KEGG   PATHWAY: ko02024
Entry
ko02024                     Pathway                                

Name
Quorum sensing
Description
Quorum sensing (QS) is a regulatory system that allows bacteria to share information about cell density and adjust gene expression accordingly. All QS bacteria produce and release chemical signal molecules called autoinducers (AIs) that increase in concentration as a function of cell density. The most commonly studied AIs belong to one of the following three categories: acylated homoserine lactones, also referred to as AI-1, used by Gram-negative bacteria; peptide signals, used by Gram-positive bacteria; and AI-2, used by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. QS can be divided into at least 4 steps: production of AIs by the bacterial cell; release of AIs, either actively or passively, into the surrounding environment; recognition of AIs by specific receptors; and leading to changes in gene regulation once they exceed a threshold concentration. The processes controlled by QS include virulence, competence, conjugation, antibiotic production, motility, sporulation, and biofilm formation.
Class
Cellular Processes; Cellular community - prokaryotes
Pathway map
ko02024  Quorum sensing
ko02024

Other DBs
GO: 0009372
Orthology
K07173  S-ribosylhomocysteine lyase [EC:4.4.1.21]
K10910  autoinducer 2-binding periplasmic protein LuxP
K10909  two-component system, autoinducer 2 sensor kinase/phosphatase LuxQ [EC:2.7.13.3 3.1.3.-]
K13062  acyl homoserine lactone synthase [EC:2.3.1.184]
K15850  two-component system, autoinducer 1 sensor kinase/phosphatase LuxN [EC:2.7.13.3 3.1.3.-]
K10915  CAI-1 autoinducer synthase [EC:2.3.-.-]
K10916  two-component system, CAI-1 autoinducer sensor kinase/phosphatase CqsS [EC:2.7.13.3 3.1.3.-]
K10911  two-component system, phosphorelay protein LuxU
K10912  two-component system, repressor protein LuxO
K15851  quorum regulatory RNA Qrr
K03666  host factor-I protein
K10913  TetR/AcrR family transcriptional regulator, hemagglutinin/protease regulatory protein
K10917  PadR family transcriptional regulator, regulatory protein AphA
K22954  acyl homoserine lactone synthase [EC:2.3.1.184]
K15852  LuxR family transcriptional regulator, transcriptional activator of the bioluminescence operon
K00494  alkanal monooxygenase alpha chain [EC:1.14.14.3]
K15854  alkanal monooxygenase beta chain [EC:1.14.14.3]
K03400  long-chain-fatty-acyl-CoA reductase [EC:1.2.1.50]
K15853  acyl transferase [EC:2.3.1.-]
K06046  long-chain-fatty-acid---luciferin-component ligase [EC:6.2.1.19]
K20256  flavin reductase [EC:1.-.-.-]
K13060  acyl homoserine lactone synthase [EC:2.3.1.184]
K18304  LuxR family transcriptional regulator, quorum-sensing system regulator LasR
K01657  anthranilate synthase component I [EC:4.1.3.27]
K01658  anthranilate synthase component II [EC:4.1.3.27]
K18000  anthranilate-CoA ligase [EC:6.2.1.32]
K18001  2-heptyl-4(1H)-quinolone synthase subunit PqsB [EC:2.3.1.230]
K18002  2-heptyl-4(1H)-quinolone synthase subunit PqsC [EC:2.3.1.230]
K18003  anthraniloyl-CoA anthraniloyltransferase [EC:2.3.1.262]
K20257  2-aminobenzoylacetyl-CoA thioesterase [EC:3.1.2.32]
K17940  2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone synthase [EC:1.14.13.182]
K19735  LysR family transcriptional regulator, quorum-sensing system regulator MvfR
K13061  acyl homoserine lactone synthase [EC:2.3.1.184]
K18099  LuxR family transcriptional regulator, quorum-sensing system regulator RhlR
K18100  rhamnosyltransferase subunit A [EC:2.4.1.-]
K18101  rhamnosyltransferase subunit B [EC:2.4.1.-]
K12990  rhamnosyltransferase [EC:2.4.1.-]
K08642  LasA protease [EC:3.4.24.-]
K01399  pseudolysin [EC:3.4.24.26]
K20258  PA-I galactophilic lectin
