRH_22310
DAY: FV141_05940(betA)
JME: EEW87_015780(betA)
ORN: DV701_10105(betA)
BLIN: BLSMQ_0722
DCO: SAMEA4475696_0484(betA_1) SAMEA4475696_1217(betA_2)
PACD: EGX94_11840(betA)
PBO: PACID_07730(betA)
NCA: Noca_4005
NDK: I601_0546(alkJ_1) I601_1859(alkJ_2)
NOY: EXE57_17395(betA)
NBE: Back2_00770(betA_1) Back2_23100(betA_2) Back2_27680(betA_3)
NAK: EH165_03065(betA)
BSD: BLASA_4628(betA2)
MMAR: MODMU_5116(betA)
KRA: Krad_2727
AMD: AMED_6837(betA) AMED_6841(betA) AMED_7560(betA) AMED_9052(betA)
AMM: AMES_6734(betA) AMES_6738(betA) AMES_7448(betA) AMES_8915(betA)
AMZ: B737_6734(betA) B737_6738(betA) B737_7448(betA) B737_8916(betA)
AOI: AORI_3360(betA) AORI_3568(betA) AORI_7795(betA)
AMQ: AMETH_4499(betA)
AMYY: YIM_21905(alkJ2) YIM_30680(alkJ3) YIM_46535(alkJ4)
PAUT: Pdca_02420 Pdca_26940(betA_1) Pdca_38430(betA_2)
SESP: BN6_59370
ACTI: UA75_05360
ACAD: UA74_05360
AHG: AHOG_05035(betA)
MIL: ML5_3899
ASE: ACPL_2173
AFS: AFR_13105
ACTS: ACWT_2051
SNA: Snas_2397
FLH: EJ997_08700(betA)
TBI: Tbis_0646
CWO: Cwoe_2232
AFO: Afer_1091
AYM: YM304_24330(betA)
ERZ: ER308_18215(betA)
AVA: Ava_C0102
CALH: IJ00_18670
DFC: DFI_07245
MRB: Mrub_0317
PNL: PNK_1329(betA)
RBA: RB5039(betA)
PIR: VN12_23905(alkJ)
RUL: UC8_08320(alkJ)
PLS: VT03_10710(betA)
GES: VT84_30035(betA)
AGV: OJF2_45190(alkJ)
SDJ: NCTC13534_01073(alkJ)
SLI: Slin_5650
FAE: FAES_5077
PSEZ: HME7025_02149(betA)
DDO: I597_1335(alkJ)
MPL: Mpal_1279
HTU: Htur_4961
 » show all
Reference
1
  Authors
Ameyama, M., Shinagawa, E., Matsuchita, K., Takimoto, K., Nakashima, K. and Adachi, O.
  Title
Mammalian choline dehydrogenase is a quinoprotein.
  Journal
Agric Biol Chem 49:3623-3626 (1985)
Reference
2  [PMID:13249959]
  Authors
EBISUZAKI K, WILLIAMS JN Jr.
  Title
Preparation and partial purification of soluble choline dehydrogenase from liver mitochondria.
  Journal
Biochem J 60:644-6 (1955)
DOI:10.1042/bj0600644
Reference
3  [PMID:12676692]
  Authors
Gadda G, McAllister-Wilkins EE.
  Title
Cloning, expression, and purification of choline dehydrogenase from the moderate halophile Halomonas elongata.
  Journal
Appl Environ Microbiol 69:2126-32 (2003)
DOI:10.1128/AEM.69.4.2126-2132.2003
Reference
4  [PMID:12466265]
  Authors
Waditee R, Tanaka Y, Aoki K, Hibino T, Jikuya H, Takano J, Takabe T, Takabe T.
  Title
Isolation and functional characterization of N-methyltransferases that catalyze betaine synthesis from glycine in a halotolerant photosynthetic organism Aphanothece halophytica.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 278:4932-42 (2003)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M210970200
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 1.1.99.1
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 1.1.99.1
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 1.1.99.1
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 1.1.99.1
CAS: 9028-67-5

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