KEGG   ENZYME: 1.14.15.7Help
Entry
EC 1.14.15.7                Enzyme                                 

Name
choline monooxygenase
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen;
With reduced iron-sulfur protein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen into the other donor
BRITE hierarchy
Sysname
choline,reduced-ferredoxin:oxygen oxidoreductase
Reaction(IUBMB)
choline + O2 + 2 reduced ferredoxin + 2 H+ = betaine aldehyde hydrate + H2O + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [RN:R05739]
Reaction(KEGG)
R05739;
(other) R07409
Show
Substrate
choline [CPD:C00114];
O2 [CPD:C00007];
reduced ferredoxin [CPD:C00138];
H+ [CPD:C00080]
Product
betaine aldehyde hydrate [CPD:C07345];
H2O [CPD:C00001];
oxidized ferredoxin [CPD:C00139]
Comment
The spinach enzyme, which is located in the chloroplast, contains a Rieske-type [2Fe-2S] cluster, and probably also a mononuclear Fe centre. Requires Mg2+. Catalyses the first step of glycine betaine synthesis. In many bacteria, plants and animals, betaine is synthesized in two steps: (1) choline to betaine aldehyde and (2) betaine aldehyde to betaine. Different enzymes are involved in the first reaction. In plants, the reaction is catalysed by this enzyme whereas in animals and many bacteria it is catalysed by either membrane-bound EC 1.1.99.1 (choline dehydrogenase) or soluble EC 1.1.3.17 (choline oxidase) [7]. The enzyme involved in the second step, EC 1.2.1.8 (betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase), appears to be the same in plants, animals and bacteria. In some bacteria, betaine is synthesized from glycine through the actions of EC 2.1.1.156 (glycine/sarcosine N-methyltransferase) and EC 2.1.1.157 (sarcosine/dimethylglycine N-methyltransferase).
History
EC 1.14.15.7 created 2001, modified 2002 (EC 1.14.14.4 created 2000, incorporated 2002), modified 2005, modified 2011
Pathway
ec00260  Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
Orthology
K00499  choline monooxygenase
Genes
BFO: BRAFLDRAFT_118191 BRAFLDRAFT_119334 BRAFLDRAFT_84051
SKO: 100369278 100373430 102802673
ATH: AT4G29890
ALY: ARALYDRAFT_657066
CRB: 17879326
CSAT: 104717208 104720068 104721871 104730332
EUS: EUTSA_v10025251mg
BRP: 103861915
BNA: 106409283 106441014
BOE: 106304560
THJ: 104814643
CPAP: 110809807
CIT: 102612047
TCC: 18602728
GRA: 105779921
DZI: 111301775
EGR: 104435907(CMO)
GMX: 100785909
VRA: 106768131
VAR: 108322706
CCAJ: 109811005
CAM: 101512880
LJA: Lj4g3v2139640.1(Lj4g3v2139640.1) Lj4g3v2139640.2(Lj4g3v2139640.2) Lj4g3v2139640.3(Lj4g3v2139640.3) Lj4g3v2139640.4(Lj4g3v2139640.4)
ADU: 107496483
AIP: 107642900
LANG: 109362231
FVE: 101306145
PPER: 18793375
PMUM: 103323632
PAVI: 110758439
PXB: 103935767
ZJU: 107424321
CSV: 101222314
CMO: 103487183
MCHA: 111007490
CMAX: 111484916
CMOS: 111464984
CPEP: 111779715
RCU: 8258071
JCU: 105635914
HBR: 110641114
POP: 7485492
JRE: 108980718
VVI: 100256530
SOT: 102597733
CANN: 107855640
NSY: 104210133
NTO: 104096725
INI: 109177446
SIND: 105173913
OEU: 111411686
LSV: 111902339
DCR: 108224719
NNU: 104611397
OSA: 9272377
DOSA: Os06t0698785-01(Os06g0698785)
OBR: 102701835
BDI: 100839185
ATS: 109778620(LOC109778620)
SBI: 8063819
ZMA: 778432
SITA: 101767591
PDA: 103715608
EGU: 105049342
MUS: 103992295
DCT: 110093278
AOF: 109842258
ATR: 18435669
PPP: 112290899
MNG: MNEG_3011
MIS: MICPUN_68852(TIC55-6)
MPP: MICPUCDRAFT_3322(TIC55-1)
VAG: N646_3147
PPU: PP_5373
PPX: T1E_3938
PMAN: OU5_0012
PALI: A3K91_2009
ABY: ABAYE1065
ABN: AB57_2841
ABX: ABK1_2730
ABH: M3Q_2877
PART: PARC_a1584
AMAC: MASE_12030
LPN: lpg2218
LPH: LPV_2472
LPO: LPO_2288
LPF: lpl2143
LPP: lpp2170
LPC: LPC_1683
LPA: lpa_03183
LPE: lp12_2210
LHA: LHA_1122
LLG: 44548918_00361(antA)
HBE: BEI_1543
OCE: GU3_07985
RSN: RSPO_c01206(nagG)
RSE: F504_2183
REH: H16_A2735(h16_A2735)
CGD: CR3_1966
BMA: BMAA0327
BMAL: DM55_3411
BMAE: DM78_4349
BMAQ: DM76_4108
BMAI: DM57_13835