K20259  PA-IIL fucose-binding lectin
K20260  phenazine biosynthesis protein
K01626  3-deoxy-7-phosphoheptulonate synthase [EC:2.5.1.54]
K20261  trans-2,3-dihydro-3-hydroxyanthranilic acid synthase [EC:3.3.2.15]
K13063  2-amino-4-deoxychorismate synthase [EC:2.6.1.86]
K06998  trans-2,3-dihydro-3-hydroxyanthranilate isomerase [EC:5.3.3.17]
K20262  dihydrophenazinedicarboxylate synthase [EC:1.10.3.16]
K07645  two-component system, OmpR family, sensor histidine kinase QseC [EC:2.7.13.3]
K07666  two-component system, OmpR family, response regulator QseB
K07711  two-component system, NtrC family, sensor histidine kinase GlrK [EC:2.7.13.3]
K07715  two-component system, NtrC family, response regulator GlrR
K02403  flagellar transcriptional activator FlhD
K02402  flagellar transcriptional activator FlhC
K11006  shiga toxin subunit A
K11007  shiga toxin subunit B
K12789  Tir-cytoskeleton coupling protein
K07667  two-component system, OmpR family, KDP operon response regulator KdpE
K20263  two-component system, NarL family, sensor histidine kinase FusK [EC:2.7.13.3]
K20264  two-component system, NarL family, response regulator FusR
K20552  transcriptional regulator of LEE operons
K07782  LuxR family transcriptional regulator, quorum-sensing system regulator SdiA
K01580  glutamate decarboxylase [EC:4.1.1.15]
K20265  glutamate:GABA antiporter
K10555  AI-2 transport system substrate-binding protein
K10556  AI-2 transport system permease protein
K10557  AI-2 transport system permease protein
K10558  AI-2 transport system ATP-binding protein
K11216  autoinducer-2 kinase [EC:2.7.1.189]
K11531  lsr operon transcriptional repressor
K08321  3-hydroxy-5-phosphonooxypentane-2,4-dione thiolase [EC:2.3.1.245]
K11530  (4S)-4-hydroxy-5-phosphonooxypentane-2,3-dione isomerase [EC:5.3.1.32]
K18096  acyl-homoserine lactone synthase [EC:2.3.1.228 2.3.1.229 2.3.1.-]
K18098  LuxR family transcriptional regulator, quorum-sensing system regulator BjaR1
K20248  acyl homoserine lactone synthase [EC:2.3.1.184]
K20252  LuxR family transcriptional regulator, quorum-sensing system regulator CinR
K20253  LuxR family transcriptional regulator, quorum-sensing system regulator BisR
K22955  acyl homoserine lactone synthase [EC:2.3.1.184]
K19732  LuxR family transcriptional regulator, activator of conjugal transfer of Ti plasmids
K20527  type IV secretion system protein TrbB [EC:7.4.2.8]
K20528  type IV secretion system protein TrbC
K20529  type IV secretion system protein TrbD
K20530  type IV secretion system protein TrbE [EC:7.4.2.8]
K20266  type IV secretion system protein TrbJ
K20555  type IV secretion system protein TrbK
K07344  type IV secretion system protein TrbL
K20531  type IV secretion system protein TrbF
K20532  type IV secretion system protein TrbG
K20267  type IV secretion system protein TrbH
K20533  type IV secretion system protein TrbI
K20249  acyl homoserine lactone synthase [EC:2.3.1.184]
K19733  LuxR family transcriptional regulator, quorum-sensing system regulator SinR
K20268  rhizosphere induced protein
K20269  rhizosphere induced protein
K20270  rhizosphere induced protein
K20271  DeoR family transcriptional regulator, repressor of opine catabolism and conjugal transfer
K20272  TraR antiactivator
K02055  putative spermidine/putrescine transport system substrate-binding protein
K02053  putative spermidine/putrescine transport system permease protein
K02054  putative spermidine/putrescine transport system permease protein
K02052  putative spermidine/putrescine transport system ATP-binding protein
K01999  branched-chain amino acid transport system substrate-binding protein
K01997  branched-chain amino acid transport system permease protein
K01998  branched-chain amino acid transport system permease protein
K01995  branched-chain amino acid transport system ATP-binding protein
K01996  branched-chain amino acid transport system ATP-binding protein
K20539  IclR family transcriptional regulator, blcABC operon repressor
K13075  N-acyl homoserine lactone hydrolase [EC:3.1.1.81]
K22956  acyl homoserine lactone synthase [EC:2.3.1.184]
K19734  LuxR family transcriptional regulator, quorum-sensing system regulator ExpR
K18316  carbapenam-3-carboxylate synthase [EC:6.3.3.6]
K18317  carboxymethylproline synthase [EC:2.3.1.226]
K18315  (5R)-carbapenem-3-carboxylate synthase [EC:1.14.20.3]
K18318  carbapenem biosynthesis protein, putative proline dehydrogenase [EC:1.5.-.-]
K18319  carbapenem biosynthesis protein CpmE
K01728  pectate lyase [EC:4.2.2.2]
K07781  LuxR family transcriptional regulator, capsular biosynthesis positive transcription factor
K19666  LuxR family transcriptional regulator, quorum-sensing system regulator SolR
K20250  acyl homoserine lactone synthase [EC:2.3.1.184]
K19731  LuxR family transcriptional regulator, quorum-sensing system regulator CciR
K20540  LuxR family transcriptional regulator, quorum-sensing system regulator CepR2
K13816  DSF synthase
K14051  c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase Gmr [EC:3.1.4.52]
K20273  zinc metalloprotease ZmpA
K20274  zinc metalloprotease ZmpB
K20275  nematocidal protein AidA
K20276  large repetitive protein
K20277  mannose-binding lectin
K01897  long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase [EC:6.2.1.3]
K10715  two-component system, sensor histidine kinase RpfC [EC:2.7.13.3]
K13815  two-component system, response regulator RpfG
K10914  CRP/FNR family transcriptional regulator, cyclic AMP receptor protein
K09823  Fur family transcriptional regulator, zinc uptake regulator
K20325  TetR/AcrR family transcriptional regulator, Clp-modulated transcription factor
K20326  protein XagA
K20327  glycosyltransferase XagB
K20328  membrane protein XagC
K01218  mannan endo-1,4-beta-mannosidase [EC:3.2.1.78]
K20329  IclR family transcriptional regulator, positive regulator for flagellar biogenesis
K20330  LuxR family transcriptional regulator, activator of tox operons
K20331  toxoflavin synthase [EC:2.1.1.349]
K01497  GTP cyclohydrolase II [EC:3.5.4.25]
K20332  toxoflavin biosynthesis protein ToxC
K20333  toxoflavin biosynthesis protein ToxD
K11752  diaminohydroxyphosphoribosylaminopyrimidine deaminase / 5-amino-6-(5-phosphoribosylamino)uracil reductase [EC:3.5.4.26 1.1.1.193]
K09936  bacterial/archaeal transporter family-2 protein
K18306  membrane fusion protein, multidrug efflux system
K18307  multidrug efflux pump
K18139  outer membrane protein, multidrug efflux system
K22957  acyl homoserine lactone synthase [EC:2.3.1.184]
K20334  LuxR family transcriptional regulator, quorum-sensing system regulator CviR
K20086  tryptophan oxidase VioA [EC:1.4.3.-]
K20087  violacein biosynthesis protein VioB
K20090  violacein synthase [EC:1.14.13.224]
K20089  protodeoxyviolaceinate monooxygenase [EC:1.14.13.217]
K20088  violacein biosynthesis protein VioE
K22968  acyl homoserine lactone synthase [EC:2.3.1.184]
K07800  AgrD protein
K07813  accessory gene regulator B
K07706  two-component system, LytTR family, sensor histidine kinase AgrC [EC:2.7.13.3]
K07707  two-component system, LytTR family, response regulator AgrA
K11039  delta-hemolysin
K20335  phenol-soluble modulin alpha 1/2
K20336  phenol-soluble modulin alpha 3
K20337  phenol-soluble modulin beta
K20554  small regulatory RNA RNAIII
K20338  MarR family transcriptional regulator, global regulator for virulence
K20339  two-component system, LytTR family, sensor histidine kinase AgrC2 [EC:2.7.13.3]
K20340  two-component system, LytTR family, response regulator AgrA2
K11063  toxin A/B