BMAF: DM51_4059
BMAZ: BM44_3370
BMAB: BM45_4207
BPS: BPSS1765
BPSE: BDL_5164
BPSM: BBQ_4371
BPSU: BBN_5224
BPSD: BBX_4330
BPK: BBK_4491
BPSH: DR55_3499
BPSA: BBU_4250
BPSO: X996_5775
BUT: X994_5336
BTQ: BTQ_3904
BTJ: BTJ_4937
BTZ: BTL_3370
BTD: BTI_5220
BTV: BTHA_4480
BTHE: BTN_5392
BTHM: BTRA_5667
BTHA: DR62_5529
BTHL: BG87_3359
BOK: DM82_6040
BOC: BG90_4625
BVE: AK36_4446
BCN: Bcen_4489
BCJ: BCAM0908
BCEN: DM39_4272
BCEW: DM40_3885
BCEO: I35_4826
BAM: Bamb_3247
BMU: Bmul_4823
BMK: DM80_4039
BMUL: NP80_3844
BCT: GEM_4874
BCED: DM42_4179
BDL: AK34_4543
BCON: NL30_07815
BUB: BW23_4643
BLAT: WK25_22015
BSEM: WJ12_24745
BPSL: WS57_09520
BMEC: WJ16_23500
BSTG: WT74_23720
BGP: BGL_2c21480(cmo)
BGU: KS03_4343
BGO: BM43_5806
BUK: MYA_4003
BUL: BW21_4842
BXE: Bxe_B2830
BXB: DR64_5159
BPH: Bphy_3951
BFN: OI25_5241
PPNO: DA70_00695
PPNM: LV28_05615
PPUL: RO07_24550
PSPU: NA29_12155
PAPI: SG18_23865
AJS: Ajs_1035
VEI: Veis_3280
HAR: HEAR0275
JAG: GJA_4558
CFU: CFU_0731
CARE: LT85_0808
BPRC: D521_1696
HOH: Hoch_1680
PLA: Plav_0159
RBM: TEF_00600
PSF: PSE_4174
PGD: Gal_03873
OTM: OSB_19220(antA)
SPSE: SULPSESMR1_01241(bphA)
RMM: ROSMUCSMR3_03888(absAa)
AHT: ANTHELSMS3_03503(bphA)
ANH: A6F65_00120(andAc)
RRT: 4535765_01569(bnzA_1)
PSEA: WY02_09430
PSEE: FRP1_11935
RXY: Rxyl_1560
RCA: Rcas_3791
MRB: Mrub_0721
GES: VT84_20875(nagG)
SUS: Acid_2549
GBA: J421_5229
MUC: MuYL_3105
MGOT: MgSA37_02354(cbdA)
 » show all
Taxonomy
Reference
1  [PMID:16666757]
  Authors
Brouquisse R, Weigel P, Rhodes D, Yocum CF, Hanson AD.
  Title
Evidence for a Ferredoxin-Dependent Choline Monooxygenase from Spinach Chloroplast Stroma.
  Journal
Plant Physiol 90:322-329 (1989)
Reference
2  [PMID:12228495]
  Authors
Burnet M, Lafontaine PJ, Hanson AD.
  Title
Assay, Purification, and Partial Characterization of Choline Monooxygenase from Spinach.
  Journal
Plant Physiol 108:581-588 (1995)
Reference
3  [PMID:9096415]
  Authors
Rathinasabapathi B, Burnet M, Russell BL, Gage DA, Liao PC, Nye GJ, Scott P, Golbeck JH, Hanson AD.
  Title
Choline monooxygenase, an unusual iron-sulfur enzyme catalyzing the first step of glycine betaine synthesis in plants: prosthetic group characterization and cDNA cloning.
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:3454-8 (1997)
DOI:10.1073/pnas.94.7.3454
  Sequence
Reference
4  [PMID:9489025]
  Authors
Russell BL, Rathinasabapathi B, Hanson AD.
  Title
Osmotic stress induces expression of choline monooxygenase in sugar beet and amaranth.
  Journal
Plant Physiol 116:859-65 (1998)
  Sequence
[bvg:104897072]
Reference
5
  Authors
Nuccio, M.L., Russell, B.L., Nolte, K.D., Rathinasabapathi, B., Gage, D.A. and Hanson, A.D.
  Title
Glycine betaine synthesis in transgenic tobacco expressing choline monooxygenase is limited by the endogenous choline supply.
  Journal
Plant J 16:101-110 (1998)
Reference
6  [PMID:9881168]
  Authors
Nuccio ML, Russell BL, Nolte KD, Rathinasabapathi B, Gage DA, Hanson AD.
  Title
The endogenous choline supply limits glycine betaine synthesis in transgenic tobacco expressing choline monooxygenase.
  Journal
Plant J 16:487-96 (1998)
DOI:10.1046/j.1365-313x.1998.00316.x
Reference
7  [PMID:12466265]
  Authors
Waditee R, Tanaka Y, Aoki K, Hibino T, Jikuya H, Takano J, Takabe T, Takabe T.
  Title
Isolation and functional characterization of N-methyltransferases that catalyze betaine synthesis from glycine in a halotolerant photosynthetic organism Aphanothece halophytica.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 278:4932-42 (2003)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M210970200
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 1.14.15.7
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 1.14.15.7
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 1.14.15.7
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 1.14.15.7
CAS: 118390-76-4

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