K16619  phospholipase C / alpha-toxin [EC:3.1.4.3]
K11031  thiol-activated cytolysin
K12415  competence-stimulating peptide
K23133  competence-stimulating peptide
K12292  ATP-binding cassette, subfamily C, bacterial, competence factor transporting protein [EC:3.4.22.-]
K12293  competence factor transport accessory protein ComB
K12294  two-component system, LytTR family, sensor histidine kinase ComD [EC:2.7.13.3]
K12295  two-component system, LytTR family, response regulator ComE
K20321  mutacin IV
K20322  mutacin IV
K20323  mutacin V
K20324  mutacin VI
K20341  immunity protein
K14982  two-component system, OmpR family, sensor histidine kinase CiaH [EC:2.7.13.3]
K14983  two-component system, OmpR family, response regulator CiaR
K15580  oligopeptide transport system substrate-binding protein
K15581  oligopeptide transport system permease protein
K15582  oligopeptide transport system permease protein
K15583  oligopeptide transport system ATP-binding protein
K10823  oligopeptide transport system ATP-binding protein
K20342  HTH-type transcriptional regulator, regulator for ComX
K12296  competence protein ComX
K20343  peptide pheromone BlpC
K20344  ATP-binding cassette, subfamily C, bacteriocin exporter
K20345  membrane fusion protein, peptide pheromone/bacteriocin exporter
K20373  HTH-type transcriptional regulator, SHP2-responsive activator
K20374  HTH-type transcriptional regulator, SHP3-responsive repressor
K02035  peptide/nickel transport system substrate-binding protein
K02033  peptide/nickel transport system permease protein
K02034  peptide/nickel transport system permease protein
K02031  peptide/nickel transport system ATP-binding protein
K02032  peptide/nickel transport system ATP-binding protein
K20375  HTH-type transcriptional regulator, pheromone-responsive regulator
K01364  streptopain [EC:3.4.22.10]
K01635  tagatose 1,6-diphosphate aldolase [EC:4.1.2.40]
K20376  peptide inhibitor iCF10
K03217  YidC/Oxa1 family membrane protein insertase
K20377  HTH-type transcriptional regulator, major conjugation operon repressor
K20378  sex pheromone inhibitor iAD1
K20379  sex pheromone cAD1
K20380  HTH-type transcriptional regulator, pheromone-responsive repressor
K20381  regulatory protein
K20382  aggregation substance
K08605  coccolysin [EC:3.4.24.30]
K01318  glutamyl endopeptidase [EC:3.4.21.19]
K20383  CylL-L protein
K20384  CylL-S protein
K20385  CylM protein
K20386  ATP-binding cassette, subfamily B, bacterial CylB
K14645  serine protease [EC:3.4.21.-]
K20387  regulatory protein CylR1
K20388  HTH-type transcriptional regulator, cytolysin regulator
K02253  competence protein ComX
K02251  competence protein ComQ
K07680  two-component system, NarL family, sensor histidine kinase ComP [EC:2.7.13.3]
K07691  two-component system, NarL family, competent response regulator ComA
K02252  competence protein ComS
K02250  competence protein ComK
K15654  surfactin family lipopeptide synthetase A
K15655  surfactin family lipopeptide synthetase B
K15656  surfactin family lipopeptide synthetase C
K15657  external thioesterase TEII
K06353  phosphatase RapC regulator
K06355  phosphatase RapF regulator
K06358  phosphatase RapK regulator
K06356  phosphatase RapG regulator
K20389  phosphatase RapH regulator
K06352  phosphatase RapA inhibitor
K06354  phosphatase RapE regulator
K12257  SecD/SecF fusion protein
K03073  preprotein translocase subunit SecE
K03075  preprotein translocase subunit SecG
K03076  preprotein translocase subunit SecY
K03210  preprotein translocase subunit YajC
K03070  preprotein translocase subunit SecA [EC:7.4.2.8]
K03110  fused signal recognition particle receptor
K03071  preprotein translocase subunit SecB
K03106  signal recognition particle subunit SRP54 [EC:3.6.5.4]
K06361  response regulator aspartate phosphatase C [EC:3.1.-.-]
K06364  response regulator aspartate phosphatase F [EC:3.1.-.-]
K06369  response regulator aspartate phosphatase K [EC:3.1.-.-]
K06365  response regulator aspartate phosphatase G [EC:3.1.-.-]
K06366  response regulator aspartate phosphatase H [EC:3.1.-.-]
K06359  response regulator aspartate phosphatase A (stage 0 sporulation protein L) [EC:3.1.-.-]
K06363  response regulator aspartate phosphatase E [EC:3.1.-.-]
K06360  response regulator aspartate phosphatase B [EC:3.1.-.-]
K07692  two-component system, NarL family, response regulator DegU
K02490  two-component system, response regulator, stage 0 sporulation protein F
K06375  stage 0 sporulation protein B (sporulation initiation phosphotransferase) [EC:2.7.-.-]
K07699  two-component system, response regulator, stage 0 sporulation protein A
K20390  regulatory peptide PapR
K08777  neutral peptidase B [EC:3.4.24.-]
K20391  HTH-type transcriptional regulator, pleiotropic regulator of extracellular virulence genes
K01114  phospholipase C [EC:3.1.4.3]
K11035  hemolysin BL binding component
K11036  hemolysin BL lytic component L2
K11037  hemolysin BL lytic component L1
K11033  non-hemolytic enterotoxin A
K11034  non-hemolytic enterotoxin B/C
K20480  HTH-type transcriptional regulator, quorum sensing regulator NprR
K20481  regulatory peptide NprX
K20482  lantibiotic bacteriocin
K20483  lantibiotic biosynthesis protein
K20484  lantibiotic biosynthesis protein
K20485  ATP-binding cassette, subfamily B, bacterial NisT
K20486  lantibiotic leader peptide-processing serine protease [EC:3.4.21.-]
K20487  two-component system, OmpR family, lantibiotic biosynthesis sensor histidine kinase NisK/SpaK [EC:2.7.13.3]
K20488  two-component system, OmpR family, lantibiotic biosynthesis response regulator NisR/SpaR
K20489  lantibiotic immunity protein
K20490  lantibiotic transport system ATP-binding protein
K20491  lantibiotic transport system permease protein
K20492  lantibiotic transport system permease protein
K20494  lantibiotic transport system permease protein
Compound
C00007  Oxygen
C00009  Orthophosphate
C00059  Sulfate
C00232  Succinate semialdehyde
C00334  4-Aminobutanoate
C00547  L-Noradrenaline
C00788  L-Adrenaline
C01019  6-Deoxy-L-galactose
C11837  N-Butyryl-L-homoserine lactone
C11841  N-(3-Oxooctanoyl)homoserine lactone
C11844  N-Heptanoylhomoserine lactone
C11845  N-(3-Hydroxy-7-cis-tetradecenoyl)homoserine lactone
C11848  2-Heptyl-3-hydroxy-quinolone
C16421  AI-2
C16463  3',5'-Cyclic diGMP
C16640  CAI-1
C18049  N-Acyl-L-homoserine lactone
C18206  cis-11-Methyl-2-dodecenoic acid
C20643  2-Heptyl-4(1H)-quinolone
C20677  N-(4-Coumaroyl)-L-homoserine lactone
C20959  (4S)-4-Hydroxy-5-phosphooxypentane-2,3-dione
C21195  N-(3-Hydroxybutanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone
C21197  N-Hexanoyl-L-homoserine lactone
C21198  N-(3-Oxohexanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone
C21199  N-Octanoyl-L-homoserine lactone
C21200  N-3-Hydroxyoctanoyl-L-homoserine lactone
C21201  N-3-Oxo-dodecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone
C21202  cis-2-Dodecenoic acid
C21220  AIP-1
C21221  CSP
C21222  CSP
C21223  Blp
C21224  SHP2
C21225  SHP3
C21226  cCF10
C21227  iCF10
C21228  cAD1
C21229  iAD1
C21230  ComX pheromone
C21231  PhrA pentapeptide
C21232  PhrC pentapeptide
C21233  PhrE pentapeptide
C21234  PhrF pentapeptide
C21235  PhrG pentapeptide
C21236  PhrH pentapeptide
C21237  PhrK pentapeptide
C21238  NprX peptide
C21239  PapR peptide
C21241  AIP-2
C21242  AIP-3
C21243  AIP-4
C21244  AgrD peptide
C21245  AgrD1 peptide
C21246  GBAP
C21382  R-THMF
Reference
  Authors
Pereira CS, Thompson JA, Xavier KB
  Title
AI-2-mediated signalling in bacteria.
  Journal
FEMS Microbiol Rev 37:156-81 (2013)
DOI:10.1111/j.1574-6976.2012.00345.x
Reference
  Authors
Verma SC, Miyashiro T
  Title
Quorum sensing in the squid-Vibrio symbiosis.
  Journal
Int J Mol Sci 14:16386-401 (2013)
DOI:10.3390/ijms140816386
Reference
  Authors
Norsworthy AN, Visick KL
  Title
Gimme shelter: how Vibrio fischeri successfully navigates an animal's multiple environments.
  Journal
Front Microbiol 4:356 (2013)
DOI:10.3389/fmicb.2013.00356
Reference
  Authors
Papaioannou E, Utari PD, Quax WJ
  Title
Choosing an appropriate infection model to study quorum sensing inhibition in Pseudomonas infections.
  Journal
Int J Mol Sci 14:19309-40 (2013)
DOI:10.3390/ijms140919309
Reference
  Authors
Heeb S, Fletcher MP, Chhabra SR, Diggle SP, Williams P, Camara M
  Title
Quinolones: from antibiotics to autoinducers.
  Journal
FEMS Microbiol Rev 35:247-74 (2011)
DOI:10.1111/j.1574-6976.2010.00247.x
Reference
  Authors
Rasamiravaka T, Labtani Q, Duez P, El Jaziri M
  Title
The formation of biofilms by Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a review of the natural and synthetic compounds interfering with control mechanisms.
  Journal
Biomed Res Int 2015:759348 (2015)
DOI:10.1155/2015/759348
Reference
  Authors
Whiteley M, Greenberg EP
  Title
Promoter specificity elements in Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing-controlled genes.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 183:5529-34 (2001)
DOI:10.1128/JB.183.19.5529-5534.2001
Reference
  Authors
Chin-A-Woeng TF, van den Broek D, de Voer G, van der Drift KM, Tuinman S, Thomas-Oates JE, Lugtenberg BJ, Bloemberg GV
  Title
Phenazine-1-carboxamide production in the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1391 is regulated by multiple factors secreted into the growth medium.
  Journal
Mol Plant Microbe Interact 14:969-79 (2001)
DOI:10.1094/MPMI.2001.14.8.969
Reference
  Authors
Hughes DT, Clarke MB, Yamamoto K, Rasko DA, Sperandio V
  Title
The QseC adrenergic signaling cascade in Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC).
  Journal
PLoS Pathog 5:e1000553 (2009)
DOI:10.1371/journal.ppat.1000553
Reference
  Authors
Njoroge J, Sperandio V
  Title
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli virulence regulation by two bacterial adrenergic kinases, QseC and QseE.
  Journal
Infect Immun 80:688-703 (2012)
DOI:10.1128/IAI.05921-11
Reference
  Authors
Pacheco AR, Curtis MM, Ritchie JM, Munera D, Waldor MK, Moreira CG, Sperandio V
  Title
Fucose sensing regulates bacterial intestinal colonization.
  Journal
Nature 492:113-7 (2012)
DOI:10.1038/nature11623
Reference
  Authors
Hirakawa H, Harwood CS, Pechter KB, Schaefer AL, Greenberg EP
  Title
Antisense RNA that affects Rhodopseudomonas palustris quorum-sensing signal receptor expression.
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:12141-6 (2012)
DOI:10.1073/pnas.1200243109
Reference
  Authors
Danino VE, Wilkinson A, Edwards A, Downie JA
  Title
Recipient-induced transfer of the symbiotic plasmid pRL1JI in Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae is regulated by a quorum-sensing relay.
  Journal
Mol Microbiol 50:511-25 (2003)
DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2958.2003.03699.x
Reference
  Authors
Wisniewski-Dye F, Downie JA
  Title
Quorum-sensing in Rhizobium.
  Journal
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 81:397-407 (2002)
DOI:10.1023/A:1020501104051
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  Authors
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